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Article

Water Exchanges in Mediterranean Microtidal Harbours

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Laboratori d’Enginyeria Marítima (LIM), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC-BarcelonaTech), C/Jordi Girona, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
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Puertos del Estado, Área del Medio Físico, Avenida del Partenón 10, 28042 Madrid, Spain
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Ocean Prediction Decade Collaborative Center, Mercator Ocean International, 2 Av. de l’Aérodrome de Montaudran, 31400 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giorgio Anfuso and Celene B. Milanes
Received: 27 April 2022 / Revised: 2 June 2022 / Accepted: 9 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
Mediterranean ports feature complex layouts and exert important environmental pressures in squeezed coastal zones. They experience mild meteo-oceanographic conditions during part of the year, leading to water velocities that are close to the resolution limits of observation equipment. The paper addresses the challenge of characterising summer port hydrodynamics by designing intensive field campaigns, focused on hydrodynamic variables, such as harbour entrance fluxes. The approach was developed for three Spanish microtidal harbours with different domain sizes and one or two entrances. These elements play a key role in harbour exchanges through the entrance and the subsequent water renovation. The paper will present and discuss the meteocean data and inferred variables, such as renovation times, which is a key indicator of water quality. From this basis, the paper will discuss the changing estuarine circulation patterns and the role of upwelling and downwelling on observed water temperature peaks. The conclusions will address the role of harbour hydrodynamics in integrated coastal water quality and port engineering, particularly for ports’ environmental impacts on adjacent beaches. To assess the full hydrodynamic domain, forecasting models are helpful. The continuous observations presented in this work would also help in the implementation and validation of these models. View Full-Text
Keywords: water exchanges; harbour renewal time; microtidal harbours; upwelling and downwelling effects; Barcelona, Tarragona and Castellón harbours water exchanges; harbour renewal time; microtidal harbours; upwelling and downwelling effects; Barcelona, Tarragona and Castellón harbours
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MDPI and ACS Style

Samper, Y.; Liste, M.; Mestres, M.; Espino, M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Sospedra, J.; González-Marco, D.; Ruiz, M.I.; Álvarez Fanjul, E. Water Exchanges in Mediterranean Microtidal Harbours. Water 2022, 14, 2012. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w14132012

AMA Style

Samper Y, Liste M, Mestres M, Espino M, Sánchez-Arcilla A, Sospedra J, González-Marco D, Ruiz MI, Álvarez Fanjul E. Water Exchanges in Mediterranean Microtidal Harbours. Water. 2022; 14(13):2012. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w14132012

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samper, Yaiza, María Liste, Marc Mestres, Manuel Espino, Agustín Sánchez-Arcilla, Joaquim Sospedra, Daniel González-Marco, María I. Ruiz, and Enrique Álvarez Fanjul. 2022. "Water Exchanges in Mediterranean Microtidal Harbours" Water 14, no. 13: 2012. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w14132012

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