Next Issue
Volume 12, February
Previous Issue
Volume 11, December

Insects, Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 84 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the last few years, a new pest, the black weevil Aclees taiwanensis Kȏno, 1933 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), native to Asia, has been threatening fig orchards in the Mediterranean area. The black weevil xylophagous larvae, compromising the phloem flux, cause plant death. There are no known natural enemies of this pest and its rapid diffusion all over the Mediterranean area can reasonably be expected due to the lack of specific EU regulations. In-depth knowledge of black weevil biology is needed for the early detection and management of A. taiwanensis infestations. This paper describes, under laboratory and field conditions, the main biological traits of A. taiwanensis and updates the known distribution of this species in Southern Europe, using a citizen science approach. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Relicts from Glacial Times: The Ground Beetle Pterostichus adstrictus Eschscholtz, 1823 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the Austrian Alps
Insects 2021, 12(1), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010084 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
The last ice age considerably influenced distribution patterns of extant species of plants and animals, with some of them now inhabiting disjunct areas in the subarctic/arctic and alpine regions. This arctic-alpine distribution is characteristic for many cold-adapted species with a limited dispersal ability [...] Read more.
The last ice age considerably influenced distribution patterns of extant species of plants and animals, with some of them now inhabiting disjunct areas in the subarctic/arctic and alpine regions. This arctic-alpine distribution is characteristic for many cold-adapted species with a limited dispersal ability and can be found in many invertebrate taxa, including ground beetles. The ground beetle Pterostichus adstrictus Eschscholtz, 1823 of the subgenus Bothriopterus was previously known to have a holarctic-circumpolar distribution, in Europe reaching its southern borders in Wales and southern Scandinavia. Here, we report the first findings of this species from the Austrian Ötztal Alps, representing also the southernmost edge of its currently known distribution, confirmed by the comparison of morphological characters to other Bothriopterus species and DNA barcoding data. Molecular data revealed a separation of the Austrian and Finish specimens with limited to no gene flow at all. Furthermore, we present the first data on habitat preference and seasonality of P. adstrictus in the Austrian Alps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects in Mountain Ecosystems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases of Livestock in the Middle East and North Africa: A Review
Insects 2021, 12(1), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010083 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Ticks are important vectors of an array of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens resulting in a wide range of animal and human diseases. There is limited information in the literature about tick species in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, even [...] Read more.
Ticks are important vectors of an array of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens resulting in a wide range of animal and human diseases. There is limited information in the literature about tick species in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, even though they have suitable climate and vegetation for ticks and their hosts. We reviewed the occurrence of tick species and the pathogens they transmit from the MENA on published papers from 1901–2020. We found taxonomic records of 55 tick species infesting livestock representing the following eight genera: Ornithodoros, Otobius, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes, and Rhipicephalus. In addition, 15 pathogens were recorded causing diseases of significance, with Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, theileriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis being widely distributed diseases in the region. In recent decades, there has been increasing trends in disease occurrence and movement associated with global movement of humans and global trade of animals. We suggest that disease control and prevention could be achieved effectively through good integration between public health, veterinary medicine and animal management, and ecological approaches. We recommend further research in the areas of tick ecology and tick born-disease transmission. Furthermore, we suggest evaluation and improvement of disease control policies in the region. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Deformed Wing Virus Infection on Expressions of Immune- and Apoptosis-Related Genes in Western Honeybees (Apis mellifera)
Insects 2021, 12(1), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010082 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Honeybees are globally threatened by several pathogens, especially deformed wing virus (DWV), as the presence of DWV in western honeybees is indicative of colony loss. The high mortality rate is further exacerbated by the lack of effective treatment, and therefore understanding the immune [...] Read more.
Honeybees are globally threatened by several pathogens, especially deformed wing virus (DWV), as the presence of DWV in western honeybees is indicative of colony loss. The high mortality rate is further exacerbated by the lack of effective treatment, and therefore understanding the immune and apoptosis responses could pave an avenue for the treatment method. In this study, DWV was directly injected into the white-eyed pupae stage of western honeybees (Apis mellifera). The DWV loads and selected gene responses were monitored using the real-time PCR technique. The results showed that honeybee pupae that were injected with the highest concentration of viral loads showed a significantly higher mortality rate than the control groups. Deformed wings could be observed in newly emerged adult bees when the infected bees harbored high levels of viral loads. However, the numbers of viral loads in both normal and crippled wing groups were not significantly different. DWV-injected honeybee pupae with 104 and 107 copy numbers per bee groups showed similar viral loads after 48 h until newly emerged adult bees. Levels of gene expression including immune genes (defensin, abaecin, and hymenoptaecin) and apoptosis genes (buffy, p53, Apaf1, caspase3-like, caspase8-like, and caspase9-like) were analyzed after DWV infection. The expressions of immune and apoptosis genes were significantly different in infected bees compared to those of the control groups. In the pupae stage, the immune genes were activated by injecting DWV (defensin and hymenoptaecin) or Escherichia coli (defensin, abaecin, and hymenoptaecin), a positive control. On the contrary, the expression of apoptosis-related genes (buffy, caspase3-like, caspase8-like, and caspase9-like genes) was suppressed at 96 h post-infection. In DWV-infected newly emerged adult bees, abaecin, hymenoptaecin, Apaf1, and caspase8-like genes were upregulated. However, these genes were not significantly different between the normal and crippled wing bees. Our results suggested that DWV could activate the humoral immunity in honeybees and that honeybee hosts may be able to protect themselves from the virus infection through immune responses. Apoptosis gene expressions were upregulated in newly emerged adult bees by the virus, however, they were downregulated during the initial phase of viral infection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Morphology and Distribution of Antennal Sensilla in Three Species of Thripidae (Thysanoptera) Infesting Alfalfa Medicago sativa
Insects 2021, 12(1), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010081 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Thrips are important pests to alfalfa Medicago sativa. Similar as many other plant-feeding insects, thrips rely on the antennae to receive chemical signals in the environment to locate their hosts. Previous studies indicated that sensilla of different shapes on the surface of [...] Read more.
