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Atmosphere, Volume 12, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 167 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A novel method of generating probabilistic forecasts of distinct storm objects, separated according to spatial scale, is used to quantitatively evaluate differently designed convection, allowing ensemble forecasts of storm morphology. Probabilistic storm morphology forecasts are improved with ensemble diversity from different model dynamics and physics configurations among ensemble members. The objective quantification of these improvements is more similar to subjective evaluations using the object-based framework than using traditional or neighborhood-based verifications.View this paper
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Article
Air Pollution Associated with Total Suspended Particulate and Particulate Matter in Cement Grinding Plant in Vietnam
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1707; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121707 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Air pollution associated with suspended particles has become a significant concern in Vietnam recently. The study aimed to (1) investigate dust sources; (2) measure concentration levels of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), Particulate Matter (PM) fractions; (3) identify silica levels and the correlation with [...] Read more.
Air pollution associated with suspended particles has become a significant concern in Vietnam recently. The study aimed to (1) investigate dust sources; (2) measure concentration levels of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), Particulate Matter (PM) fractions; (3) identify silica levels and the correlation with respirable particles at a cement grinding plant in Vietnam. A total of 312 samples (52 TSP, 160 PMs) at 13 processes were measured using the direct-reading dust meter. The silica composition was analyzed in a certified laboratory using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. SPSS version 26 for Window was used to analyze the data. The operations of the cement grinding plant created multiple dust sources from the jetty to the cement dispatch process. The TSP levels ranged 0.06–38.24 mg m−3, and 40.38% (n = 21) TSP samples exceeded the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for an 8-h working shift. Besides that, there was a wide range and significant concentration levels of PMs in the cement processes. The levels of PMs were PM1 (0.00–0.06 mg m−3), PM2.5 (0.01–0.83 mg m−3), PM4 (0.02–4.59 mg m−3), PM7 (0.03–16.94 mg m−3), and PM10 (0.04–26.85 mg m−3). The highest mean levels of PMs factions were measured at the pre-grinding process. The inefficient operation of the dust collector contributed a significant factor to the dust dispersion in this process. The silica’s mean (SD) composition in respirable dust was 20.4% (0.86) and was not significantly different amongst the processes. There was a significant correlation between the levels of respirable dust and silica exposure in the cement grinding plant (r = 0.99). The improvement of indoor air quality is needed to prevent health effects on cement workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Variations of Aerosol Optical Depth in the Atmosphere over Baikal Region Based on MODIS Data
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1706; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121706 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 326
Abstract
This paper considers spatiotemporal distribution and seasonal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the atmosphere at the 0.55 μm wavelength in the atmosphere over the Baikal region of Russia based on long-term data (2005–2019) from satellite observations (MODIS/AQUA). A comparison of satellite [...] Read more.
This paper considers spatiotemporal distribution and seasonal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the atmosphere at the 0.55 μm wavelength in the atmosphere over the Baikal region of Russia based on long-term data (2005–2019) from satellite observations (MODIS/AQUA). A comparison of satellite AOD values with the AERONET record at the Geophysical Observatory of Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Brunch of Russian Academy of Science was performed. The results show that interannual AOD variability is mainly due to forest fires. The highest atmospheric transparency was in 2010, 2013 and 2016, and the lowest was in 2008, 2012 and 2014. It is noted that AOD decreased with latitude with a gradient ΔAOD = 0.002 ÷ 0.001 per degree of latitude. The mean seasonal variations in AOD at the six satellite overpass points were characterized by spring (April) and summer (July) highs and low AOD values in autumn. From June to November, the drop in AOD monthly means was more than 60%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics III)
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Communication
Adsorption of Gas-Phase Cyclohexanone on Atmospheric Water Films
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1705; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121705 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 285
Abstract
The fate of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) strongly depends on the partitioning processes on the surface of aerosols, which are coated with a thin water film. However, the behavior of VOCs in the aqueous film of aerosols is difficult to measure. In [...] Read more.
The fate of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) strongly depends on the partitioning processes on the surface of aerosols, which are coated with a thin water film. However, the behavior of VOCs in the aqueous film of aerosols is difficult to measure. In this work, the interfacial partition constant of cyclohexanone was determined using a novel flow-tube reactor. A thin, aqueous film placed in the reactor was exposed to cyclohexanone gas. The subsequent partitioning was measured using chromatography techniques. The quality control tests were first conducted to ensure the accuracy of the adsorption experiments. The cyclohexanone concentration was then plotted as a function of film thickness to obtain the partitioning constants. As the thickness of the water film decreased, the aqueous concentration of cyclohexanone increased, indicating that surface adsorption played a dominant role in the uptake of cyclohexanone. According to the temperature dependence of the interfacial partition constant, the solvation enthalpy and entropy of cyclohexanone were obtained. The results of this study would help to elucidate the effect of atmospheric water film on the gas–aerosol partitioning of VOCs, and thus can help to better understand the fate of VOCs in the atmosphere. Full article
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Article
Future Projection of Drought Vulnerability over Northeast Provinces of Iran during 2021–2100
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1704; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121704 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Future projection of drought vulnerability is vital for northern provinces of Iran, including North Khorasan, Khorasan-Razavi, and South Khorasan, due to the highly dependent of their economy on agriculture. The study is motivated by the fact that no research has been conducted to [...] Read more.
