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Article

Green Synthesis of Thermo-Responsive Hydrogel from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Cellulose for Sustained Drug Delivery

1
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
2
Research Centre for Sustainable Process Technology (CESPRO), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Helena P. Felgueiras, Jorge Padrão and Joana C. Antunes
Received: 18 May 2021 / Revised: 2 June 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
Drug delivery is a difficult task in the field of dermal therapeutics, particularly in the treatment of burns, wounds, and skin diseases. Conventional drug delivery mediums have some limitations, including poor retention on skin/wound, inconvenience in administration, and uncontrolled drug release profile. Hydrogels able to absorb large amount of water and give a spontaneous response to stimuli imposed on them are an attractive solution to overcome the limitations of conventional drug delivery media. The objective of this study is to explore a green synthesis method for the development of thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogel using cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB). A cold method was employed to prepare thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogels by incorporating OPEFB-extracted cellulose and Pluronic F127 (PF127) polymer. The performance of the synthesized thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogels were evaluated in terms of their swelling ratio, percentage of degradation, and in-vitro silver sulfadiazine (SSD) drug release. H8 thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogel with 20 w/v% PF127 and 3 w/v% OPEFB extracted cellulose content was the best formulation, given its high storage modulus and complex viscosity (81 kPa and 9.6 kPa.s, respectively), high swelling ratio (4.22 ± 0.70), and low degradation rate (31.3 ± 5.9%), in addition to high t50% value of 24 h in SSD in-vitro drug release to accomplish sustained drug release. The exploration of thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogel from OPEFB would promote cost-effective and sustainable drug delivery system with using abundantly available agricultural biomass. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose hydrogel; thermo-responsive; sustained release; silver sulfadiazine; burn wound cellulose hydrogel; thermo-responsive; sustained release; silver sulfadiazine; burn wound
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Rajabi, M.M.; Teow, Y.H. Green Synthesis of Thermo-Responsive Hydrogel from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Cellulose for Sustained Drug Delivery. Polymers 2021, 13, 2153. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13132153

AMA Style

Al-Rajabi MM, Teow YH. Green Synthesis of Thermo-Responsive Hydrogel from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Cellulose for Sustained Drug Delivery. Polymers. 2021; 13(13):2153. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13132153

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Rajabi, Maha M., and Yeit H. Teow 2021. "Green Synthesis of Thermo-Responsive Hydrogel from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Cellulose for Sustained Drug Delivery" Polymers 13, no. 13: 2153. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13132153

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