Thrips are important pests to alfalfa Medicago sativa. Similar as many other plant-feeding insects, thrips rely on the antennae to receive chemical signals in the environment to locate their hosts. Previous studies indicated that sensilla of different shapes on the surface of insect antenna play an important role in signal recognition. However, morphological analysis of the antennal sensilla in Thysanoptera has been limited to only a few species. To expand the understanding of how antennal sensilla are related to semiochemical detection in thrips, here we compared the morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla in three thrip species, Odontothrips loti, Megalurothrips distalis, and Sericothrips kaszabi, by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antennae of these three species are all composed of eight segments and share similar types of sensilla which distribute similarly in each segment, despite that their numbers show sexual dimorphism. Specifically, nine major types of sensilla in total were found, including three types of sensilla basiconica (SBI, SBII, and SBIII), two types of sensilla chaetica (SChI and SChII), and one type for each of sensilla coeloconica (SCo), sensilla trichodea (ST), sensilla campaniformia (SCa), and sensilla cavity (SCav). The potential functions of sensilla were discussed according to the previous research results and will lay a morphological foundation for the study of the olfactory mechanism of three species of thrips. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Sustainable Management Methods of Orchard Insect Pests
Insects 2021, 12(1), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010080 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
The current need for sustainable resource management is increasingly urgent, as demand for agricultural commodities is rising rapidly as the world’s population grows [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management Methods for Orchard Insect Pests)
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (AS-PCR) Assay to Detect the V1016G Knockdown Resistance Mutation Confirms Its Widespread Presence in Aedes albopictus Populations from Italy
Insects 2021, 12(1), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010079 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping of mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (vssc) associated with resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is widely used and represents a potential early warning and monitoring system for insecticide resistance arising in mosquito populations, which are vectors [...] Read more.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping of mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (vssc) associated with resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is widely used and represents a potential early warning and monitoring system for insecticide resistance arising in mosquito populations, which are vectors of different human pathogens. In the secondary vector Aedes albopictus—an Asian species that has invaded and colonized the whole world, including temperate regions—sequencing of domain II of the vssc gene is still needed to detect the V1016G mutation associated with pyrethroid resistance. In this study we developed and tested a novel allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) assay to genotype the V1016G mutation in this species and applied it to the analysis of wild populations from Italy. The results confirm the high accuracy of the novel AS-PCR and highlight frequencies of the V1016G allele as >5% in most sampling sites, with peaks of 20–45% in coastal touristic sites where pyrethroid treatments are extensively implemented, mostly for mosquito nuisance reduction. The high frequency of this mutation observed in Italian Ae. albopictus populations should serve as a warning bell, advocating for increased monitoring and management of a phenomenon which risks neutralizing the only weapon today available to counteract (risks of) arbovirus outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Hungary: Survey of Ant Species with an Annotated Synonymic Inventory
Insects 2021, 12(1), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010078 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Ants (Hymenoptera: Forimicidae) are exceedingly common in nature. They constitute a conspicuous part of the terrestrial animal biomass and are also considered common ecosystem engineers. Due to their key role in natural habitats, they are at the basis of any nature conservation policy. [...] Read more.
Ants (Hymenoptera: Forimicidae) are exceedingly common in nature. They constitute a conspicuous part of the terrestrial animal biomass and are also considered common ecosystem engineers. Due to their key role in natural habitats, they are at the basis of any nature conservation policy. Thus, the first step in developing adequate conservation and management policies is to build a precise faunistic inventory. More than 16,000 valid ant species are registered worldwide, of which 126 are known to occur in Hungary. Thanks to the last decade’s efforts in the Hungarian myrmecological research, and because of the constantly changing taxonomy of several problematic ant genera, a new checklist of the Hungarian ants is presented here. The state of the Hungarian myrmecofauna is also discussed in the context of other European countries’ ant fauna. Six species (Formica lemani, Lasius nitidigaster, Tetramorium immigrans, T. staerckei, T. indocile and Temnothorax turcicus) have been reported for the first time in the Hungarian literature, nine taxon names were changed after systematic replacements, nomenclatorial act, or as a result of splitting formerly considered continuous populations into more taxa. Two species formerly believed to occur in Hungary are now excluded from the updated list. All names are nomenclaturally assessed, and complete synonymies applied in the Hungarian literature for a certain taxon are provided. Wherever it is not self-evident, comments are added, especially to explain replacements of taxon names. Finally, we present a brief descriptive comparison of the Hungarian myrmecofauna with the ant fauna of the surrounding countries. The current dataset is a result of ongoing work on inventorying the Hungarian ant fauna, therefore it is expected to change over time and will be updated once the ongoing taxonomic projects are completed. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Distribution Patterns of Grasshoppers and Their Kin over the Eurasian Steppes
Insects 2021, 12(1), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010077 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The main aims of this paper are to reveal general patterns of Orthoptera distribution in the Eurasian steppes, to evaluate long-term trends of changes in distribution of taxa and populations, and to estimate the potential for population changes relative to human activity and [...] Read more.
