Multi-agent collaboration is greatly important in order to reduce the frequency of errors in message communication and enhance the consistency of exchanging information. This study explores the process of evolutionary decision and stable strategies among multi-agent systems, including followers, leaders, and loners, involved in collaboration based on evolutionary game theory (EGT). The main elements that affected the strategies are discussed, and a 3D evolution model is established. The evolutionary stability strategy (ESS) and stable conditions were analyzed subsequently. Numerical simulation results were obtained through MATLAB simulation, and they manifested that leaders play an important role in exchanging information with other agents, accepting agents’ state information, and sending messages to agents. Then, with the positivity of receiving and feeding back messages for followers, implementing message communication is profitable for the system, and the high positivity can accelerate the exchange of information. At the behavior level, reducing costs can strengthen the punishment of impeding the exchange of information and improve the positivity of collaboration to facilitate the evolutionary convergence toward the ideal state. Finally, the EGT results revealed that the possibility of collaboration between loners and others is improved, and the rewards are increased, thereby promoting the implementation of message communication that encourages leaders to send all messages, improve the feedback positivity of followers, and reduce the hindering degree of loners.
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