Future projection of drought vulnerability is vital for northern provinces of Iran, including North Khorasan, Khorasan-Razavi, and South Khorasan, due to the highly dependent of their economy on agriculture. The study is motivated by the fact that no research has been conducted to project the future Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI). DVI consist of three components of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptation capacity. More exposure levels of drought, higher sensitivity value, and lower adaptation capacity lead to a higher amount of vulnerability. Combined ERA-Interim-observation meteorological data, CMIP5 models under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, and national census data are used to estimate DVI in the past and future periods. CanESM2, GFDL-ESM2M, and CNRM-CM5 General Circulation Model (GCM) are selected from CMIP5 based on Taylor diagram results. The delta-change technique was selected for statistical downscaling of GCM outputs because it is most widely used. The study period is regarded as 1986–2005 as observation and four future 20-years periods during 2021–2100. Results indicated that the dissipation of the class of “very low” vulnerability is eminent in the near future period of 2021–2040 under the RCP4.5 scenario, and all provinces would experience a new worse class of “very high” vulnerability at 2081–2100, both under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Drought Monitoring, Simulation and Prediction)
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Article
Four- and Five-Carbon Dicarboxylic Acids Present in Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Anthropogenic and Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1703; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121703 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
To better understand precursors of dicarboxylic acids in ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA), we studied C4–C9 dicarboxylic acids present in SOA formed from the oxidation of toluene, naphthalene, α-pinene, and isoprene. C4–C9 dicarboxylic acids present in SOA were analyzed by offline derivatization gas [...] Read more.
To better understand precursors of dicarboxylic acids in ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA), we studied C4–C9 dicarboxylic acids present in SOA formed from the oxidation of toluene, naphthalene, α-pinene, and isoprene. C4–C9 dicarboxylic acids present in SOA were analyzed by offline derivatization gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We revealed that C4 dicarboxylic acids including succinic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, DL-tartaric acid, and meso-tartaric acid are produced by the photooxidation of toluene. Since meso-tartaric acid barely occurs in nature, it is a potential aerosol tracer of photochemical reaction products. In SOA particles from toluene, we also detected a compound and its isomer with similar mass spectra to methyltartaric acid standard; the compound and the isomer are tentatively identified as 2,3-dihydroxypentanedioic acid isomers. The ratio of detected C4–C5 dicarboxylic acids to total toluene SOA mass had no significant dependence on the initial VOC/NOx condition. Trace levels of maleic acid and fumaric acid were detected during the photooxidation of naphthalene. Malic acid was produced from the oxidation of α-pinene and isoprene. A trace amount of succinic acid was detected in the SOA produced from the oxidation of isoprene. Full article
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Article
Prediction of Transient NOx Emission from Diesel Vehicles Based on Deep-Learning Differentiation Model with Double Noise Reduction
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1702; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121702 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 446
Abstract
For diesel engines, accurate prediction of NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) emission plays an essential role in virtual NOx sensor development and engine design under situations of actual road driving. However, due to the randomness and uncertainty in the driving process of diesel [...] Read more.
For diesel engines, accurate prediction of NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) emission plays an essential role in virtual NOx sensor development and engine design under situations of actual road driving. However, due to the randomness and uncertainty in the driving process of diesel vehicles, it is difficult to make predictions about NOx emissions. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes differential models for noise reductions of NOx emissions in time series. First, according to the internal fluctuation of time series, use SSA (Singular Spectrum Analysis) to reduce the noises of the original time series; second, use ICEEMDAN (Improved Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise) to decompose the noise-reducing data into several relatively stable subsequences; third, use the sample entropy to calculate the complexity of each subsequence, and divide the sequences into high-frequency ones and low-frequency ones; finally, use GRU (Gated Recurrent Unit) to complete the prediction of high-frequency sequences and SVR (Support Vector Regression) for the prediction of low-frequency sequences. To obtain the final models, integrate the prediction results of the subsequences. Make comparisons with five single models, SSA single-processing models, and ICEEMDAN single-processing models. The experimental results show that the proposed model can predict the instantaneous NOx emissions of diesel engines better than the single model and the model processed by SSA, and the differentiated model can effectively improve the execution speed of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greener Energy, Air Quality, and Carbon Neutrality)
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Article
Estimating Terrestrial Radiation for Human Thermal Comfort in Outdoor Urban Space
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1701; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121701 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Cities inadvertently create warmer and drier urban climate conditions than their surrounding areas through urbanization that replaces natural surfaces with impervious materials. These changes cause heat-related health problems and many studies suggest microclimatic urban design (MUD) as an approach to address these problems. [...] Read more.
Cities inadvertently create warmer and drier urban climate conditions than their surrounding areas through urbanization that replaces natural surfaces with impervious materials. These changes cause heat-related health problems and many studies suggest microclimatic urban design (MUD) as an approach to address these problems. In MUD-related research, although terrestrial radiation plays an important role in human thermal comfort and previous studies use thermal comfort models to identify human heat stress, few studies have addressed the effect of terrestrial radiation. This study develops the ground ratio factor (GRF) model to estimate the different terrestrial radiation according to different ground conditions. Three types of ground materials (asphalt, concrete, and grass) were considered in the model, and field studies were conducted in humid subtropical climate (Cfa) zone during the hot season (13 July to 19 September 2020). The model was validated by comparing the predicated terrestrial radiation (PTR) from the model with the actual terrestrial radiation (ATR). The results showed that there is a statistically significant strong correlation between PTR and ATR. The model can contribute to MUD strategies by updating existing human energy budget models, which can lead to the measurement of more accurate human thermal comfort for mitigating thermal environments. Full article
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Article
A Satellite Data Based Detailed Study of the Aerosol Emitted from Open Biomass Burning in Northeast China
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1700; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121700 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Due to its unique natural conditions and agricultural tradition, northeast China (NEC) has formed a distinctive open biomass burning habit with local-specific biomass burning aerosol features. In this research, with the help of a newly optimized biomass burning aerosol identification method, which combines [...] Read more.
Due to its unique natural conditions and agricultural tradition, northeast China (NEC) has formed a distinctive open biomass burning habit with local-specific biomass burning aerosol features. In this research, with the help of a newly optimized biomass burning aerosol identification method, which combines satellite aerosol and fire observational products with the HYSPLIT model forward trajectories, a systematic and quantitative analysis of aerosol emitted from open biomass burning in the NEC region are conducted to determine in detail its local-specific features, such as influence region, aging characteristics, and seasonal variation. During the 72-h aging process after biomass burning emission, aerosol particle size growth found with the Angstrom exponent declines from 1.6 to 1.54. Additionally, the volume fraction of black carbon decreases from 4.5% to 3.1%, leading to the Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) increasing from the fresh state of 0.84 to the aged state of 0.89. The cooling effect at TOA, due to the existence of aerosol, is enhanced by more than 70%, indicating its severe and dynamic influence on climate change. The average AOD in spring is 0.63, which is higher than autumn’s value of 0.52, indicating that biomass burning is more intensive in spring. Compared to autumn, aerosols emitted from spring biomass burning in the NEC region have lower sphere fraction, smaller particle size, higher volume fraction of black carbon, higher absorbability, and weaker cooling effect at TOA, which can be partly explained by the drier ambient environment and lower water content of the burned crop straw in spring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emissions from Biomass Burning)
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Review
Is Hadley Cell Expanding?
