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Article

Removal of Cadmium and Chromium by Mixture of Silver Nanoparticles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose Isolated from Waste Peels of Citrus Sinensis

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School of Nano Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382030, India
2
School of Lifesciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur 302017, India
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Institute of Environment and Development Studies, Bundelkhand University, Kanpur Road, Jhansi 284128, India
4
Geobiotec Research Centre, Department of Geosciences, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, P.O. Box-2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P.O. Box-2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
Nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) was extracted by a chemical method involving alkali and acid hydrolysis. The characterisation of the citrus sinensis fruit peel bran and nano-fibrillated cellulose was performed by XRD, FTIR, TEM, and FESEM. XRD confirmed the phase of NFC which showed monoclinic crystal with spherical to rod shape morphology with a size of 44–50 nm. The crystallinity index of treated NFC increased from 39% to 75%. FTIR showed the removal of lignin and hemicellulose from waste peels due to the alkaline treatment. Silver nanoparticles were also synthesised by utilizing extract of citrus sinensis skins as a reducing agent. Pharmaceutical effluent samples from an industrial area were tested by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Out of the four metals obtained, cadmium and chromium were remediated by silver nanoparticles with nano-fibrillated cellulose via simulated method in 100 mg/L metal-salt concentrations over a time period of 160 min. The highest removal efficiency was found for cadmium, i.e., 83%, by using silver and NFC together as adsorbents. The second highest was for chromium, i.e., 47%, but by using only NFC. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were well fitted for the sorption of Cd (II) and Cr (II) with suitable high R2 values during kinetic simulation. Thus, the isolation of NFC and synthesis of silver nanoparticles proved efficient for heavy metal sorption by the reuse of waste skins. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus sinensis; nano-fibrillated cellulose; silver nanoparticles; acid hydrolysis; heavy metal sorption citrus sinensis; nano-fibrillated cellulose; silver nanoparticles; acid hydrolysis; heavy metal sorption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tavker, N.; Yadav, V.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Cabral-Pinto, M.M.; Alam, J.; Shukla, A.K.; Ali, F.A.A.; Alhoshan, M. Removal of Cadmium and Chromium by Mixture of Silver Nanoparticles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose Isolated from Waste Peels of Citrus Sinensis. Polymers 2021, 13, 234. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13020234

AMA Style

Tavker N, Yadav VK, Yadav KK, Cabral-Pinto MM, Alam J, Shukla AK, Ali FAA, Alhoshan M. Removal of Cadmium and Chromium by Mixture of Silver Nanoparticles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose Isolated from Waste Peels of Citrus Sinensis. Polymers. 2021; 13(2):234. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13020234

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tavker, Neha, Virendra K. Yadav, Krishna K. Yadav, Marina M. Cabral-Pinto, Javed Alam, Arun K. Shukla, Fekri A.A. Ali, and Mansour Alhoshan. 2021. "Removal of Cadmium and Chromium by Mixture of Silver Nanoparticles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose Isolated from Waste Peels of Citrus Sinensis" Polymers 13, no. 2: 234. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13020234

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