The main aims of this paper are to reveal general patterns of Orthoptera distribution in the Eurasian steppes, to evaluate long-term trends of changes in distribution of taxa and populations, and to estimate the potential for population changes relative to human activity and global warming trends. The main publications concerning diversity and distribution of these insects over the steppes are analyzed. The fauna of the Eurasian steppes includes more than 440 species of Orthoptera. The general distribution of grasshoppers and their kin in the Eurasian steppes reflects their common associations with different grasslands. The species richness increases from the relatively cold forest-steppes to the semi-deserts with their warm summer. There are some endemic or subendemic taxa, including the tribe Onconotini (Tettigoniidae). The populations’ distribution of Orthoptera is also analyzed. The populations of native Orthoptera extend through all the herbaceous landscapes. Under these conditions, the interrelating of colonies of each species may result in great abundance. The population distribution of three species locusts (Locusta migratoria, Calliptamus italicus, Dociostaurus maroccanus) is also discussed. Some notable changes of their populations’ distribution and dynamics are characterized. The situation with rare Orthoptera is estimated. Retrospective and prospective of the steppe fauna of Orthoptera are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Locusts and Grasshoppers: Biology, Ecology and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reproductive Soldier Development Is Controlled by Direct Physical Interactions with Reproductive and Soldier Termites
Insects 2021, 12(1), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010076 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 381
Abstract
In eusocial insects (e.g., ants, bees, and termites), the roles of different castes are assigned to different individuals. These castes possess unique phenotypes that are specialized for specific tasks. The acquisition of sterile individuals with specific roles is considered a requirement for social [...] Read more.
In eusocial insects (e.g., ants, bees, and termites), the roles of different castes are assigned to different individuals. These castes possess unique phenotypes that are specialized for specific tasks. The acquisition of sterile individuals with specific roles is considered a requirement for social evolution. In termites, the soldier is a sterile caste. In primitive taxa (family Archotermopsidae and Stolotermitidae), however, secondary reproductives (neotenic reproductives) with their mandibles developed into weapons (so-called reproductive soldiers, also termed as soldier-headed reproductives or soldier neotenics) have been reported. To understand the developmental mechanism of this unique caste, it is necessary to understand the environmental cues and developmental processes of reproductive soldiers under natural conditions. Here, we established efficient conditions to induce reproductive soldiers in Zootermopsis nevadensis. Male reproductive soldiers frequently developed after the removal of both the king and soldiers from an incipient colony. Similarly, high differentiation rates of male reproductive soldiers were observed after king-and-soldier separation treatment using wire mesh. However, no male reproductive soldiers were produced without direct interaction with the queen. These results suggest that male reproductive soldier development is repressed by direct physical interactions with both the king and soldiers and facilitated by direct physical interaction with the queen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification of Wild-Type CYP321A2 and Comparison of Allelochemical-Induced Expression Profiles of CYP321A2 with Its Paralog CYP321A1 in Helicoverpa zea
Insects 2021, 12(1), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010075 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 288
Abstract
One possible way to overcome the diversity of toxic plant allelochemicals idiosyncratically distributed among potential host plants is to have more counterdefense genes via gene duplication or fewer gene losses. Cytochrome P450 is the most important gene family responsible for detoxification of the [...] Read more.
One possible way to overcome the diversity of toxic plant allelochemicals idiosyncratically distributed among potential host plants is to have more counterdefense genes via gene duplication or fewer gene losses. Cytochrome P450 is the most important gene family responsible for detoxification of the diversity of plant allelochemicals. We have recently reported the identification and cloning of the transposon (HzSINE1)-disrupted non-functional CYP321A2, a duplicated paralog of the xenobiotic-metabolizing P450 CYP321A1 from a laboratory colony of Helicoverpa zea. Here we report the identification of the wild-type intact allele of CYP321A2 from another H. zea colony. This CYP321A2 allele encodes a deduced protein of 498 amino acids and has the P450 signature motifs. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments showed that this CYP321A2 allele was highly expressed in midgut and fat body and achieved the highest expression level in the developmental stage of 5th and 3rd instar larvae. CYP321A2 and CYP321A1 were constitutively expressed in low levels but can be differentially and significantly induced by a range of the plant allelochemicals and plant signal molecules, among which xanthotoxin, flavone, and coumarin were the most prominent inducers of CYP321A2 both in midgut and fat body, whereas flavone, coumarin, and indole-3-carbinol were the prominent inducers of CYP321A1 in midgut and fat body. Moreover, xanthotoxin- and flavone-responsive regulatory elements of CYP321A1 were also detected in the promoter region of CYP321A2. Our results enrich the P450 inventory by identifying an allelochemical broadly induced CYP321A2, a paralog of CYP321A1 in H. zea. Our data also suggest that the CYP321A2/CYP321A1 paralogs are a pair of duplicated genes of multigene families and CYP321A2 could potentially be involved in the detoxification of plant allelochemicals and adaptation of H. zea to its chemical environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Basis of Adaptation in Arthropods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Intercropping Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) with Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annum) Reduces Major Pest Population Densities without Impacting Natural Enemy Populations
Insects 2021, 12(1), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010074 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Intercropping of aromatic plants provides an environmentally benign route to reducing pest damage in agroecosystems. However, the effect of intercropping on natural enemies, another element which may be vital to the success of an integrated pest management approach, varies in different intercropping systems. [...] Read more.