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1699; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121699 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
This review provides a comprehensive coverage of changes of the Hadley Cell extent and their impacts on the weather, climate, and society. The theories predicting the Hadley Cell width are introduced as a background for the understanding of the circulation changes and the [...] Read more.
This review provides a comprehensive coverage of changes of the Hadley Cell extent and their impacts on the weather, climate, and society. The theories predicting the Hadley Cell width are introduced as a background for the understanding of the circulation changes and the metrics used for detection. A variety of metrics derived from various data sources have been used to quantify the Hadley Cell width. These metrics can be classified as dynamical, hydrological, thermal, and chemical metrics, based on the properties of the variables used. The dynamical metrics have faster trends than those based on thermal or hydrological metrics, with the values exceeding 1 degree per decade. The hydrological metric edge poleward trends were found a slightly faster expansion in the Northern Hemisphere than its southern counterpart. The chemical metrics show a poleward trend of more than 1 degree per decade in both hemispheres. We also suggest a few reasons for the discrepancy among trends in Hadley Cell expansion found in previous studies. Multiple forcings have been found responsible for the expansion, which seems to be more attributed to the natural variability than anthropogenic forcing. Validation of the scaling theories by the trends in Hadley Cell width suggests that theories considering the extratropical factor would be better models for predicting the Hadley Cell width changes. The Hadley Cell has an impact on different atmospheric processes on varying spatio-temporal scales, ranging from weather to climate, and finally on society. The remaining questions regarding Hadley Cell climate are briefly summarized at the end. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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Article
Interannual Variability of the GNSS Precipitable Water Vapor in the Global Tropics
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1698; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121698 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
This paper addresses the subject of inter-annual variability of the tropical precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from 18 years of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observations. Non-linear trends of retrieved GNSS PWV were investigated using the singular spectrum analysis (SSA) along with various [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the subject of inter-annual variability of the tropical precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from 18 years of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observations. Non-linear trends of retrieved GNSS PWV were investigated using the singular spectrum analysis (SSA) along with various climate indices. For most of the analyzed stations (~49%) the GNSS PWV anomaly was related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), although its influence on the PWV variability was not homogeneous. The cross-correlations coefficient values estimated between the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) and PWV were up to 0.78. A strong cross-correlation was also found for regional climate pattern expressed through CAR, DMI, HAW, NPGO, TNA and TSA indices. A distinct agreement was also found when instead of climate indices, the local sea surface temperature was examined (average correlation 0.60). The SSA method made it also possible to distinguish small-scale phenomena that affect PWV, such as local droughts or wetter rainy seasons. The overall nature of the investigated changes was also verified through linear trend analysis. In general, not a single station was characterized by a negative trend and its weighted mean value, calculated for all stations was equal to 0.08 ± 0.01 mm/year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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Article
Sensitivity Operator Framework for Analyzing Heterogeneous Air Quality Monitoring Systems
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1697; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121697 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Air quality monitoring systems differ in composition and accuracy of observations and their temporal and spatial coverage. A monitoring system’s performance can be assessed by evaluating the accuracy of the emission sources identified by its data. In the considered inverse modeling approach, a [...] Read more.
Air quality monitoring systems differ in composition and accuracy of observations and their temporal and spatial coverage. A monitoring system’s performance can be assessed by evaluating the accuracy of the emission sources identified by its data. In the considered inverse modeling approach, a source identification problem is transformed to a quasi-linear operator equation with the sensitivity operator. The sensitivity operator is composed of the sensitivity functions evaluated on the adjoint ensemble members. The members correspond to the measurement data element aggregates. Such ensemble construction allows working in a unified way with heterogeneous measurement data in a single-operator equation. The quasi-linear structure of the resulting operator equation allows both solving and predicting solutions of the inverse problem. Numerical experiments for the Baikal region scenario were carried out to compare different types of inverse problem solution accuracy estimates. In the considered scenario, the projection to the orthogonal complement of the sensitivity operator’s kernel allowed predicting the source identification results with the best accuracy compared to the other estimate types. Our contribution is the development and testing of a sensitivity-operator-based set of tools for analyzing heterogeneous air quality monitoring systems. We propose them for assessing and optimizing observational systems and experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics III)
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Article
Emissions and Air Quality Implications of Upstream and Midstream Oil and Gas Operations in Mexico
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1696; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121696 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Mexico approved amendments to its constitution in December 2013 that initiated transformational changes to its energy sector. This study developed a 2016 bottom-up emissions inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), [...] Read more.
Mexico approved amendments to its constitution in December 2013 that initiated transformational changes to its energy sector. This study developed a 2016 bottom-up emissions inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from upstream and midstream sector sources, including onshore and offshore well sites, gas flaring, natural gas processing facilities, and natural gas compressor stations, throughout Mexican basins. Crude oil storage tanks at onshore oil well sites and venting and fugitive sources at offshore oil production sites were the primary sources of VOC emissions. Key contributions to NOx, CO, and PM2.5 emissions were from internal combustion engines at offshore oil well sites and midstream operations. SO2 emissions were associated with onshore and offshore gas flaring and boilers and process heaters at natural gas processing facilities. Application of the inventory with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) indicated that oil and gas production operations could contribute to ozone and PM2.5 concentrations in Mexican and U.S. states under favorable transport patterns. This study provides a foundation for assessing the implications of Mexico’s future energy policies on emissions and domestic and cross-border air quality and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality Management)
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Article
Nongrowing Season CO2 Emissions Determine the Distinct Carbon Budgets of Two Alpine Wetlands on the Northeastern Qinghai—Tibet Plateau
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1695; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121695 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Alpine wetlands sequester large amounts of soil carbon, so it is vital to gain a full understanding of their land-atmospheric CO2 exchanges and how they contribute to regional carbon neutrality; such an understanding is currently lacking for the Qinghai—Tibet Plateau (QTP), which [...] Read more.
