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Article

Coupling Persulfate-Based AOPs: A Novel Approach for Piroxicam Degradation in Aqueous Matrices

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras, Greece
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, GR-50100 Kozani, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 22 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 27 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Engineering and Environmental Catalysis)
The activated persulfate degradation of piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) belonging to oxicams, was investigated. Persulfate was activated with thermal energy or (UV-A and simulated solar) irradiation. Using 250 mg/L sodium persulfate at 40 °C degraded almost completely 0.5 mg/L of piroxicam in 30 min. Increasing piroxicam concentration from 0.5 to 4.5 mg/L decreased its removal. The observed kinetic constant was increased almost ten times from 0.077 to 0.755 min−1, when the temperature was increased from 40 to 60 °C, respectively. Process efficiency was enhanced at pH 5–7. At ambient conditions and 30 min of irradiation, 94.1% and 89.8% of 0.5 mg/L piroxicam was removed using UV-A LED or simulated solar radiation, respectively. Interestingly, the use of simulated sunlight was advantageous over UV-A light for both secondary effluent, and 20 mg/L of humic acid solution. Unlike other advanced oxidation processes, the presence of bicarbonate or chloride in the range 50–250 mg/L enhanced the degradation rate, while the presence of humic acid delayed the removal of piroxicam. The use of 0.5 and 10 g/L of methanol or tert-butanol as radical scavengers inhibited the reaction. The coupling of thermal and light activation methods in different aqueous matrices showed a high level of synergy. The synergy factor was calculated as 68.4% and 58.4% for thermal activation (40 °C) coupled with either solar light in 20 mg/L of humic acid or UV-A LED light in secondary effluent, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: piroxicam; AOPs; synergy; persulfate; coupling AOPs; wastewater treatment; NSAIDs; sulfate radicals; LED piroxicam; AOPs; synergy; persulfate; coupling AOPs; wastewater treatment; NSAIDs; sulfate radicals; LED
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stathoulopoulos, A.; Mantzavinos, D.; Frontistis, Z. Coupling Persulfate-Based AOPs: A Novel Approach for Piroxicam Degradation in Aqueous Matrices. Water 2020, 12, 1530. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w12061530

AMA Style

Stathoulopoulos A, Mantzavinos D, Frontistis Z. Coupling Persulfate-Based AOPs: A Novel Approach for Piroxicam Degradation in Aqueous Matrices. Water. 2020; 12(6):1530. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w12061530

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stathoulopoulos, Antonios, Dionissios Mantzavinos, and Zacharias Frontistis. 2020. "Coupling Persulfate-Based AOPs: A Novel Approach for Piroxicam Degradation in Aqueous Matrices" Water 12, no. 6: 1530. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w12061530

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