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Article

Multi-Crop Production Decisions and Economic Irrigation Water Use Efficiency: The Effects of Water Costs, Pressure Irrigation Adoption, and Climatic Determinants

1
Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Vernon, TX 76384, USA
2
Division of Applied Social Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Sustainable Food Production)
In an irrigated multi-crop production system, farmers make decisions on the land allocated to each crop, and the subsequent irrigation water application, which determines the crop yield and irrigation water use efficiency. This study analyzes the effects of the multiple factors on farmers’ decision making and economic irrigation water use efficiency (EIWUE) using a national dataset from the USDA Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey. To better deal with the farm-level data embedded in each state of the U.S., multilevel models are employed, which permit the incorporation of state-level variables in addition to the farm-level factors. The results show higher costs of surface water are not effective in reducing water use, while groundwater costs show a positive association with water use on both corn and soybean farms. The adoption of pressure irrigation systems reduces the soybean water use and increases the soybean yield. A higher EIWUE can be achieved with the adoption of enhanced irrigation systems on both corn and soybean farms. A high temperature promotes more the efficient water use and higher yield, and a high precipitation is associated with lower water application and higher crop yield. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) suggest a moderate variability in water application and EIWUE is accounted by the state-level factors with ICC values greater than 0.10. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate variability; water use efficiency; multi-crop production; pressure irrigation systems; water costs; corn; soybeans climate variability; water use efficiency; multi-crop production; pressure irrigation systems; water costs; corn; soybeans
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fan, Y.; Massey, R.; Park, S.C. Multi-Crop Production Decisions and Economic Irrigation Water Use Efficiency: The Effects of Water Costs, Pressure Irrigation Adoption, and Climatic Determinants. Water 2018, 10, 1637. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w10111637

AMA Style

Fan Y, Massey R, Park SC. Multi-Crop Production Decisions and Economic Irrigation Water Use Efficiency: The Effects of Water Costs, Pressure Irrigation Adoption, and Climatic Determinants. Water. 2018; 10(11):1637. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w10111637

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fan, Yubing, Raymond Massey, and Seong C. Park 2018. "Multi-Crop Production Decisions and Economic Irrigation Water Use Efficiency: The Effects of Water Costs, Pressure Irrigation Adoption, and Climatic Determinants" Water 10, no. 11: 1637. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w10111637

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