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Educational Challenges for Computational Thinking in K–12 Education: A Systematic Literature Review of “Scratch” as an Innovative Programming Tool

School of Humanities, Tecnologico Monterrey, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
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Academic Editors: Antonio Sarasa Cabezuelo, Covadonga Rodrigo San Juan and Santi Caballé
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 15 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of E-Learning Technologies)
The use of information and communications technologies (ICTs) has emerged as an educational response amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, providing students the technological tools that enable them to acquire or strengthen the necessary digital skills to develop computational knowledge. The purpose of this study was to analyze Scratch, a programming language used to foster the teaching of computational thinking, particularly in K–12 education. A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted, identifying 30 articles on the topic of Scratch and computational thinking in the database ProQuest Central from January 2010 to May 2020. These articles were analyzed to identify the use of Scratch worldwide and the educational impact it has on computational thinking, specifically in K–12 education. The results highlight the following: (1) countries which incorporated Scratch into their teachers’ study plans (curricula); (2) the transformation of learning environments that Scratch promotes; and (3) the importance of incorporating tools like Scratch in the current curricula and, more importantly, developing the framework for innovative ICTs capable of transforming education. View Full-Text
Keywords: computational thinking; educational innovation; K–12 education; project-based research; Scratch; teacher training; higher education computational thinking; educational innovation; K–12 education; project-based research; Scratch; teacher training; higher education
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MDPI and ACS Style

Montiel, H.; Gomez-Zermeño, M.G. Educational Challenges for Computational Thinking in K–12 Education: A Systematic Literature Review of “Scratch” as an Innovative Programming Tool. Computers 2021, 10, 69. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10060069

AMA Style

Montiel H, Gomez-Zermeño MG. Educational Challenges for Computational Thinking in K–12 Education: A Systematic Literature Review of “Scratch” as an Innovative Programming Tool. Computers. 2021; 10(6):69. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10060069

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montiel, Hugo, and Marcela G. Gomez-Zermeño 2021. "Educational Challenges for Computational Thinking in K–12 Education: A Systematic Literature Review of “Scratch” as an Innovative Programming Tool" Computers 10, no. 6: 69. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/computers10060069

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