Intercropping of aromatic plants provides an environmentally benign route to reducing pest damage in agroecosystems. However, the effect of intercropping on natural enemies, another element which may be vital to the success of an integrated pest management approach, varies in different intercropping systems. Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), has been reported to be repellent to many insect species. In this study, the impact of sweet pepper/rosemary intercropping on pest population suppression was evaluated under greenhouse conditions and the effect of rosemary intercropping on natural enemy population dynamics was investigated. The results showed that intercropping rosemary with sweet pepper significantly reduced the population densities of three major pest species on sweet pepper, Frankliniella intonsa, Myzus persicae, and Bemisia tabaci, but did not affect the population densities of their natural enemies, the predatory bug, Orius sauteri, or parasitoid, Encarsia formosa. Significant pest population suppression with no adverse effect on released natural enemy populations in the sweet pepper/rosemary intercropping system suggests this could be an approach for integrated pest management of greenhouse-cultivated sweet pepper. Our results highlight the potential of the integration of alternative pest control strategies to optimize sustainable pest control. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Integrated Pest Management Strategies for Horticultural Crops)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Genetic Basis for Salivary Gland Barriers to Arboviral Transmission
Insects 2021, 12(1), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010073 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infect mosquito salivary glands and then escape to saliva prior to virus transmission. Arbovirus transmission from mosquitoes can be modulated by salivary gland infection barriers (SGIBs) and salivary gland escape barriers (SGEBs). We determined the influence of SGIBs and SGEBs [...] Read more.
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infect mosquito salivary glands and then escape to saliva prior to virus transmission. Arbovirus transmission from mosquitoes can be modulated by salivary gland infection barriers (SGIBs) and salivary gland escape barriers (SGEBs). We determined the influence of SGIBs and SGEBs by estimating the quantitative genetic contributions of Aedes aegypti half-sib families (Mapastepec, Mexico) infected with three dengue 2 (DENV2), two chikungunya (CHIKV), and two Zika (ZIKV) genotypes. We determined virus titer per salivary gland and saliva at seven days post-infection and virus prevalence in the half-sib population. CHIKV or ZIKV genotypes did not present SGIB, whereas DENV2 genotypes showed low rates of SGIB. However, virus titer and prevalence due to additive genetic factors in the half-sib family displayed a significant narrow-sense heritability (h2) for SGIB in two of the three DENV2 genotypes and one CHIKV and one ZIKV genotype. SGEBs were detected in all seven virus strains: 60–88% of DENV2 and 48–62% of CHIKV or ZIKV genotype infections. SGEB h2 was significant for all CHIKV or ZIKV genotypes but not for any of the DENV2 genotypes. SGIBs and SGEBs exhibited classical gene-by-gene interaction dynamics and are influenced by genetic factors in the mosquito and the virus. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of New Kairomone-Based Lures for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Italy and USA
Insects 2021, 12(1), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010072 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Studies were conducted during the period 2019/2020 to evaluate the effectiveness of four lures for codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in pome fruits in Italy and the USA. Multi-component blends of sex pheromone ((E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, PH), pear ester (( [...] Read more.
Studies were conducted during the period 2019/2020 to evaluate the effectiveness of four lures for codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in pome fruits in Italy and the USA. Multi-component blends of sex pheromone ((E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, PH), pear ester ((E,Z)-2,4-ethyl decadienoate, PE), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and pyranoid linalool oxide (6-ethenyl-2,2,6-trimethyloxan-3-ol, LOX) were loaded in either a halobutyl elastomer septum or a PVC matrix and always used in combination with acetic acid (AA) loaded in a closed membrane co-lure. Total moth capture was significantly greater with the PVC than the septum lure loaded with PH/PE + AA in both countries. Female capture in the USA study was significantly greater for 8 weeks in traps baited with the PE/DMNT/LOX blend + AA co-lure than with other lures and adding PH to this blend in a PVC lure significantly reduced female capture. In contrast, female capture in Italy did not differ among lures and counts were similar in both apple and pear crops treated with or without mating disruption. These results suggest that the effectiveness of ‘female removal’ strategies to manage codling moth may be geographically limited and further comparisons are needed in other production regions and in walnut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation Biological Control in IPM and Organic Systems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Permethrin Resistance in Aedes aegypti Affects Aspects of Vectorial Capacity
Insects 2021, 12(1), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010071 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Aedes aegypti, as one of the vectors transmitting several arboviruses, is the main target in mosquito control programs. Permethrin is used to control mosquitoes and Aedes aegypti get exposed due to its overuse and are now resistant. The increasing percentage of permethrin [...] Read more.
Aedes aegypti, as one of the vectors transmitting several arboviruses, is the main target in mosquito control programs. Permethrin is used to control mosquitoes and Aedes aegypti get exposed due to its overuse and are now resistant. The increasing percentage of permethrin resistant Aedes aegypti has become an important issue around the world and the potential influence on vectorial capacity needs to be studied. Here we selected a permethrin resistant (p-s) Aedes aegypti population from a wild Florida population and confirmed the resistance ratio to its parental population. We used allele-specific PCR genotyping of the V1016I and F1534C sites in the sodium channel gene to map mutations responsible for the resistance. Two important factors, survival rate and vector competence, that impact vectorial capacity were checked. Results indicated the p-s population had 20 times more resistance to permethrin based on LD50 compared to the parental population. In the genotyping study, the p-s population had more homozygous mutations in both mutant sites of the sodium channel gene. The p-s adults survived longer and had a higher dissemination rate for dengue virus than the parental population. These results suggest that highly permethrin resistant Aedes aegypti populations might affect the vectorial capacity, moreover, resistance increased the survival time and vector competence, which should be of concern in areas where permethrin is applied. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
DDX6 Is Essential for Oocyte Development and Maturation in Locusta migratoria
Insects 2021, 12(1), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010070 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
DEAD-box protein 6 (DDX6) is a member of the DDX RNA helicase family that exists in all eukaryotes. It has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals and has been shown to be involved in messenger ribonucleoprotein assembly, mRNA storage, and decay, as [...] Read more.
