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Volume 12, January

Minerals, Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 168 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Excessive phosphorus will cause the eutrophication of a water body, which brings many environmental problems. It is of both fundamental and practical importance to develop effective adsorbents for the continuous removal of phosphate from wastewater. In this paper, magnetic amorphous lanthanum silicate alginate hydrogel beads (MALS-Bs) were synthesized through the hydrogel embedding method. MALS-Bs exhibited a preferable adsorption capacity of 40.14 mg P/g for phosphorus compared to other hydrogel beads, and showed a treatment volume of 480 BV when the effluent phosphorus concentration was below 0.5 mg/L in continuous column runs. Finally, the underlying mechanisms of phosphate removal by MALS-Bs were revealed. Our work demonstrates that MALS-Bs can serve as a promising filling adsorbent candidate for the continuous removal of phosphate from wastewater. View this paper
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Article
Effects of Magmatic Fluids in Coals of São Pedro da Cova Coalfield, Douro Carboniferous Basin, Portugal: Insights from Inorganic Geochemistry
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 275; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020275 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 531
Abstract
The Douro Carboniferous Basin (DCB), aged from Gzhelian, is an important coal-bearing basin occurring in Northern Portugal. While the coals and the sedimentary sequence of the DCB have been deeply studied, the inorganic geochemical data are scarce. This study intends to provide major [...] Read more.
The Douro Carboniferous Basin (DCB), aged from Gzhelian, is an important coal-bearing basin occurring in Northern Portugal. While the coals and the sedimentary sequence of the DCB have been deeply studied, the inorganic geochemical data are scarce. This study intends to provide major and trace element contents and discuss their modes of occurrence and origins using a set of twenty-four coal samples from the São Pedro da Cova Coalfield taken from different sectors/outcrops. Thus, an integrated approach using petrographic, geochemical, both organic and inorganic, and mineralogical data was used to achieve these purposes. The main results demonstrated that these coals are anthracite A and vitrinite is the main organic component. Most of the elements have inorganic affinities and are associated with aluminosilicates, while the other elements have affinities with sulfides. Illite and muscovite are the main phyllosilicates occurring in these coals and pyrite is the most common sulfide. However, cinnabar, together with phosphates (fluorapatite, monazite, xenotime and gorceixite), were also identified. The enrichment of most elements as well as a heterogenous rare earth elements (REE) distribution pattern in the tectono-sedimentary unit (TSU) samples are related to magmatic fluids. On the other hand, on the Eastern Outcrop (EO), a tectonic slice, the subparallel trend of the REE distribution patterns, and a depletion of all the elements are related to the sedimentary contribution. The occurrence of cinnabar and gorceixite epigenetic mineralizations is interpreted as the action of a porphyry intrusion identified in this area of the DCB, between the TSU B1 and TSU D1. Full article
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Article
Columnar Structure of Claw Denticles in the Coconut Crab, Birgus latro
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 274; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020274 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Some decapod crustaceans have tooth-like white denticles that exist only on the pinching side of claws. We revealed the denticle microstructure in the coconut crab, Birgus latro, using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and a focused [...] Read more.
Some decapod crustaceans have tooth-like white denticles that exist only on the pinching side of claws. We revealed the denticle microstructure in the coconut crab, Birgus latro, using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and a focused ion beam (FIB)-SEM. Three-dimensional analysis and fracture surface observation were performed in order to clarify the microstructural differences in two mineralized layers—the exocuticle and the endocuticle. The denticles consist of a columnar structure normal to the surface and are covered with a very thin epicuticle and an exocuticle with a twisted plywood pattern structure. Due to abrasion, the exocuticle layer was lost in the wide area above the large denticles; conversely, these layers remained on the surface of the relatively small denticles and on the base of the denticle. The results showed that the mineralized exoskeleton of the crab’s claw is classified into three structures: a twisted plywood pattern structure stacked parallel to the surface for the exocuticle, a porous structure with many regularly arranged pores vertical to the surface for the endocuticle, and a columnar structure vertical to the surface for the denticle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biominerals and Bio-Inspired Materials)
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Article
Implications for Metallogenesis and Tectonic Evolution of Ore-Hosting Granodiorite Porphyry in the Tongkuangyu Cu Deposit, North China Craton: Evidence from Geochemistry, Zircon U-Pb Chronology, and Hf Isotopes
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020273 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The Tongkuangyu copper deposit in Zhongtiaoshan at the southern margin of the North China Craton is one of the oldest porphyry Cu deposits in the world and its metallogenesis and tectonic evolution have been debated. Here, porphyritic intrusion geochemical and geochronological data are [...] Read more.
The Tongkuangyu copper deposit in Zhongtiaoshan at the southern margin of the North China Craton is one of the oldest porphyry Cu deposits in the world and its metallogenesis and tectonic evolution have been debated. Here, porphyritic intrusion geochemical and geochronological data are reported to identify the diagenetic age, mineralization, tectonic setting, and evolution of the deposit. Geochemical data show that granodiorite porphyry is a peraluminous rock, with low concentrations of Fe (~3.99%) and Ti (~0.29%) and high concentrations of alkali (~6.13%) and high Al (~15.42%) and Mg numbers (~51). The rocks show comparative enrichment of Na, K, and Mg; higher La/Yb ratios, no significant Eu anomaly, and obvious Nb–Ta–Ti negative anomaly, showing similar geochemical characteristics to Archean TTG and sanukitoid. ΣREE vary greatly, ranging from 33.47 × 10−6 to 277.81 × 10−6 (average 137.09 × 10−6). The characteristics of REE show obvious fractionation of LREE and HREE, enrichment of LREE, and depletion of HREE. Some of the LREE (La and Ce) and LILE (K, Rb, and Ba) are enriched, but some of the LILE (Th and U) are depleted. In addition, some of the HFSE (Nb, Ta, P, and Ti) are depleted while some (Zr and Hf) are enriched. High precision LA–MC–ICP MS zircon U–Pb dating yield concordant ages of 2159 ± 19 Ma, which is broadly coeval with ore formation (~2.1 Ga) in the area. Zircon εHf(t) values range from −3.8 to 1.13, with a model age of 2778 to 2959 Ma, indicating that the formation of porphyry is related to the partial melting of Archean crust (~2.7 Ga) with a minor amount of mantle material added. Tongkuangyu granodiorite porphyry formed in the tectonic setting of the post-orogenic extension in the Paleoproterozoic, and Tongkuangyu Cu deposit may be related to the extension of the North China Craton in the Paleoproterozoic. Full article
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Article
Passive Structural Control on Skarn Mineralization Localization: A Case Study from the Variscan Rosas Shear Zone (SW Sardinia, Italy)
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 272; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020272 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 882
Abstract
The case study presented here deals with the Pb-Zn-Cu skarn ores hosted in the Rosas Shear Zone (RSZ), a highly strained domain located in the external zone of the Sardinian Variscan chain. The RSZ is characterized by several tectonic slices of Cambrian limestones [...] Read more.