Alpine wetlands sequester large amounts of soil carbon, so it is vital to gain a full understanding of their land-atmospheric CO2 exchanges and how they contribute to regional carbon neutrality; such an understanding is currently lacking for the Qinghai—Tibet Plateau (QTP), which is undergoing unprecedented climate warming. We analyzed two-year (2018–2019) continuous CO2 flux data, measured by eddy covariance techniques, to quantify the carbon budgets of two alpine wetlands (Luanhaizi peatland (LHZ) and Xiaobohu swamp (XBH)) on the northeastern QTP. At an 8-day scale, boosted regression tree model-based analysis showed that variations in growing season CO2 fluxes were predominantly determined by atmospheric water vapor, having a relative contribution of more than 65%. Variations in nongrowing season CO2 fluxes were mainly controlled by site (categorical variable) and topsoil temperature (Ts), with cumulative relative contributions of 81.8%. At a monthly scale, structural equation models revealed that net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) at both sites was regulated more by gross primary productivity (GPP), than by ecosystem respiration (RES), which were both in turn directly controlled by atmospheric water vapor. The general linear model showed that variations in nongrowing season CO2 fluxes were significantly (p < 0.001) driven by the main effect of site and Ts. Annually, LHZ acted as a net carbon source, and NEE, GPP, and RES were 41.5 ± 17.8, 631.5 ± 19.4, and 673.0 ± 37.2 g C/(m2 year), respectively. XBH behaved as a net carbon sink, and NEE, GPP, and RES were –40.9 ± 7.5, 595.1 ± 15.4, and 554.2 ± 7.9 g C/(m2 year), respectively. These distinctly different carbon budgets were primarily caused by the nongrowing season RES being approximately twice as large at LHZ (p < 0.001), rather than by other equivalent growing season CO2 fluxes (p > 0.10). Overall, variations in growing season CO2 fluxes were mainly controlled by atmospheric water vapor, while those of the nongrowing season were jointly determined by site attributes and soil temperatures. Our results highlight the different carbon functions of alpine peatland and alpine swampland, and show that nongrowing season CO2 emissions should be taken into full consideration when upscaling regional carbon budgets. Current and predicted marked winter warming will directly stimulate increased CO2 emissions from alpine wetlands, which will positively feedback to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Comparison of Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Ambient Air among Different Source Areas around Khon Kaen, Thailand
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1694; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121694 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a complex group of chemicals that pose a direct risk to human health. They also lead to the formation of other air pollution constituents, including fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O₃). The ambient [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a complex group of chemicals that pose a direct risk to human health. They also lead to the formation of other air pollution constituents, including fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O₃). The ambient air concentrations of 19 VOCs were measured using multi-day 24 h sampling at two urban sites and two rural sites in the area of Khon Kaen, Thailand. Results showed that most VOCs were at concentrations considered acceptable according to the 24 h average standards established by the Thai Pollution Control Department. The VOC acrolein, however, was detected at concentrations (0.69–1.15 μg/m3) in excess of the 24 h average standard (0.55 μg/m3). Two other VOCs, benzene and 1,3-butadiene, were also detected at elevated levels (1.73–2.75 and 0.18–0.40 μg/m3, respectively) that indicated the potential to exceed the 1-year average standard. VOC concentrations were highest in the urban market monitoring site, suggesting that vehicle exhaust and food preparation using cooking oil at high temperatures may have been potential sources of the elevated VOCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue VOC Sensing and Measurements)
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Article
Environmental Benefits of Ultra-Low Emission (ULE) Technology Applied in China
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1693; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121693 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Seven scenarios were designed to study the national environmental benefits of ULE in coal-fired power plants (CPPs), ULE in industrial coal burning (ICB) and NH3 emission reduction by using the GEOS-Chem model. The results showed that although the CPPs have achieved the [...] Read more.
Seven scenarios were designed to study the national environmental benefits of ULE in coal-fired power plants (CPPs), ULE in industrial coal burning (ICB) and NH3 emission reduction by using the GEOS-Chem model. The results showed that although the CPPs have achieved the ULE transformation target, the PM2.5 concentration across the country has decreased by 4.8% (1.4 μg/m3). Due to the complex non-linear chemical competition mechanism among nitrate and sulfate, the average concentration of nitrate in the country has increased by 1.5% (0.1 μg/m3), which has reduced the environmental benefits of the power plant emission reduction. If the ULE technology is applied to the ICB to further reduce NOx and SO2, although the PM2.5 concentration can be reduced by 10.1% (2.9 μg/m3), the concentration of nitrate will increase by 2.7% (0.2 μg/m3). Based on the CPPs-ULE, NH3 emissions reduced by 30% and 50% can significantly reduce the concentration of ammonium and nitrate, so that the PM2.5 concentration is decreased by 11.5% (3.3 μg/m3) and 16.5% (4.7 μg/m3). Similarly, based on the CPPs-ICB-ULE, NH3 emissions can be reduced by 30% and 50% and the PM2.5 concentration reduced by 15.6% (4.4 μg/m3) and 20.3% (5.8 μg/m3). The CPPs and ICB use the ULE technology to reduce NOx and SO2, thereby reducing the concentration of ammonium and sulfate, causing the PM2.5 concentration to decline, and NH3 reduction is mainly achieved through reducing the concentration of ammonium and nitrate to reduce the concentration of PM2.5. In order to better reduce the concentration of PM2.5, NOx, SO2 and NH3 emission reduction control measures should be comprehensively considered in different regions of China. By comprehensively considering the economic cost and environmental benefits of ULE in ICB and NH3 emission reduction, an optimal haze control scheme can be determined. Full article
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Article
Toward the Estimation of All-Weather Daytime Downward Longwave Radiation over the Tibetan Plateau
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1692; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121692 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Downward longwave radiation (DLR) is a critical parameter for radiation balance, energy budget, and water cycle studies at regional and global scales. Accurate estimation of the all-weather DLR with a high temporal resolution is important for the estimation of the surface net radiation [...] Read more.
