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Computers, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 7 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Systematic Design Approach for Functional Integration of Vehicular Wireless Power Transfers Modules
by , , , and
Computers 2021, 10(5), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10050061 - 07 May 2021
Abstract
This paper presents a systematic design approach to the development of functionally integrated mechanical-electrical lightweight systems. The development of these systems requires the end-to-end consideration of all product domains involved, aspects of lightweight design and their mutual interdependencies. To manage this complexity, a [...] Read more.
This paper presents a systematic design approach to the development of functionally integrated mechanical-electrical lightweight systems. The development of these systems requires the end-to-end consideration of all product domains involved, aspects of lightweight design and their mutual interdependencies. To manage this complexity, a specialized approach is developed, which extends the V-model of VDI 2206 problem-specific and purpose-oriented. In line with the proposed approach, this work presents the conception and evaluation of three functionally integrated on-board receiver units of automotive wireless power transfer systems for electric vehicles. These concepts provide a significant reduction of the vertical dimensions, which significantly increases the applicability and transferability of wireless power transfer systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System-Integrated Intelligence and Intelligent Systems 2020)
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Two-Stage Heart Arrhythmia Ensemble Classifier
Computers 2021, 10(5), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10050060 - 01 May 2021
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Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular arrhythmia (Arr) are among the most common and fatal cardiac arrhythmias in the world. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data, collected as part of the UK Biobank, represents an opportunity for analysis and classification of these two diseases in the UK. [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular arrhythmia (Arr) are among the most common and fatal cardiac arrhythmias in the world. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data, collected as part of the UK Biobank, represents an opportunity for analysis and classification of these two diseases in the UK. The main objective of our study is to investigate a two-stage model for the classification of individuals with AF and Arr in the UK Biobank dataset. The current literature addresses heart arrhythmia classification very extensively. However, the data used by most researchers lack enough instances of these common diseases. Moreover, by proposing the two-stage model and separation of normal and abnormal cases, we have improved the performance of the classifiers in detection of each specific disease. Our approach consists of two stages of classification. In the first stage, features of the ECG input are classified into two main classes: normal and abnormal. At the second stage, the features of the ECG are further categorised as abnormal and further classified into two diseases of AF and Arr. A diverse set of ECG features such as the QRS duration, PR interval and RR interval, as well as covariates such as sex, BMI, age and other factors, are used in the modelling process. For both stages, we use the XGBoost Classifier algorithm. The healthy population present in the data, has been undersampled to tackle the class imbalance present in the data. This technique has been applied and evaluated using an ECG dataset from the UKBioBank ECG taken at rest repository. The main results of our paper are as follows: The classification performance for the proposed approach has been measured using F1 score, Sensitivity (Recall) and Specificity (Precision). The results of the proposed system are 87.22%, 88.55% and 85.95%, for average F1 Score, average sensitivity and average specificity, respectively. Contribution and significance: The performance level indicates that automatic detection of AF and Arr in participants present in the UK Biobank is more precise and efficient if done in a two-stage manner. Automatic detection and classification of AF and Arr individuals this way would mean early diagnosis and prevention of more serious consequences later in their lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence for Health)
Open AccessArticle
The Design of WASPEC: A Fully Personalised Moodle System Using Semantic Web Technologies
Computers 2021, 10(5), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10050059 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Personalisation in e-learning systems has become a major research area in recent times, as online learning is gradually evolving to become a major part of formal education. While there exist several learning management systems with a wide range of capabilities, one thing that [...] Read more.
Personalisation in e-learning systems has become a major research area in recent times, as online learning is gradually evolving to become a major part of formal education. While there exist several learning management systems with a wide range of capabilities, one thing that remains inefficient is a standard framework for sharing knowledge across different platforms and, also, the inability of such systems to provide personalisation to the learning process by default. A large number of systems that have been implemented to provide personalisation apply few parameters and are course-specific; thus, flexibility, reusability, and scalability are greatly reduced. In this paper, we propose a framework for personalised learning, Weighted Agent System for Personalised E-learning Curriculum (WASPEC) implemented with Moodle, which is independent of the learning management system and provides the possibility of incorporating multiple personalisation parameters. This is accomplished with the combined use of web services, semantic web ontologies, and pedagogical agents, providing dynamic personalisation in the background of the e-learning system. This also provides added advantages of the possibility of sharing knowledge with other systems and reusability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Colocation for SLAM-Tracked VR Headsets with Hand Tracking
Computers 2021, 10(5), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10050058 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 212
Abstract
In colocated multi-user Virtual Reality applications, relative user positions in the virtual environment need to match their relative positions in the physical tracking space. A mismatch between virtual and real relative user positions might lead to harmful events such as physical user collisions. [...] Read more.