The case study presented here deals with the Pb-Zn-Cu skarn ores hosted in the Rosas Shear Zone (RSZ), a highly strained domain located in the external zone of the Sardinian Variscan chain. The RSZ is characterized by several tectonic slices of Cambrian limestones within a strongly folded and foliated Cambrian-Ordovician siliciclastic succession, intruded by late Variscan granites and mafic dykes. Based on geological mapping, structural and microscope analyses, our results show that the skarn ores in the RSZ are an example of passive structurally controlled mineralization. The RSZ was structured close to the brittle–ductile transition and, once exhumed to shallower crustal levels, acted as plumbing system favoring a large-scale granite-related fluid circulation. The paragenesis and the mineralization style of the skarn vary slightly according to the peculiarity of the local structural setting: a tectonic slice adjacent to the mafic dyke; an intensely sheared zone or a discrete thrust surface. Full article
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Article
Stability Evaluation of Layered Backfill Considering Filling Interval, Backfill Strength and Creep Behavior
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 271; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020271 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 416
Abstract
Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is the primary solution to improving the safety of continuous mining. The interaction between rock mass and backfill is an important indicator of backfill stability. The creep behavior of weak rock mass is an essential factor, which causes the [...] Read more.
Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is the primary solution to improving the safety of continuous mining. The interaction between rock mass and backfill is an important indicator of backfill stability. The creep behavior of weak rock mass is an essential factor, which causes the evolution of stresses and displacements in the backfill stope. In this paper, numerical models were constructed to analyze the interactions between rock mass and backfill by considering the creep behavior of the rock mass, filling interval, and backfill strength. The numerical simulation results showed the effects of different parameters, including the number of backfilling layers, filling interval time (FIT), and backfill strength under creep behavior on stress, displacements, and plastic deformation. The horizontal displacement near the mid-height and vertical displacement at the top of the backfilled stope is the largest compared to layered backfilling. The stress within the backfilled stope is smallest when the stope is filled in a single layer. With increasing FIT, stress in the backfilled stope decreases. FIT mainly affected the horizontal displacement of the stope. The stresses on the stope bottom decrease when the strength of the middle-backfilled stope decreases. Overall, this study provides important insights for understanding the creep behavior of rock mass in underground backfilling practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Backfilling Materials for Underground Mining, Volume II)
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Article
Study on the Grinding Law of Ball Media for Cassiterite–Polymetallic Sulfide Ore
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 270; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020270 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 376
Abstract
To solve the problem involved in the grinding of cassiterite–polymetallic sulfide ore in which fine grinding causes the cassiterite to be overground or coarse grinding leads to inadequate liberation of sulfide minerals, the influences of the ball grinding medium on the size distribution [...] Read more.
To solve the problem involved in the grinding of cassiterite–polymetallic sulfide ore in which fine grinding causes the cassiterite to be overground or coarse grinding leads to inadequate liberation of sulfide minerals, the influences of the ball grinding medium on the size distribution of the grinding product were investigated. Two types of ball filling patterns, namely, single-sized and multi-sized ball grinding media, were adopted in wet batch grinding tests. The results show that increasing the grinding time resulted in a rapid increase in minus 0.038 mm particles and a slight increase in the Sn grade in this fine size fraction. The smaller the ball filling fraction was, the more obviously the ball size affected the size distribution of the grinding product, the variation of which with the ball size became complicated with the increase in the ball filling fraction. Obvious jumping phenomena in the plotting of the percentages of the discussed size fractions against the ball size were observed when the balling filling fraction was larger than 30%; the most obvious jumping phenomena took place at a 35% ball filling fraction. The results of the grinding tests with the multi-sized media show that the size distribution of the grinding product was closely related to that of the mixed ball sizes and their composition percentages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Studies of Mineral Comminution)
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Article
Microplastic Extraction from the Sediment Using Potassium Formate Water Solution (H2O/KCOOH)
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020269 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) are considered an important stratigraphic indicator, or ‘technofossils’, of the Anthropocene. Research on MP abundance in the environment has gained much attention but the lack of a standardized procedure has hindered the comparability of the results. The development of an effective [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) are considered an important stratigraphic indicator, or ‘technofossils’, of the Anthropocene. Research on MP abundance in the environment has gained much attention but the lack of a standardized procedure has hindered the comparability of the results. The development of an effective and efficient method of MP extraction from the matrix is crucial for the proper identification and quantifying analysis of MPs in environmental samples. The procedures of density separation used currently have various limitations: high cost of reagents, limited solution density range, hazardous reagents, or a combination of the above. In this research, a procedure based on density separation with the use of potassium formate water solution (H2O/KCOOH) in controlled conditions was performed. Experimental sediment mixtures, spiked with polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyurethane (PUR) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles were prepared and an extraction procedure was tested in the context of a weight-based quantitative analysis of MPs. This article discusses the effectiveness and safety of the method. It additionally provides new information on the interactions between MP particles and the mineral matter of the sediment. Results were acquired with the use of instrumental methods, namely thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS), as well as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Spectral Angle Mapping and AI Methods Applied in Automatic Identification of Placer Deposit Magnetite Using Multispectral Camera Mounted on UAV
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 268; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020268 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
The use of drones in mining environments is one way in which data pertaining to the state of a site in various industries can be remotely collected. This paper proposes a combined system that employs a 6-bands multispectral image capturing camera mounted on [...] Read more.
