Modifications in nucleic acids are present in all three domains of life. More than 170 distinct chemical modifications have been reported in cellular RNAs to date. Collectively termed as epitranscriptome, these RNA modifications are often dynamic and involve distinct regulatory proteins that install, remove, and interpret these marks in a site-specific manner. Covalent nucleotide modifications-such as methylations at diverse positions in the bases, polyuridylation, and pseudouridylation and many others impact various events in the lifecycle of an RNA such as folding, localization, processing, stability, ribosome assembly, and translational processes and are thus crucial regulators of the RNA metabolism. In plants, the nuclear/cytoplasmic epitranscriptome plays important roles in a wide range of biological processes, such as organ development, viral infection, and physiological means. Notably, recent transcriptome-wide analyses have also revealed novel dynamic modifications not only in plant nuclear/cytoplasmic RNAs related to photosynthesis but especially in chloroplast mRNAs, suggesting important and hitherto undefined regulatory steps in plastid functions and gene expression. Here we report on the latest findings of known plastid RNA modifications and highlight their relevance for the post-transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression and their role in controlling plant development, stress reactions, and acclimation processes.
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