Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MAPK and MAPKK Gene Families in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Agronomy and Yangling Branch of China Wheat Improvement Center, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
Australia-China Joint Research Centre for Abiotic and Biotic Stress Management in Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry, Yangling 712100, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2017, 8(10), 284; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes8100284
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Biodiversity of the Plant Genome Architecture)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a universal signal transduction module that plays a vital role in regulating growth and development, as well as environmental stress responses in plants. Wheat is one of the most important crops worldwide. Although the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family in wheat has been investigated, the MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAP2K) gene families remain unknown at present. Here, 54 MAPK and 18 MAPKK genes were identified in wheat using recent genomic information. Phylogenetic analysis of Triticum aestivum L. MAPKs and MAPKKs (TaMAPKs and TaMAPKKs) together with homologous genes from other species classified them into four groups, and the clustering was consistent with the genomic exon/intron structures. Conserved motif analysis found that MAPK proteins contained a typical TXY phosphorylation site and MAPKK proteins contained an S/T-X5-S/T motif. RNA-seq data mapping analysis showed that MAPK and MAPKK genes in group IV had tissue-specific expression profiles, whereas each group I member showed relatively high expression in all organs. Expression patterns of TaMAPK and TaMAPKK genes under stress conditions were also investigated and stress-responsive candidates were identified. Co-expression network analysis identified 11 TaMAPK genes and 6 TaMAPKK genes involved in the interaction network pathway. Overall, this study provided useful information for evolutionary and functional surveys of MAPK and MAPKK gene families in wheat and beyond.