The use of drones in mining environments is one way in which data pertaining to the state of a site in various industries can be remotely collected. This paper proposes a combined system that employs a 6-bands multispectral image capturing camera mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) drone, Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM), as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI). Depth possessing multispectral data were captured at different flight elevations. This was in an attempt to find the best elevation where remote identification of magnetite iron sands via the UAV drone specialized in collecting spectral information at a minimum accuracy of +/− 16 nm was possible. Data were analyzed via SAM to deduce the cosine similarity thresholds at each elevation. Using these thresholds, AI algorithms specialized in classifying imagery data were trained and tested to find the best performing model at classifying magnetite iron sand. Considering the post flight logs, the spatial area coverage of 338 m2, a global classification accuracy of 99.7%, as well the per-class precision of 99.4%, the 20 m flight elevation outputs presented the best performance ratios overall. Thus, the positive outputs of this study suggest viability in a variety of mining and mineral engineering practices. Full article
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Article
Contrasting Modes of Carbonate Precipitation in a Hypersaline Microbial Mat and Their Influence on Biomarker Preservation (Kiritimati, Central Pacific)
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020267 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Microbial mats represented the earliest complex ecosystems on Earth, since fossil mineralized examples (i.e., microbialites) date back to the Archean Eon. Some microbialites contain putative remains of organic matter (OM), however the processes and pathways that lead to the preservation of OM within [...] Read more.
Microbial mats represented the earliest complex ecosystems on Earth, since fossil mineralized examples (i.e., microbialites) date back to the Archean Eon. Some microbialites contain putative remains of organic matter (OM), however the processes and pathways that lead to the preservation of OM within microbialite minerals are still poorly understood. Here, a multidisciplinary study is presented (including petrographic, mineralogical and organic geochemical analyses), focusing on a modern calcifying mat from a hypersaline lake in the Kiritimati atoll (Central Pacific). The results show that this mat has a complex history, with two main growth phases under hypersaline conditions, separated by an interruption caused by desiccation and/or freshening of the lake. The mineral precipitates of the mat are predominantly aragonitic and two contrasting precipitation modes are observed: the main growth phases of the mat were characterized by the slow formation of irregular micritic particles with micropeloidal textures and subspherical particles, linked to the degradation of the exopolymer (EPS) matrix of the mat; whereas the interruption period was characterized by the rapid development of a thin but laterally continuous crust composed of superposed fibrous aragonite botryoids that entombed their contemporaneous benthic microbial community. These two precipitation modes triggered different preservation pathways for the OM of the mat as the thin crust shows a particular lipid biomarker signature, different from that of other layers and the relatively rapid precipitation of the crust protecting the underlying lipids from degradation, causing them to show a preservation equivalent to that of a modern active microbial community, despite them being >1100 years old. Equivalent thin mineral crusts occur in other microbialite examples and, thus, this study highlights them as excellent targets for the search of well-preserved biomarker signatures in fossil microbialites. Nevertheless, the results of this work warn for extreme caution when interpreting complex microbialite biomarker signatures, advising combined petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical investigations for the different microbialite layers and mineral microfabrics. Full article
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Article
Basic Evaluation of Phase Relation in a Phosphorus-Containing System Saturated with CaSiO3 at Elevated Temperatures for the Utilization of Steelmaking Slag and Sewage Sludge as Phosphorus Resources
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020266 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 401
Abstract
In view of obtaining fundamental information on phosphorus recovery from steelmaking slag and sewage sludge, a laboratory experiment using the model specimen of a slag/sludge mixture prepared at 1573 K was carried out to investigate phase relation in a [CaO-SiO2-P2 [...] Read more.
In view of obtaining fundamental information on phosphorus recovery from steelmaking slag and sewage sludge, a laboratory experiment using the model specimen of a slag/sludge mixture prepared at 1573 K was carried out to investigate phase relation in a [CaO-SiO2-P2O5]-based system. The triangular compositional region, comprising of apices CaO·SiO2 (CS), 3CaO·P2O5 (C3P), and 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution (C2S-C3Pss), was considered with particular interest. In this region, using SEM-EDX observation it was found that solid saturated CS and the solid C2S-C3Pss with a relatively high phosphorus content can coexist. With the addition of Al2O3 or Fe2O3 to the same specimens, the liquidus phase appeared as a third phase; however, CS and C2S-C3Pss phases were still observed for up to 5mass% addition. The further addition of Al2O3 or Fe2O3 to 10mass% resulted in dissolution of the solid CS phase, although C2S-C3Pss remained as the phosphorus concentrated phase. These results show that phase equilibria based on the ternary system would be stable and be beneficial for phosphorus recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Slag Valorization for Advanced Metal Production)
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Article
Magnesium Coprecipitation with Calcite at Low Supersaturation: Implications for Mg-Enriched Water in Calcareous Soils
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020265 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
The concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in natural aqueous environments are controlled by sorption and dissolution–precipitation reactions. Ca binding in calcareous soils depends on the degree of solution saturation with respect to CaCO3. Mg may be bound in precipitating [...] Read more.
The concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in natural aqueous environments are controlled by sorption and dissolution–precipitation reactions. Ca binding in calcareous soils depends on the degree of solution saturation with respect to CaCO3. Mg may be bound in precipitating calcite. Here, we investigated Mg incorporation into calcite via the recrystallization of vaterite, which simulates a very low supersaturation in a wide range of Mg to Ca ratios and pH conditions. Increasing the Mg to Ca ratios (0.2 to 10) decreased the partition coefficient of Mg in calcite from 0.03 to 0.005. An approximate thermodynamic mixing parameter (Guggenheim a0 = 3.3 ± 0.2), that is valid for dilute systems was derived from the experiments at the lowest initial Mg to Ca ratio (i.e., 0.2). At elevated Mg to Ca ratios, aragonite was preferentially formed, indicating kinetic controls on Mg partitioning into Mg-calcite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses indicated that Mg is not incorporated into aragonite. The thermodynamic mixing model suggests that at elevated Mg to Ca ratio (i.e., ≥1) Mg-calcite becomes unstable relative to pure aragonite. Finally, our results suggest that the abiotic incorporation of Mg into calcite is only effective for the removal of Mg from aqueous environments like calcareous soil solution, if the initial Mg to Ca ratio is already low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Adsorption at Mineral–Water Interfaces)
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Article
Preparation of Antimony Sulfide and Enrichment of Gold by Sulfuration–Volatilization from Electrodeposited Antimony
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 264; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020264 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Electrodeposited antimony can be treated with sulfuration–volatilization technology, which causes antimony to volatilize in the form of antimony sulfide. During this process, gold is enriched in the residue, thereby realizing the value-added use of antimony and the recovery of gold. In this study, [...] Read more.