DEAD-box protein 6 (DDX6) is a member of the DDX RNA helicase family that exists in all eukaryotes. It has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals and has been shown to be involved in messenger ribonucleoprotein assembly, mRNA storage, and decay, as well as in miRNA-mediated gene silencing. DDX6 participates in many developmental processes but the biological function of DDX6 in insects has not yet been adequately addressed. Herein, we characterized the LmDDX6 gene that encodes the LmDDX6 protein in Locusta migratoria, a global, destructive pest. LmDDX6 possesses five motifs unique to the DDX6 subfamily. In the phylogenetic tree, LmDDX6 was closely related to its orthologs in Apis dorsata and Zootermopsis nevadensis. RT-qPCR data revealed high expression of LmDDX6 in the ovary, muscle, and fat body, with a declining trend in the ovary after adult ecdysis. LmDDX6 knockdown downregulated the expression levels of the juvenile hormone receptor Met, and genes encoding Met downstream targeted Grp78-1 and Grp78-2, reduced LmVg expression, and impaired ovary development and oocyte maturation. These results demonstrate that LmDDX6 plays an essential role in locust female reproduction and, thus, could be a novel target for locust biological control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Heterocyclic Amine-Induced Feeding Deterrence and Antennal Response of Honey Bees
Insects 2021, 12(1), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010069 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The productivity and survival of managed honey bee colonies is negatively impacted by a diverse array of interacting factors, including exposure to agrochemicals, such as pesticides. This study investigated the use of volatile heterocyclic amine (HCA) compounds as potential short-term repellents that could [...] Read more.
The productivity and survival of managed honey bee colonies is negatively impacted by a diverse array of interacting factors, including exposure to agrochemicals, such as pesticides. This study investigated the use of volatile heterocyclic amine (HCA) compounds as potential short-term repellents that could be employed as feeding deterrents to reduce the exposure of bees to pesticide-treated plants. Parent and substituted HCAs were screened for efficacy relative to the repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) in laboratory and field experiments. Additionally, electroantennogram (EAG) recordings were conducted to determine the level of antennal response in bees. In video-tracking recordings, bees were observed to spend significantly less time with an HCA-treated food source than an untreated source. In a high-tunnel experiment, the HCA piperidine was incorporated in a feeding station and found to significantly reduce bee visitations relative to an untreated feeder. In field experiments, bee visitations were significantly reduced on melon flowers (Cucumis melo L.) and flowering knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.) that were sprayed with a piperidine solution, relative to untreated plants. In EAG recordings, the HCAs elicited antennal responses that were significantly different from control or vehicle responses. Overall, this study provides evidence that HCAs can deter individual bees from food sources and suggests that this deterrence is the result of antennal olfactory detection. These findings warrant further study into structure–activity relationships that could lead to the development of short-term repellent compounds that are effective deterrents to reduce the contact of bees to pesticide-treated plants. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Contrasting Behavioral and Electrophysiological Responses of Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus and E. brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Volatiles Emitted from the Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima
Insects 2021, 12(1), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010068 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus and E. brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are host-specific pests of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae), causing extensive damage to the host. There are no effective attractants available for pest management. The main aim of this study was to explore the role [...] Read more.
Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus and E. brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are host-specific pests of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae), causing extensive damage to the host. There are no effective attractants available for pest management. The main aim of this study was to explore the role of host plant-derived volatiles in the behavioral response of both weevil species. In a field experiment, both weevil species showed positive response to phloem, and there was no preference for phloem associated with healthy or injured trees. Significantly more E. brandti adults responded to the olfactory treatments compared to E. scrobiculatus. In a large-arena experiment, both males and females of E. scrobiculatus significantly preferred phloem from the tree trunk while adults of E. brandti responded in significantly greater numbers to tree limbs than to any other parts of host. Females and males of E. scrobiculatus responded positively to all parts of host tested in the Y-tube bioassay, while E. brandti adults were only attracted by the phloem from healthy and injured trees. There were dissimilar electroantennographic responses to compounds such as 1-hexanol and (1S)-(−)-β-pinene between the two weevil species. This study represents the first report documenting behavioral and electrophysiological responses of E. scrobiculatus and E. brandti to volatiles from various parts of A. altissima and findings may aid efforts to develop attractants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Sensory Ecology and Applications for Pest Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A De Novo Transcriptomics Approach Reveals Genes Involved in Thrips Tabaci Resistance to Spinosad
Insects 2021, 12(1), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010067 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
The onion thrip, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major polyphagous pest that attacks a wide range of economically important crops, especially Allium species. The thrip’s damage can result in yield loss of up to 60% in onions (Allium cepa). In [...] Read more.
The onion thrip, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major polyphagous pest that attacks a wide range of economically important crops, especially Allium species. The thrip’s damage can result in yield loss of up to 60% in onions (Allium cepa). In the past few decades, thrip resistance to insecticides with various modes of actions have been documented. These include resistance to spinosad, a major active compound used against thrips, which was reported from Israel. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying spinosad resistance in T. tabaci. We attempted to characterize the mechanisms involved in resistance to spinosad using quantitative transcriptomics. Susceptible (LC50 = 0.6 ppm) and resistant (LC50 = 23,258 ppm) thrip populations were collected from Israel. An additional resistant population (LC50 = 117 ppm) was selected in the laboratory from the susceptible population. De novo transcriptome analysis on the resistant and susceptible population was conducted to identify differently expressed genes (DGEs) that might be involved in the resistance against spinosad. In this analysis, 25,552 unigenes were sequenced, assembled, and functionally annotated, and more than 1500 DGEs were identified. The expression levels of candidate genes, which included cytochrome P450 and vittelogenin, were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. The cytochrome P450 expression gradually increased with the increase of the resistance. Higher expression levels of vitellogenin in the resistant populations were correlated with higher fecundity, suggesting a positive effect of the resistance on resistant populations. This research provides a novel genetic resource for onion thrips and a comprehensive molecular examination of resistant populations to spinosad. Those resources are important for future studies concerning thrips and resistance in insect pests regarding agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Molecular Biology and Genomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Liquid Baits with Oenococcus oeni Increase Captures of Drosophila suzukii
Insects 2021, 12(1), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010066 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
The spotted-wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), native to Eastern Asia, is an invasive alien species in Europe and the Americas, where it is a severe pest of horticultural crops, including soft fruits and wine grapes. The conventional approach to controlling [...] Read more.
