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Review

The Second Allele: A Key to Understanding the Timing of Sporadic and Hereditary Colorectal Tumorigenesis

1
Northwestern Medicine Digestive Health Center, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
2
Invitae, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
3
Division of Colorectal Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Revital Kariv
Received: 6 August 2021 / Revised: 13 September 2021 / Accepted: 22 September 2021 / Published: 26 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (CRC))
Our understanding of the molecular basis of colorectal neoplasia is derived from Mendelian genetics, with tumor suppressor genes contributing more to the deregulation of growth than oncogenes. In patients with hereditary syndromes, expression of one allele of a key tumor suppressor gene is absent at birth. The loss of the expression of the second allele precipitates tumorigenesis. However, there are multiple ways in which the expression of the second allele of a tumor suppressor gene is lost. Here, we review these ways and their possible effect on phenotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; hereditary syndromes; molecular genetics; tumor suppression gene; second hit; allelic loss; methylation colorectal cancer; hereditary syndromes; molecular genetics; tumor suppression gene; second hit; allelic loss; methylation
MDPI and ACS Style

Abbass, M.A.; Leach, B.; Church, J.M. The Second Allele: A Key to Understanding the Timing of Sporadic and Hereditary Colorectal Tumorigenesis. Genes 2021, 12, 1515. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12101515

AMA Style

Abbass MA, Leach B, Church JM. The Second Allele: A Key to Understanding the Timing of Sporadic and Hereditary Colorectal Tumorigenesis. Genes. 2021; 12(10):1515. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12101515

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abbass, Mohammed A., Brandie Leach, and James M. Church 2021. "The Second Allele: A Key to Understanding the Timing of Sporadic and Hereditary Colorectal Tumorigenesis" Genes 12, no. 10: 1515. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12101515

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