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Article

A Small Amount of Nitrogen Transfer from White Clover to Citrus Seedling via Common Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Networks

1
College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
2
Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, Chongqing 400715, China
3
State Cultivation Base of Eco-Agriculture for Southwest Mountainous Land, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2020 / Revised: 14 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 25 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis to Crop Growth)
Few studies have examined if perennial leguminous cover crops are able to transfer nitrogen (N) via common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) to neighboring fruit trees; the gradient of such N transfer could affect the N nutrition of both plants. Using separated three-column chambers to grow plants in a greenhouse, 99 atom% 15N as (15NH4)2SO4 was applied to leaves of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and 15N was then traced in neighboring citrus (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) seedlings interconnected by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF, Rhizophagus intraradices). A range of 66.85–68.74% mycorrhizal colonization in white clover (mycorrhizal and/or Rhizobium trifolii inoculated) and 19.29–23.41% in citrus (non-mycorrhizal inoculated) was observed after 12 months of AMF inoculation in the white clover, indicating a successful CMN linkage was established between these two plant species. This CMN establishment resulted in significant increases in biomass, N accumulation, and 15N content of citrus when accompanied with nodulated and mycorrhizal fungus colonized white clover. N transfer from white clover to citrus was significantly greater under nodulation plus mycorrhization (46.23 mg N per pot, 1.71% of N transferred) than under non-inoculated control (4.36 mg N per pot, 0.21% of N transferred), and higher than sole mycorrhization (36.34 mg N per pot, 1.42% of N transferred). The percentage of N in citrus derived from white clover under nodulated/mycorrhization was 1.83–1.93%, and was highest in leaves (3.31%), moderate in stems (2.47%), and lowest in roots (0.41%) of citrus. In summary, results from this experiment demonstrated that nearly 2.0% of N transferred from white clover to citrus via CMN. Further studies are needed to quantify N transfer between white clover and citrus by other routes, including soil or root exudation pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: 15N; Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; Rhizobium trifolii; Rhizophagus intraradices; Trifolium repens L. 15N; Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; Rhizobium trifolii; Rhizophagus intraradices; Trifolium repens L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fang, L.; He, X.; Zhang, X.; Yang, Y.; Liu, R.; Shi, S.; Shi, X.; Zhang, Y. A Small Amount of Nitrogen Transfer from White Clover to Citrus Seedling via Common Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Networks. Agronomy 2021, 11, 32. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11010032

AMA Style

Fang L, He X, Zhang X, Yang Y, Liu R, Shi S, Shi X, Zhang Y. A Small Amount of Nitrogen Transfer from White Clover to Citrus Seedling via Common Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Networks. Agronomy. 2021; 11(1):32. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11010032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fang, Linfa, Xinhua He, Xueliang Zhang, Yehua Yang, Rui Liu, Songmei Shi, Xiaojun Shi, and Yuting Zhang. 2021. "A Small Amount of Nitrogen Transfer from White Clover to Citrus Seedling via Common Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Networks" Agronomy 11, no. 1: 32. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agronomy11010032

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