In colocated multi-user Virtual Reality applications, relative user positions in the virtual environment need to match their relative positions in the physical tracking space. A mismatch between virtual and real relative user positions might lead to harmful events such as physical user collisions. This paper examines three calibration methods that enable colocated Virtual Reality scenarios for SLAM-tracked head-mounted displays without the need for an external tracking system. Two of these methods—fixed-point calibration and marked-based calibration—have been described in previous research; the third method that uses hand tracking capabilities of head-mounted displays is novel. We evaluated the accuracy of these three methods in an experimental procedure with two colocated Oculus Quest devices. The results of the evaluation show that our novel hand tracking-based calibration method provides better accuracy and consistency while at the same time being easy to execute. The paper further discusses the potential of all evaluated calibration methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Seated Virtual Reality)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Developing a Framework to Analyze the Qualities of the University Websites
Computers 2021, 10(5), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10050057 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 217
Abstract
The website of a university is considered to be a virtual gateway to provide primary resources to its stakeholders. It can play an indispensable role in disseminating information about a university to a variety of audience at a time. Thus, the quality of [...] Read more.
The website of a university is considered to be a virtual gateway to provide primary resources to its stakeholders. It can play an indispensable role in disseminating information about a university to a variety of audience at a time. Thus, the quality of an academic website requires special attention to fulfil the users’ need. This paper presents a multi-method approach of quality assessment of the academic websites, in the context of universities of Bangladesh. We developed an automated web-based tool that can evaluate any academic website based on three criteria, which are as follows: content of information, loading time and overall performance. Content of information contains many sub criteria, such as university vision and mission, faculty information, notice board and so on. This tool can also perform comparative analysis among several academic websites and generate a ranked list of these. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first initiative to develop an automated tool for accessing academic website quality in context of Bangladesh. Beside this, we have conducted a questionnaire-based statistical evaluation among several universities to obtain the respective users’ feedback about their academic websites. Then, a ranked list is generated based on the survey result that is almost similar to the ranked list got from the University ranking systems. This validates the effectiveness of our developed tool in accessing academic website. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper in Computers)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Life Skills Program for Primary School Students: Focus on Entry Programming
Computers 2021, 10(5), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10050056 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 295
Abstract
There are areas where the competencies obtained through computer coding activities substantially overlap with life skills components. Studies of these common competencies have suggested the possibility of including these contents in a life skills program. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
There are areas where the competencies obtained through computer coding activities substantially overlap with life skills components. Studies of these common competencies have suggested the possibility of including these contents in a life skills program. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a program through the Entry program that elementary school students could use online to improve their life skills, given the need to increase contactless online classes due to COVID-19. Eight elementary school teachers with 20 years of experience and two curriculum experts participated in the program’s development. For data collection, 360 data points were collected from eight elementary schools located in each Korean province, including urban and rural areas. SPSS 21.0 was used to analyze the data. Upon completing the 8-week program, the difference in life skills between groups was confirmed using variance analysis based on the number of implementation times, and post-hoc testing was conducted. The study’s results confirmed the difference between the groups conducted for two weeks (M = 3.22), four weeks (M = 3.25), and six weeks (M = 3.67), and the group conducted for eight weeks (M = 3.83). In other words, as the number of weeks of participation in the life skills program increased, there was a difference between groups. These findings suggest a life skills program could be included as part of Entry based computer coding activities for elementary school students through a backward curriculum. In conclusion, this study showed the possibility of using contactless online classes with free Entry-based websites to improve the life skills of elementary school students struggling at home due to COVID-19. It also showed that each elementary school teacher could operate the life skills programs as a contactless learning method using a free coding platform and manual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
A VR-Enhanced Rollover Car Simulator and Edutainment Application for Increasing Seat Belt Use Awareness
Computers 2021, 10(5), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10050055 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Most countries have active road safety policies that seek the objective of reducing deaths in traffic accidents. One of the main factors in this regard is the awareness of the safety measures, one of the most important being the correct usage of the [...] Read more.
Most countries have active road safety policies that seek the objective of reducing deaths in traffic accidents. One of the main factors in this regard is the awareness of the safety measures, one of the most important being the correct usage of the seat belt, a device that is known to save thousands of lives every year. The presented work shows a VR-enhanced edutainment application designed to increase awareness on the use of seat belts. For this goal, a motorized rollover system was developed that, synchronized with a VR application (shown in a head-mounted display for each user inside a real car), rolls over this car with up to four passengers inside. This way, users feel the sensations of a real overturn and therefore they realize the consequences and the results of not wearing a seat belt. The system was tested for a month in the context of a road safety exhibition in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, one of the leading countries in car accidents per capita. More than 500 users tested and assessed the usefulness of the system. We measured, before and after the rollover experience, the perception of risk of not using the seat belt. Results show that awareness regarding the use of seat belts increases very significantly after using the presented edutainment tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Game-Based Learning, Gamification in Education and Serious Games)
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