Electrodeposited antimony can be treated with sulfuration–volatilization technology, which causes antimony to volatilize in the form of antimony sulfide. During this process, gold is enriched in the residue, thereby realizing the value-added use of antimony and the recovery of gold. In this study, the thermodynamic conditions of antimony sulfide were analyzed by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. Moreover, the volatilization behavior of antimony sulfide and the enrichment law of gold were studied by heat volatilization experiments. The effects of the sulfide temperature and volatilization pressure on the separation efficiency of antimony and gold enrichment were investigated. The results demonstrate that the sulfuration rate was the highest, namely 96.06%, when the molar ratio of sulfur to antimony was 3:1, the sulfur source temperature was 400 °C, the antimony source temperature was 550 °C, and the sulfuration time was 30 min. Antimony sulfide prepared under these conditions was volatilized at 800 °C over 2 h at an evaporation pressure of 0.2 atm, and the volatilization rate was the highest, namely 92.81%. Antimony sulfide with a stibnite structure obtained from the sulfuration–volatilization treatment of electrodeposited antimony meets the ideal stoichiometric ratio of sulfur and antimony in Sb2S3 (3:2), and gold is enriched in the residue. Full article
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Article
Study of Reagent Scheme, Entrainment and Their Relationship in Chalcopyrite Flotation in the Presence of Bentonite and Kaolinite
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020263 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Entrainment has been considered as an important factor affecting clayey ore flotation. In this study, the effect of reagent dosage on chalcopyrite flotation in the presence of bentonite and kaolinite was investigated through entrainment. It was found that increasing the collector and frother [...] Read more.
Entrainment has been considered as an important factor affecting clayey ore flotation. In this study, the effect of reagent dosage on chalcopyrite flotation in the presence of bentonite and kaolinite was investigated through entrainment. It was found that increasing the collector and frother dosage had little influence on copper recovery in the presence of bentonite, but decreased the copper grade substantially, owing to the increase in entrainment. With regard to kaolinite, increasing the reagent dosage increased the copper grade prominently, due to the decrease in entrainment. The substantial variation was related to the different interactions between the reagent and different clay minerals. The smaller surface area and hydration property of bentonite made most of the reagent remain in the solution, facilitating high entrainment, while kaolinite, with its larger surface area, adsorbed most of the reagent, which decreased the entrainment. The results of this study suggest a guideline of controlling reagent scheme in clayey ore flotation, based on the specific structure and properties of different clay minerals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress of Reagents in Minerals Flotation)
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Article
Interplay of Multiple Sediment Routing Systems Revealed by Combined Sandstone Petrography and Heavy Mineral Analysis (HMA) in the South Pyrenean Foreland Basin
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 262; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020262 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Combined sandstone petrography and heavy mineral analysis allow to decipher different sediment routing systems that could not be resolved by one method alone in the South Pyrenean foreland basin. We apply this approach to deltaic and alluvial deposits of the southern part of [...] Read more.
Combined sandstone petrography and heavy mineral analysis allow to decipher different sediment routing systems that could not be resolved by one method alone in the South Pyrenean foreland basin. We apply this approach to deltaic and alluvial deposits of the southern part of the Jaca basin, and in the time equivalent systems of the nearby Ainsa and Ebro basins, in order to unravel the evolution of source areas and the fluvial drainage from the Eocene to the Miocene. Our study allows the identification of four petrofacies and five heavy-mineral suites, which evidence the interplay of distinct routing systems, controlled by the emergence of tectonic structures. Two distinct axially-fed systems from the east coexisted in the fluvial Campodarbe Formation of the southern Jaca basin that were progressively replaced from east to west by transverse-fed systems sourced from northern source areas. In the late stages of evolution, the Ebro autochthonous basin and the Jaca piggy-back basin received detritus from source areas directly north of the basin from the Axial Zone and from the Basque Pyrenees. Coupling sandstone petrography with heavy mineral provenance analysis allows challenging the existing model of the South Pyrenean sediment dispersal, highlighting the relevance of this approach in source-to-sink studies. Full article
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Article
Kinetic Analysis of Recovering Zinc from Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Vacuum Carbothermic Reduction at 20 Pa
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 261; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020261 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 382
Abstract
Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) presents a contamination hazard due to its heavy metal leachability. The traditional disposal methods of landfill or stacking not only pose a threat to the environment but also waste metal resources. This paper adopted vacuum carbothermic reduction to [...] Read more.
Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) presents a contamination hazard due to its heavy metal leachability. The traditional disposal methods of landfill or stacking not only pose a threat to the environment but also waste metal resources. This paper adopted vacuum carbothermic reduction to dispose of EAFD and the zinc metal could be obtained as a product. The reduction ratios of the EAFD were carried out under various reaction temperatures and times at 20 Pa. Furthermore, the kinetics of the reduction process was also studied. The reduction ratio of the reaction process can be facilitated through increasing the temperature or lengthening the time and can reach up to 99.6% under the condition of 1373 K with 60 min. The zinc ferrite and zinc oxide were reduced first and then iron oxide reduction occurred. The reduction process could be divided into three stages: Stage 1 involved the direct reduction of zinc ferrite and zinc oxide, and the control step was the phase boundary reaction with the apparent activation energy of 48.54 kJ/mol; Stage 2 involved the reduction of zinc oxide and iron oxide, and the control step was also the phase boundary reaction with the apparent activation energy of 56.27 kJ/mol; Stage 3 involved the escape of gas phase products and the control step was diffusion with the apparent activation energy of 105.3 kJ/mol. Full article
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Article
Clean Utilization of Limonite Ore by Suspension Magnetization Roasting Technology
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 260; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020260 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 514
Abstract
As a typical refractory iron ore, the utilization of limonite ore with conventional mineral processing methods has great limitations. In this study, suspension magnetization roasting technology was developed and utilized to recover limonite ore. The influences of roasting temperature, roasting time, and reducing [...] Read more.