The spotted-wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), native to Eastern Asia, is an invasive alien species in Europe and the Americas, where it is a severe pest of horticultural crops, including soft fruits and wine grapes. The conventional approach to controlling infestations of SWD involves the use of insecticides, but the frequency of application for population management is undesirable. Consequently, alternative strategies are urgently needed. Effective and improved trapping is important as an early risk detection tool. This study aimed to improve Droskidrink® (DD), a commercially available attractant for SWD. We focused on the chemical and behavioral effects of adding the bacterium Oenococcus oeni (Garvie) to DD and used a new trap design to enhance the effects of attractive lures. We demonstrate that microbial volatile compounds produced by O. oeni are responsible for the increase in the attractiveness of the bait and could be later utilized for the development of a better trapping system. Our results showed that the attractiveness of DD was increased up to two-fold by the addition of commercially available O. oeni when combined with an innovative trap design. The new trap-bait combination increased the number of male and especially female catches at low population densities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behavioral Manipulation for Pest Control)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication
First Report on Megaselia scalaris Loew (Diptera: Phoridae) Infestation of the Invasive Pest Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China
Insects 2021, 12(1), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010065 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
The invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda first emerged in China in January 2019 and has, to date, migrated to 29 provinces and municipalities in China, causing heavy crop damage in large areas. As a response to this invasive species from the environment, some indigenous [...] Read more.
The invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda first emerged in China in January 2019 and has, to date, migrated to 29 provinces and municipalities in China, causing heavy crop damage in large areas. As a response to this invasive species from the environment, some indigenous natural enemies have been discovered and reported after S. frugiperda invasion. In this paper, parasitic flies were collected and identified from S. frugiperda collected in the Yunnan, Guangxi, and Henan provinces and the Chongqing municipality in China. By using both conventional and molecular approaches, we were able to show that all the parasitic flies of S. frugiperda identified in the four regions were Megaselia. scalaris, and that they attacked the pest larvae and pupae. This is the first report on an indigenous Chinese Megaselia species that has parasitic ability against the invasive pest S. frugiperda, potentially providing new ideas for pest control in China. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification and Functional Analysis of Apoptotic Protease Activating Factor-1 (Apaf-1) from Spodoptera litura
Insects 2021, 12(1), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010064 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) is an adaptor molecule, essential for activating initiator caspase and downstream effector caspases, which directly cause apoptosis. In fruit flies, nematodes, and mammals, Apaf-1 has been extensively studied. However, the structure and function of Apaf-1 in Lepidoptera remain [...] Read more.
Apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) is an adaptor molecule, essential for activating initiator caspase and downstream effector caspases, which directly cause apoptosis. In fruit flies, nematodes, and mammals, Apaf-1 has been extensively studied. However, the structure and function of Apaf-1 in Lepidoptera remain unclear. This study identified a novel Apaf-1 from Spodoptera litura, named Sl-Apaf-1. Sl-Apaf-1 contains three domains: a CARD domain, as well as NOD and WD motifs, and is very similar to mammalian Apaf-1. Interference of Sl-apaf-1 expression in SL-1 cells blocked apoptosis induced by actinomycin D. Overexpression of Sl-apaf-1 significantly enhances apoptosis induced by actinomycin D in Sf9/SL-1/U2OS cells, suggesting that the function of Sl-Apaf-1 is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, Sl-Apaf-1 could interact with Sl-caspase-5 (a homologue of mammalian caspase-9) and yielded a binding affinity of 1.37 × 106 M–1 according isothermal titration calorimetry assay. Initiator caspase (procaspase-5) of S. litura could be activated by Sl-Apaf-1 (without WD motif) in vitro, and the activated Sl-caspase-5 could cleave Sl-procaspase-1 (a homologue of caspase-3 in mammals), which directly caused apoptosis. This study demonstrates the key role of Sl-Apaf-1 in the apoptosis pathway, suggesting that the apoptosis pathway in Lepidopteran insects and mammals is conserved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
New Genera and Species of the Family Throscidae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in Mid-Cretaceous Burmese Amber
Insects 2021, 12(1), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010063 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Captopus depressicepsgen. et sp. nov., Electrothroscus yanpingaegen. et sp. nov. and Pseudopactopus robustusgen. et sp. nov. are reported from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. These new findings greatly extend the Mesozoic diversity of Throscidae, which implies a high degree of [...] Read more.
Captopus depressicepsgen. et sp. nov., Electrothroscus yanpingaegen. et sp. nov. and Pseudopactopus robustusgen. et sp. nov. are reported from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. These new findings greatly extend the Mesozoic diversity of Throscidae, which implies a high degree of morphological disparity for this family in the Cretaceous. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Slug Refuge Traps in a Soybean Reduced-Tillage Cover Crop System
Insects 2021, 12(1), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010062 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 290
Abstract
As more farmers adopt no- or reduced-tillage and/or cover crop land management practices, slugs have become more frequent pests of field crops, including soybean. Monitoring slugs visually is difficult because they are nocturnal, so several trapping methods have been developed, though comparisons of [...] Read more.