Downward longwave radiation (DLR) is a critical parameter for radiation balance, energy budget, and water cycle studies at regional and global scales. Accurate estimation of the all-weather DLR with a high temporal resolution is important for the estimation of the surface net radiation and evapotranspiration. However, most DLR products involve instantaneous DLR estimates based on polar orbiting satellite data under clear-sky conditions. To obtain an in-depth understanding of the performances of different models in the estimation of DLR over the Tibetan Plateau, which is a focus area of climate change study, this study tests eight methods for clear-sky conditions and six methods for cloudy conditions based on ground-measured data. It is found that the Dilley and O’Brien model and the Lhomme model are most suitable for clear-sky conditions and cloudy conditions, respectively. For the Dilley and O’Brien model, the average root mean square error (RMSE) of DLR under clear-sky conditions is approximately 22.5 W/m2 for nine ground sites; for the Lhomme model, the average RMSE is approximately 23.2 W/m2. Based on the estimated cloud fraction and meteorological data provided by the China Land Surface Data Assimilation System (CLDAS), hourly all-weather daytime DLR with a 0.0625° resolution over the Tibetan Plateau is estimated. Results demonstrate that the average RMSE of the estimated hourly all-weather DLR is approximately 26.4 W/m2. With the combined all-weather DLR model, the hourly all-weather daytime DLR dataset with a 0.0625° resolution from 2008 to 2016 over the Tibetan Plateau is generated. This dataset can contribute to studies associated with the radiation balance and energy budget, water cycle, and climate change over the Tibetan Plateau. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions)
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Article
Clear-Air Turbulence (CAT) Identification with X-Band Dual Polarimetric Radar Based on Bayesian Approach
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1691; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121691 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
The echo of weather radar is seriously disturbed by clear-air turbulence echo (CAT) which needs identifying and eliminating to improve the data quality of weather radar. Using the data observed with the five X-band dual polarimetric radars in Changping, Fangshan, Miyun, Shunyi, and [...] Read more.
The echo of weather radar is seriously disturbed by clear-air turbulence echo (CAT) which needs identifying and eliminating to improve the data quality of weather radar. Using the data observed with the five X-band dual polarimetric radars in Changping, Fangshan, Miyun, Shunyi, and Tongzhou, Beijing in 2018, the probability density distribution (PDD) of the horizontal texture of four radar moments reflectively factor (ZH), differential reflectivity (ZDR), correlation coefficient (ρHV), differential propagation phase shift (ΦDP), and then the CAT is identified and removed using Bayesian method. The results show that the radar data can be effectively improved after the CAT has been eliminated, which include: (1) the removal rate of CAT is more than 98.2% in the analyzed cases. (2) In the area with high-frequency distribution of CAT, the CAT can be effectively suppressed; in the area with low-frequency distribution, some weather echo in the edge with SNR < 15 dB may be mistakenly identified as CAT, but the proportion of meteorological echoes to the total echoes is more than 85%, which indicate that the error rate is very low and does not affect the radar operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
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Article
Investigating the Climate-Growth Response of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Northern Poland
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1690; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121690 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Research Highlights: This study used a 99-year time-series of daily climatic data to determine the climate-growth relationship for Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Northern Poland. The use of daily climatic data improved the calculated climatic response of the trees. Background [...] Read more.
Research Highlights: This study used a 99-year time-series of daily climatic data to determine the climate-growth relationship for Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Northern Poland. The use of daily climatic data improved the calculated climatic response of the trees. Background and Objectives: It was hypothesised that daily temperature and precipitation data would more precisely identify climate–growth relationships than monthly data. We compared our results to a previous study conducted in the 1990s that utilised monthly precipitation and temperature data. Materials and Methods: The chronology construction and data analyses were performed using CooRecorder, CDendro and R packages (dplR, treeclim, dendrotools). Forty-nine cores from 31 trees were included in the final chronology. Results: The precipitation and temperature of March had the strongest influence upon ring-widths. Despite a statistically significant correlation between monthly temperature and ring-widths, reduction of error (RE) and coefficient of efficiency (CE) statistics confirmed that daily data better describe the effect of climate on tree rings width than monthly data. Conclusions: At this site, the growing season of Scots pine has changed with the observed association with precipitation now starting as early as February–March and extending to June–July. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Forest Environment)
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Article
Distinct Evolution of Sea Surface Temperature over the Cold Tongue Region in South China Sea during Various El Niño Events
by and
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1689; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121689 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 422
Abstract
This study investigates the evolution of the sea surface temperature (SST) over the cold tongue (CT) region in the central South China Sea (SCS) during various El Niño events. A significant and distinct double-peak warming evolution can occur during EP El Niño and [...] Read more.
This study investigates the evolution of the sea surface temperature (SST) over the cold tongue (CT) region in the central South China Sea (SCS) during various El Niño events. A significant and distinct double-peak warming evolution can occur during EP El Niño and CP El Niño events, with the former being more remarkable and robust than the latter. Further analyses show that the weak and insignificant CT SST anomaly in CP El Niño events is influenced by some CP El Niño events in which the warm sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) is located west of 175° E (WCP El Niño). The response of CT SSTA mainly depends on the warm SSTA location of CP El Niño. The different corresponding mechanisms in winter, spring and summer are discussed respectively in this work. Further analysis reveals that the weak and insignificant SST anomaly over the CT region in CP El Niño events is caused by the faint SSTA response during the WCP El Niño events. The results of this study call attention to the response of the SCS climate in both atmosphere and ocean to the diversity of ENSO, especially the CP El Niño. Full article
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Article
Application of Bias Correction to Improve WRF Ensemble Wind Speed Forecast
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1688; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121688 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Surface wind speed forecast from an operational WRF Ensemble Prediction System (WEPS) was verified, and the system-bias representations of the WEPS were investigated. Results indicated that error characteristics of the ensemble 10-m wind speed forecast were diurnally variated and clustered with the usage [...] Read more.