As a typical refractory iron ore, the utilization of limonite ore with conventional mineral processing methods has great limitations. In this study, suspension magnetization roasting technology was developed and utilized to recover limonite ore. The influences of roasting temperature, roasting time, and reducing gas concentration on the magnetization roasting process were investigated. The optimal roasting conditions were determined to be a roasting temperature of 480 °C, a roasting time of 12.5 min, and a reducing gas concentration of 20%. Under optimal conditions, an iron concentrate grade of 60.12% and iron recovery of 91.96% was obtained. The phase transformation, magnetism variation, and microstructure evolution behavior were systematically analyzed by X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and scanning electron microscope. The results indicated that hematite and goethite were eventually transformed into magnetite during the magnetization roasting process. Moreover, the magnetism of roasted products significantly improved due to the formation of ferrimagnetic magnetite in magnetization roasting. This study has implications for the utilization of limonite ore using suspension magnetization roasting technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Separation and Purification Techniques)
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Article
Evolution of Ore-Forming Fluids and Gold Deposition of the Sanakham Lode Gold Deposit, SW Laos: Constrains from Fluid Inclusions Study
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020259 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
The Sanakham gold deposit is a newly discovered gold deposit in the Luang Prabang (Laos)–Loei (Thailand) metallogenic belt. It consists of a series of auriferous quartz-sulfide veins, which is distinguished from the regional known porphyry-related skarn and epithermal gold deposits. There are four [...] Read more.
The Sanakham gold deposit is a newly discovered gold deposit in the Luang Prabang (Laos)–Loei (Thailand) metallogenic belt. It consists of a series of auriferous quartz-sulfide veins, which is distinguished from the regional known porphyry-related skarn and epithermal gold deposits. There are four mineralization stages identified in Sanakham, with native gold grains mainly occurring in stages II and III. Evolution of ore-forming fluids and gold deposition mechanisms in Sanakham are discussed based on fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry, and Laser Raman spectroscopy. The original ore-forming fluids belong to a medium-high temperature (>345 °C) CH4-rich CH4–CO2–NaCl–H2O system. In stages II and III, the ore fluids evolve into a NaCl–H2O–CO2 ± CH4 system characterized by medium temperature (~300 °C), medium salinity (~10 wt% NaCl eq.), and CO2-rich (~10% mol). They might finally evolve into a NaCl–H2O system with temperature decreasing and salinity increasing in stage IV. Two fluid immiscibility processes occurred in stages II and III, which created high-CH4 & low-CO2 and low-CH4 & high-CO2 end-members, and CO2-poor and CO2-rich endmembers, respectively. Gold-deposition events are suggested to be associated with the fluid immiscibility processes, with P–T conditions and depth of 236–65 MPa, 337–272 °C, and 8.7–6.5 km, respectively. Full article
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Article
An Evaluation on the Impact of Ore Fragmented by Blasting on Mining Performance
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 258; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020258 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 489
Abstract
In open-pit mines, the blast operation should be effectively optimized, leading to minimization of production costs through the application of specific technical specifications. However, there is inadequate information in the literature to link blasting to comminution stages. To this end, the effective parameters [...] Read more.
In open-pit mines, the blast operation should be effectively optimized, leading to minimization of production costs through the application of specific technical specifications. However, there is inadequate information in the literature to link blasting to comminution stages. To this end, the effective parameters for the performance of mining unit operations were scrutinized in this work. In this regard, the rock fragmentation distribution (RFD) caused by blasting was considered the main determinative criterion for providing the optimum conditions for the blasting operation at Sarcheshmeh copper mine. By carrying out a statistical analysis of the experimental data, operational parameters affecting the blasting were optimized. The relationship between parameters was obtained using the technique of regression and in accordance with the evaluation criterion under which correlation coefficient (R2) was used to determine the best fitting model. A high correlation coefficient of the loading cycle of the machine’s bucket (Cl) with the independent variables showed that the C1 was more affected by the RFD, as well as the dimensions of the blast block. Because of the wide variations in the nature and structure of rock mass in different mines, in each case, sufficient data should be collected, and these relationships should be analyzed statistically for each individual mine showing wide ranges of fractures and cracks. Therefore, due to these wide variations of ore characteristics, with the current data it seems very difficult to quickly find a significant operational relationship between downstream processes such as crushing efficiency and blasting operations. Therefore, the focus of this research was limited to the effective parameters for blast efficiency. According to the analysis of the data obtained from 20 blasts under different operating conditions, the diameter of the hole was 241.3 mm (such as blast number 20), the ratio of length to width of the explosive block was about 6 (average blasts with high fragmentation efficiency), and the best index of mining operations was 0.22 (such as blast number 20). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Exploration Methods and Applications)
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Article
Technical Assessment of Secondary Sedimentation Process in Copper Sulphide Tailings with the Presence of Clays, in Continental and Sea Water
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020257 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Recovery of process water for recirculation is crucial, as the cost of adding additional fresh water is an economic constraint that is often prohibitive. Solid–liquid separation is a key process in the recovery of water resources. Therefore, research is needed to understand how [...] Read more.
Recovery of process water for recirculation is crucial, as the cost of adding additional fresh water is an economic constraint that is often prohibitive. Solid–liquid separation is a key process in the recovery of water resources. Therefore, research is needed to understand how fine particles, particularly quartz, kaolinite and sodium bentonite, impact the optimal separation process. In the present work, the effect of the presence of these clays in the solid–liquid separation of synthetic copper sulfide tailings is evaluated, quantifying the impact on the separation efficiency, considering the average settling rate and the turbidity of the supernatant. The physicochemical variables that control the suspension were monitored and the observed trends were explained by variations in properties such as zeta potential and pH. The characterization and quantification of the impact of the clays in the operation will allow us to lay the foundation for the development of a novel approach for the secondary treatment of the cloudy supernatant water of the thickeners. After the study, disparate effects on sedimentation efficiency could be distinguished depending on the type of clay and the water in which it is immersed. While in the case of tailings with the presence of kaolinite clays it is seen that the higher sedimentation efficiency occurs in the case of flocculation in distilled water, the salinity or presence of cationic coagulants is detrimental to it. In the case of tailings with the presence of bentonite clays, the sedimentation efficiency increases as there is a higher concentration of cationic salts (coagulation-synthetic sea water). In contrast, in the case of distilled water, the flocculation efficiency is very low, so it is recommended to add a cationic additive, which is supported by an associated low economic cost. In the case of tailings with the presence of ultrafine quartz content, a clear effect in the increase or decrease of sedimentation efficiency cannot be distinguished with the addition of flocculants, coagulants, or when working in sea water. Overall, the results suggest the convenience of splitting thickening and clarification as two distinct unit processes that may be treated using flocculant and salts, according to the fine mineral contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Engineering in Mineral Processing)
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Article
An Investigation into the Adsorption of Ammonium by Zeolite-Magnetite Composites
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 256; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020256 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 526
Abstract
The discharging of ammonium from industrial, domestic, and livestock sewage has caused eutrophication of the water environment. The objectives of this study are to synthesize magnetic zeolite (M-Zeo) by an eco-friendly, economical, and easy procedure and to investigate its suitability as an adsorbent [...] Read more.
The discharging of ammonium from industrial, domestic, and livestock sewage has caused eutrophication of the water environment. The objectives of this study are to synthesize magnetic zeolite (M-Zeo) by an eco-friendly, economical, and easy procedure and to investigate its suitability as an adsorbent to remove ammonium from an aqueous solution. Based on characterization from XRD, BET, and SEM-EDS, Fe3O4 was proved to successfully load on natural zeolite. The effect of pH, temperatures, reacting times, initial ammonium concentrations, and regeneration cycles on ammonium adsorption was examined by batch experiments. The ammonium adsorption process can be best described by the Freundlich isotherm and the maximum adsorptive capacity of 172.41 mg/g was obtained. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model gave the best description on the adsorption. The value of pH is a key factor and the maximum adsorption capacity was obtained at pH 8. By using a rapid sodium chloride regeneration method, the regeneration ratio was up to 97.03% after five regeneration cycles, suggesting that M-Zeo can be recycled and magnetically recovered. Thus, the economic-efficient, great ammonium affinity, and excellent regeneration characteristics of M-Zeo had an extensively promising utilization on ammonium treatment from liquid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clays and Engineered Mineral Materials)
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Article
Origin and Composition of Ferromanganese Deposits of New Caledonia Exclusive Economic Zone
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020255 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 683
Abstract
Located in the South-West Pacific, at the northern extremity of the mostly submerged Zealandia continent, the New Caledonian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers 1,470,000 km² and includes basins, ridges and seamounts where abundant ferromanganese crusts have been observed. Several investigations have been conducted [...] Read more.
Located in the South-West Pacific, at the northern extremity of the mostly submerged Zealandia continent, the New Caledonian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers 1,470,000 km² and includes basins, ridges and seamounts where abundant ferromanganese crusts have been observed. Several investigations have been conducted since the 1970s on the nature and composition of ferromanganese crusts from New Caledonia’s seamounts and ridges, but none have covered the entire EEZ. We present data from 104 ferromanganese crusts collected in New Caledonia’s EEZ during twelve oceanographic cruises between 1974 and 2019. Samples were analysed for mineralogy, geochemical compositions, growth rates, and through a statistical approach using correlation coefficients and factor analysis. Crust thicknesses range from 1 mm to 115 mm, with growth rates between 0.45 mm/Ma and 102 mm/Ma. Based on textures, structures, discrimination plots, and growth rates, we distinguish a group of hydrogenetic crusts containing the highest mean contents of Co (0.42 wt%), Ni (0.31 wt%), and high contents of Mo, V, W, Pb, Zn, Nb, from a group of hydrothermal and/or diagenetic deposits showing high mean contents of Mn (38.17 wt%), Ba (0.56 wt%) and low contents of other trace metals. Several samples from this later group have exceptionally high content of Ni (0.7 wt%). The data shows that crusts from the southern part of the EEZ, notably seamounts of the Loyalty Ridge and the Lord Howe Rise, present high mineral potential for prospectivity owing to high contents of valuable metals, and constitute a great target for further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oceanic Ferromanganese Deposits)
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Article
Recrystallization of Triple Superphosphate Produced from Oyster Shell Waste for Agronomic Performance and Environmental Issues
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 254; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020254 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Calcium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate (Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O) (a fertilizer) was successfully synthesized through a recrystallization process using prepared triple superphosphate (TSP) derived from oyster shell waste as the starting material. This bio-green, eco-friendly process to produce an [...] Read more.
Calcium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate (Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O) (a fertilizer) was successfully synthesized through a recrystallization process using prepared triple superphosphate (TSP) derived from oyster shell waste as the starting material. This bio-green, eco-friendly process to produce an important fertilizer can promote a sustainable society. The shell-waste-derived TSP was dissolved in distilled water and kept at 30, 50, and 80 °C. Non-soluble powder and TSP solution were obtained. The TSP solution fractions were then dried, and the recrystallized products (RCP30, RCP50, and RCP80) were obtained and confirmed as Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. Conversely, the non-soluble products (NSP30, NSP50, and NSP80) were observed as calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O). The recrystallized yields of RCP30, RCP50, and RCP80 were found to be 51.0%, 49.6%, and 46.3%, whereas the soluble percentages were 98.72%, 99.16%, and 96.63%, respectively. RCP30 shows different morphological plate sizes, while RCP50 and RCP80 present the coagulate crystal plates. X-ray diffractograms confirmed the formation of both the NSP and RCP. The infrared adsorption spectra confirmed the vibrational characteristics of HPO42−, H2PO4, and H2O existed in CaHPO4·2H2O and Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. Three thermal dehydration steps of Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O (physisorbed water, polycondensation, and re-polycondensation) were observed. Ca(H2PO4)2 and CaH2P2O7 are the thermodecomposed products from the first and second steps, whereas the final product is CaP2O6. Full article
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Article
Quantification of Lithium and Mineralogical Mapping in Crushed Ore Samples Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 253; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020253 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 802
Abstract
This article reports on the quantification of lithium and mineralogical mapping in crushed lithium ore by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using two different calibration methods. Thirty crushed ore samples from a pegmatite lithium deposit were used in this study. Representative samples containing the [...] Read more.
