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Cancer Vaccines: Research and Applications
Article

The Complex Interaction between the Tumor Micro-Environment and Immune Checkpoints in Breast Cancer

1
College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne 3030, Australia
2
Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne 3030, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Received: 14 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines: Research and Applications)
The progression of breast cancer and its association with clinical outcome and treatment remain largely unexplored. Accumulating data has highlighted the interaction between cells of the immune system and the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression, and although studies have identified multiple facets of cancer progression within the development of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and its constituents, there is lack of research into the associations between breast cancer subtype and staging. Current literature has provided insight into the cells and pathways associated with breast cancer progression through expression analysis. However, there is lack of co-expression studies between immune pathways and cells of the TME that form pro-tumorigenic relationships contributing to immune-evasion. We focus on the immune checkpoint and TME elements that influence cancer progression, particularly studies in molecular subtypes of breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; checkpoint; checkpoint inhibitors; tumor microenvironment; tumor-associated macrophages; cancer-associated fibroblasts; tumor-associated neutrophils; IDO; PD-L1; Siglec-9 breast cancer; checkpoint; checkpoint inhibitors; tumor microenvironment; tumor-associated macrophages; cancer-associated fibroblasts; tumor-associated neutrophils; IDO; PD-L1; Siglec-9
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barriga, V.; Kuol, N.; Nurgali, K.; Apostolopoulos, V. The Complex Interaction between the Tumor Micro-Environment and Immune Checkpoints in Breast Cancer. Cancers 2019, 11, 1205. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cancers11081205

AMA Style

Barriga V, Kuol N, Nurgali K, Apostolopoulos V. The Complex Interaction between the Tumor Micro-Environment and Immune Checkpoints in Breast Cancer. Cancers. 2019; 11(8):1205. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cancers11081205

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barriga, Vanessa, Nyanbol Kuol, Kulmira Nurgali, and Vasso Apostolopoulos. 2019. "The Complex Interaction between the Tumor Micro-Environment and Immune Checkpoints in Breast Cancer" Cancers 11, no. 8: 1205. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cancers11081205

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