As more farmers adopt no- or reduced-tillage and/or cover crop land management practices, slugs have become more frequent pests of field crops, including soybean. Monitoring slugs visually is difficult because they are nocturnal, so several trapping methods have been developed, though comparisons of trap types are rare. The objective of this study was to compare trapping efficiency of two types of slug refuge traps in reduced-tillage soybeans following cover crop termination. We tested a traditional shingle trap and a modified shingle trap with a water-filled pitfall trap beneath it. Traps were deployed in 24 pairs in 2018 and 2019 in experimental soybean plots. We counted slug captures weekly over a 5-week time period each year. In 2018, we counted the total number of slugs under each trap type. In 2019, counts were categorized into specific trap components (shingle vs. in/on/under the pitfall). Temperature was also recorded in 2019. The modified shingle traps captured significantly more slugs than the traditional shingle traps, mainly due to the pitfall component. This trend was most pronounced as slug density decreased, suggesting that the modified shingle trap is a more sensitive sampling tool which may be particularly valuable when used for research purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Slug and Snail Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Odorants of Capsicum spp. Dried Fruits as Candidate Attractants for Lasioderma serricorne F. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)
Insects 2021, 12(1), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010061 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne F. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) is an important food storage pest affecting the tobacco industry and is increasingly impacting museums and herbaria. Monitoring methods make use of pheromone traps which can be implemented using chili fruit powder. The objective of [...] Read more.
The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne F. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) is an important food storage pest affecting the tobacco industry and is increasingly impacting museums and herbaria. Monitoring methods make use of pheromone traps which can be implemented using chili fruit powder. The objective of this study was to assess the response of L. serricorne to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from different chili powders in order to identify the main semiochemicals involved in this attraction. Volatiles emitted by Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense dried fruit powders were tested in an olfactometer and collected and analyzed using SPME and GC-MS. Results indicated that C. annuum and C. frutescens VOCs elicit attraction toward L. serricorne adults in olfactometer, while C. chinense VOCs elicit no attraction. Chemicals analysis showed a higher presence of polar compounds in the VOCs of C. annuum and C. frutescens compared to C. chinense, with α-ionone and β-ionone being more abundant in the attractive species. Further olfactometer bioassays indicated that both α-ionone and β-ionone elicit attraction, suggesting that these compounds are candidates as synergistic attractants in pheromone monitoring traps for L. serricorne. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparing Survival of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Infection among Stocks of U.S. Honey Bees
Insects 2021, 12(1), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010060 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Among numerous viruses that infect honey bees (Apis mellifera), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) can be linked to severe honey bee health problems. Breeding for virus resistance may improve honey bee health. To evaluate the potential for this approach, we compared [...] Read more.
Among numerous viruses that infect honey bees (Apis mellifera), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) can be linked to severe honey bee health problems. Breeding for virus resistance may improve honey bee health. To evaluate the potential for this approach, we compared the survival of IAPV infection among stocks from the U.S. We complemented the survival analysis with a survey of existing viruses in these stocks and assessing constitutive and induced expression of immune genes. Worker offspring from selected queens in a common apiary were inoculated with IAPV by topical applications after emergence to assess subsequent survival. Differences among stocks were small compared to variation within stocks, indicating the potential for improving honey bee survival of virus infections in all stocks. A positive relation between worker survival and virus load among stocks further suggested that honey bees may be able to adapt to better cope with viruses, while our molecular studies indicate that toll-6 may be related to survival differences among virus-infected worker bees. Together, these findings highlight the importance of viruses in queen breeding operations and provide a promising starting point for the quest to improve honey bee health by selectively breeding stock to be better able to survive virus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honeybee Breeding)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Duso C.; et al. Colonization Patterns, Phenology and Seasonal Abundance of the Nearctic Leafhopper Erasmoneura vulnerata (Fitch), a New Pest in European Vineyards. Insects 2020, 11, 731
Insects 2021, 12(1), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010059 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
It has recently come to our attention that there were some mistakes in legends and figures reported in our study [...] Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Does Tap Water Quality Compromise the Production of Aedes Mosquitoes in Genetic Control Projects?
Insects 2021, 12(1), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010057 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 361
Abstract
A mosquito’s life cycle includes an aquatic phase. Water quality is therefore an important determinant of whether or not the female mosquitoes will lay their eggs and the resulting immature stages will survive and successfully complete their development to the adult stage. In [...] Read more.