Surface wind speed forecast from an operational WRF Ensemble Prediction System (WEPS) was verified, and the system-bias representations of the WEPS were investigated. Results indicated that error characteristics of the ensemble 10-m wind speed forecast were diurnally variated and clustered with the usage of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. To correct the error characteristics of the ensemble wind speed forecast, three system-bias representations with decaying average algorithms were studied. One of the three system-bias representations is represented by the forecast error of the ensemble mean (BC01), and others are assembled from each PBC group (BC03) as well as an independent member (BC20). System bias was calculated daily and updated within a 5-month duration, and the verification was conducted in the last month, including 316 gauges around Taiwan. Results show that the mean of the calibrated ensemble (BC03) was significantly improved as the calibrated ensemble (BC20), but both demonstrated insufficient ensemble spread. However, the calibrated ensemble, BC01, with the best dispersion relation could be extracted as a more valuable deterministic forecast via the probability matched mean method (PMM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Observation and Simulation)
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Article
Sensitivity of Summertime Convection to Aerosol Loading and Properties in the United Arab Emirates
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1687; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121687 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 482
Abstract
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate convection–aerosol interactions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for a summertime convective event. Both an idealized and climatological aerosol distributions are considered. The convection on 14 August 2013 was triggered by the [...] Read more.
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate convection–aerosol interactions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for a summertime convective event. Both an idealized and climatological aerosol distributions are considered. The convection on 14 August 2013 was triggered by the low-level convergence of the cyclonic circulation associated with the Arabian Heat Low (AHL) and the daytime sea-breeze circulation. Numerical experiments reveal a high sensitivity to aerosol properties. In particular, replacing 20% of the rural aerosols by carbonaceous particles has a comparable impact on the surface radiative fluxes to increasing the aerosol loading by a factor of 10. In both cases, the UAE-averaged net shortwave flux is reduced by ~90 W m−2 while the net longwave flux increases by ~51 W m−2. However, when the aerosol composition is changed, WRF generates 20% more precipitation than when the aerosol loading is increased, due to a broader and weaker AHL. The surface downward and upward shortwave and upward longwave radiation fluxes are found to scale linearly with the aerosol loading. An increase in the amount of aerosols also leads to drier conditions and a delay in the onset of convection due to changes in the AHL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
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Article
Online Chemical Characterization and Sources of Submicron Aerosol in the Major Mediterranean Port City of Piraeus, Greece
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1686; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121686 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Port cities are affected by a wide array of emissions, including those from the shipping, road transport, and residential sectors; therefore, the characterization and apportionment of such sources in a high temporal resolution is crucial. This study presents measurements of fine aerosol chemical [...] Read more.
Port cities are affected by a wide array of emissions, including those from the shipping, road transport, and residential sectors; therefore, the characterization and apportionment of such sources in a high temporal resolution is crucial. This study presents measurements of fine aerosol chemical composition in Piraeus, one of the largest European ports, during two monthly periods (winter vs. summer) in 2018–2019, using online instrumentation (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor—ACSM, 7-λ aethalometer). PMF source apportionment was performed on the ACSM mass spectra to quantify organic aerosol (OA) components, while equivalent black carbon (BC) was decomposed to its fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning (BB) fractions. The combined traffic, shipping and, especially, residential emissions led to considerably elevated submicron aerosol levels (22.8 μg m−3) in winter, which frequently became episodic late at night under stagnant conditions. Carbonaceous compounds comprised the major portion of this submicron aerosol in winter, with mean OA and BC contributions of 61% (13.9 μg m−3) and 16% (3.7 μg m−3), respectively. The contribution of BB to BC concentrations was considerable and spatially uniform. OA related to BB emissions (fresh and processed) and hydrocarbon-like OA (from vehicular traffic and port-related fossil fuel emissions including shipping) accounted for 37% and 30% of OA, respectively. In summer, the average PM1 concentration was significantly lower (14.8 μg m−3) and less variable, especially for the components associated with secondary aerosols (such as OA and sulfate). The effect of the port sector was evident in summer and maintained BC concentrations at high levels (2.8 μg m−3), despite the absence of BB and improved atmospheric dispersion. Oxygenated components yielded over 70% of OA in summer, with the more oxidized secondary component of regional origin being dominant (41%) despite the intensity of local sources, in the Piraeus environment. In general, with respect to local sources that can be the target of mitigation policies, this work highlights the importance of port-related activities but also reveals the extensive wintertime impact of residential wood burning. While a separation of the BB source is feasible, more research is needed on how to disentangle the short-term effects of different fossil-fuel combustion sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in Greece)
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Article
Terrain Effects on Regional Precipitation in a Warm Season over Qinling-Daba Mountains in Central China
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1685; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121685 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 369
Abstract
The terrain effects of Qinling–Daba Mountains on reginal precipitation during a warm season were investigated in a two-month day-to-day experiment using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. According to the results from the terrain sensitivity experiment with lowered mountains, Qinling–Daba Mountains have [...] Read more.
The terrain effects of Qinling–Daba Mountains on reginal precipitation during a warm season were investigated in a two-month day-to-day experiment using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. According to the results from the terrain sensitivity experiment with lowered mountains, Qinling–Daba Mountains have been found to have an obvious effect on both the spatial-temporal distribution and diurnal cycle of reginal precipitation from July to August in 2019, where the Qinling Mountains mainly enhanced the precipitation around 34° N, and the Daba Mountains mainly enhanced it around 32° N at the time period of early morning and midnight. Horizontal distribution of water vapor and convective available potential energy (CAPE), as well as cross section of vertical velocity of wind and potential temperature has been studied to examine the key mechanisms for these two mountains’ effect. The existence of Qinling Mountains intercepted transportation of water vapor from South to North in the lower troposphere to across 34° N and caused an obvious enhancement of CAPE in the neighborhood, while the Daba Mountains intercepted the northward water vapor transportation to across 32° N and caused an enhanced CAPE nearby. The time period of the influence is in a good accordance with the diurnal cycle. In the cross-section, the existence of Qinling Mountains and Daba Mountains are found to stimulate the upward motion and unstable environment effectively at around 34° N and 32° N, separately. As a result, the existence of the two mountains lead to a favorable environment in water vapor, thermodynamic, and dynamic conditions for this warm season precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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Article
Predicting the Effects of Solar Storms on the Ionosphere Based on a Comparison of Real-Time Solar Wind Data with the Best-Fitting Historical Storm Event
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1684; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121684 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
This study presents a new modeling approach that aims for long time predictions (more than 12 h) of ionospheric disturbances driven by solar storm events. The proposed model shall run in an operational framework to deliver fast and precise localized warnings for these [...] Read more.
This study presents a new modeling approach that aims for long time predictions (more than 12 h) of ionospheric disturbances driven by solar storm events. The proposed model shall run in an operational framework to deliver fast and precise localized warnings for these disturbances in the future. The solar wind data driven approach uses a data base of historical solar storm impacts covering two solar cycles to reconstruct future events and resulting ionospheric disturbances. The basic components of the model are presented and discussed in this study, and the strengths of the reconstruction based on historical events are presented by showing the good correlations for predicted and observed geomagnetic activity. Initial results on the ionospheric response are discussed for all historical events using global total electron content (GTEC) and in more detail using total electron content (TEC) maps for two specific case studies (including the St. Patrick’s Day geomagnetic storm during the 17 March 2015). Average root mean square error (RMSE) values of 3.90 and 5.21 TECU are calculated for these cases confirming good results for the current configuration of the model. Possible future improvements of the individual model parts, as well as the planned extensions and applications are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionospheric Monitoring and Modelling for Space Weather)
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Article
Trends in the Diurnal Temperature Range over the Southern Slope of Central Himalaya: Retrospective and Prospective Evaluation
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1683; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121683 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 549
Abstract
The Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR) profoundly affects human health, agriculture, eco-system, and socioeconomic systems. In this study, we analyzed past and future changes in DTR using gridded Climate Research Unit (CRU) datasets for the years 1950–2020 and an ensemble means of thirteen bias-corrected [...] Read more.
The Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR) profoundly affects human health, agriculture, eco-system, and socioeconomic systems. In this study, we analyzed past and future changes in DTR using gridded Climate Research Unit (CRU) datasets for the years 1950–2020 and an ensemble means of thirteen bias-corrected Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) models under different Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5) scenarios for the rest of the 21st century over the southern slope of Central Himalaya, Nepal. Furthermore, the potential drivers (precipitation and cloud cover) of seasonal and annual DTR were studied using correlation analysis. This study found that the DTR trends generally declined; the highest decrease was observed in the pre-monsoon and winter at a rate of 0.09 °C/decade (p ≤ 0.01). As expected, DTR demonstrated a significant negative correlation with cloudiness and precipitation in all four seasons. Further, the decreased DTR was weakly related to the Sea Surface Temperature variation (SST) in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. We found that the projected DTR changes in the future varied from a marginal increase under the SSP1-2.6 (only pre-monsoon) scenario to continued significant decreases under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5. Insights based on retrospective and prospective evaluation help to understand the long-term evolution of diurnal temperature variations. Full article
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Article
Dynamic of Particulate Matter for Quotidian Aerosol Sources in Indoor Air
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1682; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121682 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 354
Abstract
A correlation between the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) and the occurrence of health-related problems or diseases has been confirmed by several studies. However, little is known about indoor PM concentrations, their associated risks or their impact on health. In this work, [...] Read more.
A correlation between the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) and the occurrence of health-related problems or diseases has been confirmed by several studies. However, little is known about indoor PM concentrations, their associated risks or their impact on health. In this work, the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 produced by different indoor aerosol sources (candles, cooking, electronic cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, mosquito coils and incense) are studied. The purpose is to quantify the emission characteristics of different indoor particle sources. The mass concentration, the numerical concentration, and the size distribution of PM from various sources were determined in an examination room 65 m3 in volume. Sub-micrometer particles and approximations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were measured simultaneously using a diffusion aerosol spectrometer (DAS). The ultrafine particle concentration for the studied indoor aerosol sources was approximately 7 × 104 particles/cm3 (incense, mosquito coils and electronic cigarettes), 1.2 × 105 particles/cm3 for candles and cooking and 2.7 × 105 particles/cm3 for tobacco cigarettes. The results indicate that electronic cigarettes can raise indoor PM2.5 levels more than 100 times. PM1 concentrations can be nearly 55 and 30 times higher than the background level during electronic cigarette usage and tobacco cigarette burning, respectively. It is necessary to study the evaluation of indoor PM, assess the toxic potential of internal molecules and develop and test strategies to ensure the improvement of indoor air quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
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Article
Partitioning of NH3-NH4+ in the Southeastern U.S.
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1681; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121681 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 421
Abstract
The formation of inorganic fine particulate matter (i.e., iPM2.5) is controlled by the thermodynamic equilibrium partitioning of NH3-NH4+. To develop effective control strategies of PM2.5, we aim to understand the impacts of changes in [...] Read more.