This article reports on the quantification of lithium and mineralogical mapping in crushed lithium ore by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using two different calibration methods. Thirty crushed ore samples from a pegmatite lithium deposit were used in this study. Representative samples containing the abundant minerals were taken from these crushed ores and mixed with resin to make polished disks. These disks were first analyzed by TIMA (TESCAN Integrated Mineral Analyzer) and then by a LIBS ECORE analyzer to determine the minerals. Afterwards, each of the thirty crushed ore samples (<10 mm) were poured into rectangular containers and analyzed by the ECORE analyzer, then mineral mapping was produced on the scanned surfaces using the mineral library established on the polished sections. For the first method the lithium concentrations were inferred from the empirical mineral chemistry formula, whereas the second one consisted of building a conventional calibration curve with the crushed material to predict the lithium concentration in unknown crushed materials. Full article
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Article
Modeling Interfacial Tension of N2/CO2 Mixture + n-Alkanes with Machine Learning Methods: Application to EOR in Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs by Flue Gas Injection
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 252; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020252 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
The combustion of fossil fuels from the input of oil refineries, power plants, and the venting or flaring of produced gases in oil fields leads to greenhouse gas emissions. Economic usage of greenhouse and flue gases in conventional and unconventional reservoirs would not [...] Read more.
The combustion of fossil fuels from the input of oil refineries, power plants, and the venting or flaring of produced gases in oil fields leads to greenhouse gas emissions. Economic usage of greenhouse and flue gases in conventional and unconventional reservoirs would not only enhance the oil and gas recovery but also offers CO2 sequestration. In this regard, the accurate estimation of the interfacial tension (IFT) between the injected gases and the crude oils is crucial for the successful execution of injection scenarios in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. In this paper, the IFT between a CO2/N2 mixture and n-alkanes at different pressures and temperatures is investigated by utilizing machine learning (ML) methods. To this end, a data set containing 268 IFT data was gathered from the literature. Pressure, temperature, the carbon number of n-alkanes, and the mole fraction of N2 were selected as the input parameters. Then, six well-known ML methods (radial basis function (RBF), the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), the least square support vector machine (LSSVM), random forest (RF), multilayer perceptron (MLP), and extremely randomized tree (extra-tree)) were used along with four optimization methods (colliding bodies optimization (CBO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm, and coupled simulated annealing (CSA)) to model the IFT of the CO2/N2 mixture and n-alkanes. The RBF model predicted all the IFT values with exceptional precision with an average absolute relative error of 0.77%, and also outperformed all other models in this paper and available in the literature. Furthermore, it was found that the pressure and the carbon number of n-alkanes would show the highest influence on the IFT of the CO2/N2 and n-alkanes, based on sensitivity analysis. Finally, the utilized IFT database and the area of the RBF model applicability were investigated via the leverage method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shale and Tight Reservoir Characterization and Resource Assessment)
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Review
Ecological and Biotechnological Relevance of Mediterranean Hydrothermal Vent Systems
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 251; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020251 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Marine hydrothermal systems are a special kind of extreme environments associated with submarine volcanic activity and characterized by harsh chemo-physical conditions, in terms of hot temperature, high concentrations of CO2 and H2S, and low pH. Such conditions strongly impact the [...] Read more.
Marine hydrothermal systems are a special kind of extreme environments associated with submarine volcanic activity and characterized by harsh chemo-physical conditions, in terms of hot temperature, high concentrations of CO2 and H2S, and low pH. Such conditions strongly impact the living organisms, which have to develop adaptation strategies to survive. Hydrothermal systems have attracted the interest of researchers due to their enormous ecological and biotechnological relevance. From ecological perspective, these acidified habitats are useful natural laboratories to predict the effects of global environmental changes, such as ocean acidification at ecosystem level, through the observation of the marine organism responses to environmental extremes. In addition, hydrothermal vents are known as optimal sources for isolation of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microbes, with biotechnological potential. This double aspect is the focus of this review, which aims at providing a picture of the ecological features of the main Mediterranean hydrothermal vents. The physiological responses, abundance, and distribution of biotic components are elucidated, by focusing on the necto-benthic fauna and prokaryotic communities recognized to possess pivotal role in the marine ecosystem dynamics and as indicator species. The scientific interest in hydrothermal vents will be also reviewed by pointing out their relevance as source of bioactive molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrothermal Systems Across Time and Space: Advances and Perspectives)
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Review
Chemical Composition Data of the Main Stages of Copper Production from Sulfide Minerals in Chile: A Review to Assist Circular Economy Studies
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 250; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020250 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
The mining industry has faced significant challenges to maintaining copper production technically, economically, and environmentally viable. Some of the major limitations that must be overcome in the coming years are the copper ore grade decline due to its intense exploitation, the increasing requirements [...] Read more.
The mining industry has faced significant challenges to maintaining copper production technically, economically, and environmentally viable. Some of the major limitations that must be overcome in the coming years are the copper ore grade decline due to its intense exploitation, the increasing requirements for environmental protection, and the need to expand and construct new tailings dams. Furthermore, the risk of a supply crisis of critical metals, such as antimony and bismuth, has prompted efforts to increase their extraction from secondary resources in copper production. Therefore, improving conventional processes and developing new technologies is crucial to satisfying the world’s metal demands, while respecting the policies of environmental organizations. Hence, it is essential that the chemical composition of each copper production stage is known for conducting these studies, which may be challenging due to the huge variability of concentration data concerning the ore extraction region, the process type, and the operational conditions. This paper presents a review of chemical composition data of the main stages of copper production from sulfide minerals, such as (1) copper minerals, (2) flotation tailings, (3) flotation concentrates, (4) slags and (5) flue dust from the smelting/converting stage, (6) copper anodes, (7) anode slimes, (8) contaminated electrolytes from the electrorefining stage, (9) electrolytes cleaned by ion-exchange resins, and (10) elution solutions from the resins. In addition, the main contributions of recent works on copper production are summarized herein. This study is focused on production sites from Chile since it is responsible for almost one-third of the world’s copper production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Copper Ore Processing and Extraction)
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Article
First Demonstration of Recognition of Manganese Crust by Deep-Learning Networks with a Parametric Acoustic Probe
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 249; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020249 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 591
Abstract
The quantitative evaluations of mineral resources and delineation of promising areas in survey regions for future mining have attracted many researchers’ interest. Cobalt-Rich manganese crusts (Mn-crusts), as one of the three significant strategic submarine mineral resources, lack effective and low-cost detection devices for [...] Read more.