A mosquito’s life cycle includes an aquatic phase. Water quality is therefore an important determinant of whether or not the female mosquitoes will lay their eggs and the resulting immature stages will survive and successfully complete their development to the adult stage. In response to variations in laboratory rearing outputs, there is a need to investigate the effect of tap water (TW) (in relation to water hardness and electrical conductivity) on mosquito development, productivity and resulting adult quality. In this study, we compared the respective responses of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus to different water hardness/electrical conductivity. First-instar larvae were reared in either 100% water purified through reverse osmosis (ROW) (low water hardness/electrical conductivity), 100% TW (high water hardness/electrical conductivity) or a 80:20, 50:50, 20:80 mix of ROW and TW. The immature development time, pupation rate, adult emergence, body size, and longevity were determined. Overall, TW (with higher hardness and electrical conductivity) was associated with increased time to pupation, decreased pupal production, female body size in both species and longevity in Ae. albopictus only. However, Ae. albopictus was more sensitive to high water hardness/EC than Ae. aegypti. Moreover, in all water hardness/electrical conductivity levels tested, Ae. aegypti developed faster than Ae. albopictus. Conversely, Ae. albopictus adults survived longer than Ae. aegypti. These results imply that water with hardness of more than 140 mg/l CaCO3 or electrical conductivity more than 368 µS/cm cannot be recommended for the optimal rearing of Aedes mosquitoes and highlight the need to consider the level of water hardness/electrical conductivity when rearing Aedes mosquitoes for release purposes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Two Rural Villages in Southern Mexico: Baseline Data for an Evaluation of the Sterile Insect Technique
Insects 2021, 12(1), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010058 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 683
Abstract
Indoor and outdoor ovitraps were placed in 15 randomly selected houses in two rural villages in Chiapas, southern Mexico. In addition, ovitraps were placed in five transects surrounding each village, with three traps per transect, one at the edge, one at 50 m, [...] Read more.
Indoor and outdoor ovitraps were placed in 15 randomly selected houses in two rural villages in Chiapas, southern Mexico. In addition, ovitraps were placed in five transects surrounding each village, with three traps per transect, one at the edge, one at 50 m, and another at 100 m from the edge of the village. All traps were inspected weekly. A transect with eight traps along a road between the two villages was also included. Population fluctuations of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were examined during 2016–2018 by counting egg numbers. A higher number of Aedes spp. eggs was recorded at Hidalgo village with 257,712 eggs (60.9%), of which 58.1% were present in outdoor ovitraps and 41.9% in indoor ovitraps, compared with 165,623 eggs (39.1%) collected in the village of Río Florido, 49.0% in outdoor and 51.0% in indoor ovitraps. A total of 84,047 eggs was collected from ovitraps placed along transects around Río Florido, compared to 67,542 eggs recorded from transects around Hidalgo. Fluctuations in egg counts were associated with annual variation in precipitation, with 2.3 to 3.2-fold more eggs collected from ovitraps placed in houses and 4.8 to 5.1-fold more eggs in ovitraps from the surrounding transects during the rainy season than in the dry season, respectively. Aedes aegypti was the dominant species during the dry season and at the start of the rainy season in both villages. Aedes albopictus populations were lower for most of the dry season, but increased during the rainy season and predominated at the end of the rainy season in both villages. Aedes albopictus was also the dominant species in the zones surrounding both villages. The numbers of eggs collected from intradomiciliary ovitraps were strongly correlated with the numbers of eggs in peridomiciliary ovitraps in both Río Florido (R2adj = 0.92) and Hidalgo (R2adj = 0.94), suggesting that peridomiciliary sampling could provide an accurate estimate of intradomiciliary oviposition by Aedes spp. in future studies in these villages. We conclude that the feasibility of sterile insect technique (SIT)-based program of vector control could be evaluated in the isolated Ae. aegypti populations in the rural villages of our baseline study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Use of a Managed Solitary Bee to Pollinate Almonds: Population Sustainability and Increased Fruit Set
Insects 2021, 12(1), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010056 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Osmia spp. are excellent orchard pollinators but evidence that their populations can be sustained in orchard environments and their use results in increased fruit production is scarce. We released an Osmia cornuta population in an almond orchard and measured its population dynamics, as [...] Read more.
Osmia spp. are excellent orchard pollinators but evidence that their populations can be sustained in orchard environments and their use results in increased fruit production is scarce. We released an Osmia cornuta population in an almond orchard and measured its population dynamics, as well as visitation rates and fruit set at increasing distances from the nesting stations. Honeybees were 10 times more abundant than O. cornuta. However, the best models relating fruit set and bee visitation included only O. cornuta visitation, which explained 41% and 40% of the initial and final fruit set. Distance from the nesting stations explained 27.7% and 22.1% of the variability in initial and final fruit set. Of the 198 females released, 99 (54.4%) established and produced an average of 9.15 cells. Female population growth was 1.28. By comparing our results with those of previous O. cornuta studies we identify two important populational bottlenecks (female establishment and male-biased progeny sex ratios). Our study demonstrates that even a small population of a highly effective pollinator may have a significant impact on fruit set. Our results are encouraging for the use of Osmia managed populations and for the implementation of measures to promote wild pollinators in agricultural environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Apis Pollinators and Global Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Lachninae Species and Comparative Genomics Provide New Insights into the Evolution of Gene Rearrangement and the Repeat Region
Insects 2021, 12(1), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects12010055 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Complete mitochondrial genomes are valuable resources for different research fields such as genomics, molecular evolution and phylogenetics. The subfamily Lachninae represents one of the most ancient evolutionary lineages of aphids. To date, however, no complete Lachninae mitogenome is available in public databases. Here [...] Read more.
Complete mitochondrial genomes are valuable resources for different research fields such as genomics, molecular evolution and phylogenetics. The subfamily Lachninae represents one of the most ancient evolutionary lineages of aphids. To date, however, no complete Lachninae mitogenome is available in public databases. Here we report the Stomaphis sinisalicis mitogenome, representing the first complete mitogenome of Lachninae. The S. sinisalicis mitogenome is consist of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes (rRNAs), 22 tRNA genes (tRNAs), a control region and a large tandem repeat region. Strikingly, the mitogenome exhibits a novel, highly rearranged gene order between trnE and nad1 compared with that of other aphids. The presence of repeat region in the basal Lachninae may further indicate it is probably an ancestral feature of aphid mitogenomes. Collectively, this study provides new insights on mitogenome evolution and valuable data for future comparative studies across different insect lineages. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop