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Article

Variations and Drivers of Methane Fluxes from Double-Cropping Paddy Fields in Southern China at Diurnal, Seasonal and Inter-Seasonal Timescales

1
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
College of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Long Ho and Peter Goethals
Received: 13 June 2021 / Revised: 3 August 2021 / Accepted: 4 August 2021 / Published: 8 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Water Systems)
Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide (CO2), and paddy fields are among the largest sources of CH4 emissions. Owing to the scarcity of observational data, the characteristics and influencing factors of CH4 fluxes in paddy fields at different timescales need to be further investigated. Observations of CH4 fluxes via eddy covariance (EC) data were performed over four seasons in two paddy fields in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. The pattern, magnitude and biophysical controls of CH4 emissions were explored by wavelet analysis and stepwise multiplicative modelling. The results revealed a distinct, single-peak diurnal pattern in CH4 fluxes during the vegetative stage in all four rice growing seasons and the reproductive stage of early rice. Large seasonal variations in daily CH4 emissions were observed in the two double-cropping paddy fields, and the soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm (Ts5) explained most of the seasonality of the CH4 fluxes. At the inter-seasonal scale, under local farms’ traditional field management method, reducing the amount and frequency of irrigation during the vegetative stage could decrease CH4 emissions in southern China. This study improves the understanding of CH4 emissions and helps in developing GHG management strategies for paddy fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: methane fluxes; eddy covariance technique; multi-timescale analysis; double-cropping rice agroecosystem methane fluxes; eddy covariance technique; multi-timescale analysis; double-cropping rice agroecosystem
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, L.; Liu, B.; Cui, Y.; Shi, Y. Variations and Drivers of Methane Fluxes from Double-Cropping Paddy Fields in Southern China at Diurnal, Seasonal and Inter-Seasonal Timescales. Water 2021, 13, 2171. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13162171

AMA Style

Ma L, Liu B, Cui Y, Shi Y. Variations and Drivers of Methane Fluxes from Double-Cropping Paddy Fields in Southern China at Diurnal, Seasonal and Inter-Seasonal Timescales. Water. 2021; 13(16):2171. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13162171

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ma, Linhua, Bo Liu, Yuanlai Cui, and Yuanzhi Shi. 2021. "Variations and Drivers of Methane Fluxes from Double-Cropping Paddy Fields in Southern China at Diurnal, Seasonal and Inter-Seasonal Timescales" Water 13, no. 16: 2171. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13162171

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