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Review

Mapping the Diverse and Inclusive Future of Parkinson’s Disease Genetics and Its Widespread Impact

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira, Wad Medani P.O. Box 20, Sudan
2
International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC)-Africa, University of Gezira, Wad Medani P.O. Box 20, Sudan
3
Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6BT, UK
4
Neurogenetics Research Center, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima 15003, Peru
5
Center for Global Health, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15103, Peru
6
Molecular Genetics Section, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Allison D. Ebert
Received: 23 September 2021 / Revised: 19 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 October 2021 / Published: 23 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parkinson's Disease: Genetics and Pathogenesis)
Over the last decades, genetics has been the engine that has pushed us along on our voyage to understand the etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although a large number of risk loci and causative mutations for PD have been identified, it is clear that much more needs to be done to solve the missing heritability mystery. Despite remarkable efforts, as a field, we have failed in terms of diversity and inclusivity. The vast majority of genetic studies in PD have focused on individuals of European ancestry, leading to a gap of knowledge on the existing genetic differences across populations and PD as a whole. As we move forward, shedding light on the genetic architecture contributing to PD in non-European populations is essential, and will provide novel insight into the generalized genetic map of the disease. In this review, we discuss how better representation of understudied ancestral groups in PD genetics research requires addressing and resolving all the challenges that hinder the inclusion of these populations. We further provide an overview of PD genetics in the clinics, covering the current challenges and limitations of genetic testing and counseling. Finally, we describe the impact of worldwide collaborative initiatives in the field, shaping the future of the new era of PD genetics as we advance in our understanding of the genetic architecture of PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; genetics; diversity; post-GWAS era; genetic testing; genetics counselling Parkinson’s disease; genetics; diversity; post-GWAS era; genetic testing; genetics counselling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elsayed, I.; Martinez-Carrasco, A.; Cornejo-Olivas, M.; Bandres-Ciga, S. Mapping the Diverse and Inclusive Future of Parkinson’s Disease Genetics and Its Widespread Impact. Genes 2021, 12, 1681. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12111681

AMA Style

Elsayed I, Martinez-Carrasco A, Cornejo-Olivas M, Bandres-Ciga S. Mapping the Diverse and Inclusive Future of Parkinson’s Disease Genetics and Its Widespread Impact. Genes. 2021; 12(11):1681. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12111681

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elsayed, Inas, Alejandro Martinez-Carrasco, Mario Cornejo-Olivas, and Sara Bandres-Ciga. 2021. "Mapping the Diverse and Inclusive Future of Parkinson’s Disease Genetics and Its Widespread Impact" Genes 12, no. 11: 1681. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12111681

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