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Review

Numerical Simulation of Ammonothermal Crystal Growth of GaN—Current State, Challenges, and Prospects

1
Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
2
International Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
3
Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Waltl
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 23 March 2021 / Accepted: 24 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robust Microelectronic Devices)
Numerical simulations are a valuable tool for the design and optimization of crystal growth processes because experimental investigations are expensive and access to internal parameters is limited. These technical limitations are particularly large for ammonothermal growth of bulk GaN, an important semiconductor material. This review presents an overview of the literature on simulations targeting ammonothermal growth of GaN. Approaches for validation are also reviewed, and an overview of available methods and data is given. Fluid flow is likely in the transitional range between laminar and turbulent; however, the time-averaged flow patterns likely tend to be stable. Thermal boundary conditions both in experimental and numerical research deserve more detailed evaluation, especially when designing numerical or physical models of the ammonothermal growth system. A key source of uncertainty for calculations is fluid properties under the specific conditions. This originates from their importance not only in numerical simulations but also in designing similar physical model systems and in guiding the selection of the flow model. Due to the various sources of uncertainty, a closer integration of numerical modeling, physical modeling, and the use of measurements under ammonothermal process conditions appear to be necessary for developing numerical models of defined accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonothermal; crystal growth; numerical simulation; gallium nitride; computational fluid dynamics; conjugated heat transfer; natural convection; buoyancy; solvothermal; hydrothermal ammonothermal; crystal growth; numerical simulation; gallium nitride; computational fluid dynamics; conjugated heat transfer; natural convection; buoyancy; solvothermal; hydrothermal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schimmel, S.; Tomida, D.; Ishiguro, T.; Honda, Y.; Chichibu, S.; Amano, H. Numerical Simulation of Ammonothermal Crystal Growth of GaN—Current State, Challenges, and Prospects. Crystals 2021, 11, 356. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryst11040356

AMA Style

Schimmel S, Tomida D, Ishiguro T, Honda Y, Chichibu S, Amano H. Numerical Simulation of Ammonothermal Crystal Growth of GaN—Current State, Challenges, and Prospects. Crystals. 2021; 11(4):356. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryst11040356

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schimmel, Saskia, Daisuke Tomida, Tohru Ishiguro, Yoshio Honda, Shigefusa Chichibu, and Hiroshi Amano. 2021. "Numerical Simulation of Ammonothermal Crystal Growth of GaN—Current State, Challenges, and Prospects" Crystals 11, no. 4: 356. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryst11040356

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