The formation of inorganic fine particulate matter (i.e., iPM2.5) is controlled by the thermodynamic equilibrium partitioning of NH3-NH4+. To develop effective control strategies of PM2.5, we aim to understand the impacts of changes in different precursor gases on iPM2.5 concentrations and partitioning of NH3-NH4+. To understand partitioning of NH3-NH4+ in the southeastern U.S., responses of iPM2.5 to precursor gases in four seasons were investigated using field measurements of iPM2.5, precursor gases, and meteorological conditions. The ISORROPIA II model was used to examine the effects of changes in total ammonia (gas + aerosol), total sulfuric acid (aerosol), and total nitric acid (gas + aerosol) on iPM2.5 concentrations and partitioning of NH3-NH4+. The results indicate that reduction in total H2SO4 is more effective than reduction in total HNO3 and total NH3 to reduce iPM2.5 especially under NH3-rich condition. The reduction in total H2SO4 may change partitioning of NH3-NH4+ towards gas-phase and may also lead to an increase in NO3 under NH3-rich conditions, which does not necessarily lead to full neutralization of acidic gases (pH < 7). Thus, future reduction in iPM2.5 may necessitate the coordinated reduction in both H2SO4 and HNO3 in the southeastern U.S. It is also found that the response of iPM2.5 to the change in total H2SO4 is more sensitive in summer than winter due to the dominance of SO42− salts in iPM2.5 and the high temperature in summer. The NH3 emissions from Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs) at an agricultural rural site (YRK) had great impacts on partitioning of NH3-NH4+. The Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model revealed a strong positive correlation between cation-NH4+ and anions-SO42− and NO3. This research provides an insight into iPM2.5 formation mechanism for the advancement of PM2.5 control and regulation in the southeastern U.S. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ammonia in a Changing Atmosphere)
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Article
Astroclimatic Conditions at the Hoa Lac and Nha Trang Astronomical Observatories
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1680; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121680 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
The paper presents the first results of astroclimatic studies at the sites of the Hoa Lac and Nha Trang astronomical observatories. Our study employs Era-5 data covering a 10-yr time period (2011–2020). An analysis of the main astroclimatic characteristic, namely, the wind speed [...] Read more.
The paper presents the first results of astroclimatic studies at the sites of the Hoa Lac and Nha Trang astronomical observatories. Our study employs Era-5 data covering a 10-yr time period (2011–2020). An analysis of the main astroclimatic characteristic, namely, the wind speed in the upper layers of the atmosphere, was performed. We calculated space distributions of the wind speed averaged in the height bin from 100 to 200 hPa. Using hourly data on pressure levels we analyzed probability distributions of the wind speed at high-level maxima at the sites of the observatories. At the Nha Trang observatory the period with a potentially high astroclimatic conditions falls on the spring when high recurrence of weak winds is observed. At the Hoa Lac observatory the best conditions are observed in the summer and the autumn. In this period, the median wind speeds are low. Additionally, we calculated spectra of the air temperature using the Fast Fourier Transform. We analyzed the deformations of the spectra with heights in a wide range of scales. At the site of the Nha Trang Astronomical Observatory, the amplitude of daily air temperature variations in the surface layer is approximately 1.5–2.5 times smaller compared to the Hoa Lac Observatory. We showed that the low-frequency maximum in the spectra is pronounced only in the lower layers of the atmosphere. Full article
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Article
Characteristics and Long-Term Variability of Occurrences of Storm Surges in the Baltic Sea
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1679; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121679 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Understanding the characteristics of storm surges is especially important in the context of ongoing climate changes, which often lead to catastrophic events in the coastal zones of seas and oceans. For this reason, this paper presents the characteristics of the Baltic Sea storm [...] Read more.
Understanding the characteristics of storm surges is especially important in the context of ongoing climate changes, which often lead to catastrophic events in the coastal zones of seas and oceans. For this reason, this paper presents the characteristics of the Baltic Sea storm surges and trends in their occurrences through the past 60 years. The study material was based on hourly sea level readings, spanning the years 1961–2020, retrieved from 45 Baltic Sea tide gauges, as well as air pressure and wind field data. Owing to the analysis and visualization of storm situations, two main types of storm surges were identified and characterized: a surge driven by wind and a surge driven by subpressure associated with an active low pressure area. This paper also discusses a third, mixed type of storm surge. Further analyses have indicated that through the past 60 years in the Baltic Sea, the duration of high sea level has increased by 1/3, the average number of storm surges has increased from 3.1 to 5.5 per year, and the maximum annual sea levels have increased—with a trend value of 0.28 cm/year. These processes, also observed in other marine basins, provide strong evidence for contemporary climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Environment of Coastal Areas under Current and Future Climate)
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Article
Assessment of Satellite-Based Rainfall Products Using a X-Band Rain Radar Network in the Complex Terrain of the Ecuadorian Andes
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1678; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12121678 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Ground based rainfall information is hardly available in most high mountain areas of the world due to the remoteness and complex topography. Thus, proper understanding of spatio-temporal rainfall dynamics still remains a challenge in those areas. Satellite-based rainfall products may help if their [...] Read more.
Ground based rainfall information is hardly available in most high mountain areas of the world due to the remoteness and complex topography. Thus, proper understanding of spatio-temporal rainfall dynamics still remains a challenge in those areas. Satellite-based rainfall products may help if their rainfall assessment are of high quality. In this paper, microwave-based integrated multi-satellite retrieval for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) (IMERG) (MW-based IMERG) was assessed along with the random-forest-based rainfall (RF-based rainfall) and infrared-only IMERG (IR-only IMERG) products against the quality-controlled rain radar network and meteorological stations of high temporal resolution over the Pacific coast and the Andes of Ecuador. The rain area delineation and rain estimation of each product were evaluated at a spatial resolution of 11 km2 and at the time of MW overpass from IMERG. The regionally calibrated RF-based rainfall at 2 km2 and 30 min was also investigated. The validation results indicate different essential aspects: (i) the best performance is provided by MW-based IMERG in the region at the time of MW overpass; (ii) RF-based rainfall shows better accuracy rather than the IR-only IMERG rainfall product. This confirms that applying multispectral IR data in retrieval can improve the estimation of rainfall compared with single-spectrum IR retrieval algorithms. (iii) All of the products are prone to low-intensity false alarms. (iv) The downscaling of higher-resolution products leads to lower product performance, despite regional calibration. The results show that more caution is needed when developing new algorithms for satellite-based, high-spatiotemporal-resolution rainfall products. The radar data validation shows better performance than meteorological stations because gauge data cannot correctly represent spatial rainfall in complex topography under convective rainfall environments. Full article
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