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Review

Antinuclear Autoantibodies in Health: Autoimmunity Is Not a Synonym of Autoimmune Disease

1
Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital, 620149 Yekaterinburg, Russia
2
Institute of Immunology and Physiology of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620049 Yekaterinburg, Russia
3
Laboratory of the Mosaics of Autoimmunity, Saint Petersburg State University, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
4
Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, 191036 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gregory C. Ippolito and Jagadeesh Bayry
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 26 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing. Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing is a critical tool for their diagnosis. However, ANA prevalence in healthy persons has increased over the last decades, especially among young people. ANA in health occurs in low concentrations, with a prevalence up to 50% in some populations, which demands a cutoff revision. This review deals with the origin and probable physiological or compensatory function of ANA in health, according to the concept of immunological clearance, theory of autoimmune regulation of cell functions, and the concept of functional autoantibodies. Considering ANA titers ≤1:320 as a serological marker of autoimmune diseases seems inappropriate. The role of anti-DFS70/LEDGFp75 autoantibodies is highlighted as a possible anti-risk biomarker for autoimmune rheumatic disorders. ANA prevalence in health is different in various regions due to several underlying causes discussed in the review, all influencing additive combinations according to the concept of the mosaic of autoimmunity. Not only are titers, but also HEp-2 IFA) staining patterns, such as AC-2, important. Accepting autoantibodies as a kind of bioregulator, not only the upper, but also the lower borders of their normal range should be determined; not only their excess, but also a lack of them or “autoimmunodeficiency” could be the reason for disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoimmune diseases; antinuclear antibodies; antinuclear factor; functional autoantibodies; natural autoantibodies; physiological autoimmunity autoimmune diseases; antinuclear antibodies; antinuclear factor; functional autoantibodies; natural autoantibodies; physiological autoimmunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pashnina, I.A.; Krivolapova, I.M.; Fedotkina, T.V.; Ryabkova, V.A.; Chereshneva, M.V.; Churilov, L.P.; Chereshnev, V.A. Antinuclear Autoantibodies in Health: Autoimmunity Is Not a Synonym of Autoimmune Disease. Antibodies 2021, 10, 9. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antib10010009

AMA Style

Pashnina IA, Krivolapova IM, Fedotkina TV, Ryabkova VA, Chereshneva MV, Churilov LP, Chereshnev VA. Antinuclear Autoantibodies in Health: Autoimmunity Is Not a Synonym of Autoimmune Disease. Antibodies. 2021; 10(1):9. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antib10010009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pashnina, Irina A., Irina M. Krivolapova, Tamara V. Fedotkina, Varvara A. Ryabkova, Margarita V. Chereshneva, Leonid P. Churilov, and Valeriy A. Chereshnev. 2021. "Antinuclear Autoantibodies in Health: Autoimmunity Is Not a Synonym of Autoimmune Disease" Antibodies 10, no. 1: 9. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antib10010009

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