The quantitative evaluations of mineral resources and delineation of promising areas in survey regions for future mining have attracted many researchers’ interest. Cobalt-Rich manganese crusts (Mn-crusts), as one of the three significant strategic submarine mineral resources, lack effective and low-cost detection devices for surveying since the challenging distribution requires a high vertical and horizontal resolution. To solve this problem, we have built an engineering prototype parametric acoustic probe named PPPAAP19. With the echo data acquired by the probe, the interpretation of the accurate thickness information and the seabed classification using the deep learning network-based method are realized. We introduce the acoustic dataset of the minerals collected from two sea trials. Firstly, the preprocessing method and data augment strategy used to form the dataset are described. Afterward, the performances of several baseline approaches are assessed on the dataset, and the experimental results show that they all achieve high accuracy for binary classification. We find that the end-to-end approach for binary classification based on a 1D Convolution Neural Network has a comprehensive advantage. Such a demonstration validates the possibility of binary classification for recognizing the ferromanganese crust only in an acoustic manner, which may significantly contribute to the efficiency of the survey. Full article
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Article
Ion-Exchange-Induced Transformation and Mechanism of Cooperative Crystal Chemical Adaptation in Sitinakite: Theoretical and Experimental Study
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020248 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
The microporous titanosilicate sitinakite, KNa2Ti4(SiO4)2O5(OH)·4H2O, was first discovered in the Khibiny alkaline massif. This material is also known as IONSIV IE-911 and is considered as one of the most effective sorbents [...] Read more.
The microporous titanosilicate sitinakite, KNa2Ti4(SiO4)2O5(OH)·4H2O, was first discovered in the Khibiny alkaline massif. This material is also known as IONSIV IE-911 and is considered as one of the most effective sorbents for Cs+ and Sr2+ from water solutions. We investigate a mechanism of cooperative crystal chemical adaptation caused by the incorporation of La3+ ions into sitinakite structure by the combination of theoretical (geometrical–topological analysis, Voronoi migration map calculation, structural complexity calculation) and empirical methods (PXRD, SCXRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy). The natural crystals of sitinakite (a = 7.8159(2), c = 12.0167(3) Å) were kept in a 1M solution of La(NO3)3 for 24 h. The ordering of La3+ cations in the channels of the ion-exchanged form La3+Ti4(SiO4)2O5(OH)·4H2O (a = 11.0339(10), b = 11.0598(8), c = 11.8430(7) Å), results in the symmetry breaking according to the group–subgroup relation P42/mcmCmmm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minerals as Advanced Materials)
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Article
Mineral Composition Impact on the Thermal Conductivity of Granites Based on Geothermal Field Experiments in the Songliao and Gonghe Basins, China
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 247; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020247 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
Accurate estimation of thermal conductivity of rocks is of paramount importance for projects such as the development of hot dry rock and the geological storage of nuclear waste. In this paper, 30 granite samples from the Songliao and Gonghe Basins in China were [...] Read more.
Accurate estimation of thermal conductivity of rocks is of paramount importance for projects such as the development of hot dry rock and the geological storage of nuclear waste. In this paper, 30 granite samples from the Songliao and Gonghe Basins in China were tested by X-ray diffraction, polarizing microscope, and Thermal Conductivity Scanning (TCS) measurements. Different mineral contents determine the thermal conductivity of the rock as a whole. The geometric average model and the harmonic average model have great limitations. Combined with the above two models, a new model is proposed for estimating the thermal conductivity, and results are less different from the measured values and have universal applicability. The relative estimation error on the thermal conductivity calculated by mineral composition is significantly reduced. The accuracy of thermal conductivity calculation can be improved by mineral composition. Full article
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Article
Orthogonal Test Design for the Optimization of Preparation of Steel Slag-Based Carbonated Building Materials with Ultramafic Tailings as Fine Aggregates
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 246; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/min12020246 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 639
Abstract
The high carbonation potential makes ultramafic tailings ideal aggregates for carbonated building materials. This paper investigates the preparation condition of ultramafic tailings and steel slag through orthogonal experiments. The results show that compressive strength has a positive exponential correlation with the CO2 [...] Read more.
The high carbonation potential makes ultramafic tailings ideal aggregates for carbonated building materials. This paper investigates the preparation condition of ultramafic tailings and steel slag through orthogonal experiments. The results show that compressive strength has a positive exponential correlation with the CO2 uptake of the carbonated compacts. The optimized conditions include a slag-tailings ratio of 5:5, a carbonation time of 12 h, a grinding time of 0 min, and a water-solid ratio of 2.5:10, when the compressive strength of the carbonated compacts reaches 29 MPa and the CO2 uptake reaches 66.5 mg CO2/g. The effects on the compressive strength ordered from high to low impact are the slag/tailings ratio, carbonation time, grinding time of steel slag, and water–solid ratio. The effects on the CO2 uptake ordered from high to low impact are the slag–tailings ratio, water–solid ratio, carbonation time, and grinding time of steel slag. A high water–solid ratio hinders the early carbonation reactions, but promotes the long-term carbonation reaction. Steel slag is the main material being carbonated and contributes to the hardening of the compacts through carbonation curing at room temperature. Ultramafic tailings assist steel slag in hardening through minor carbonation and provide fibrous contents. The obtained results lay a solid foundation for the development of tailings-steel slag carbonated materials. Full article
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