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Article

A New Strategy to Integrate Heath–Carter Somatotype Assessment with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Elite Soccer Players

1
Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, 47921 Rimini, Italy
2
Department of Health, Performance and Recovery, Parma Calcio 1913, 40121 Parma, Italy
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20129 Milano, Italy
4
Faculdade de Educação Física e Desporto, Universidade Lusófona, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal
5
CIPER—Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Human Performance, Faculty Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, 1495-751 Lisboa, Portugal
6
Bioperformance & Nutrition Research Unit, Ingrediente Métrico S.A., 2740-262 Lisbon, Portugal
7
Medical Department Manchester City Football Club, Manchester 03101, UK
8
Department of Computer Science, University of Pisa, 56121 Pisa, Italy
9
Medical Department Parma Calcio 1913, 40121 Parma, Italy
10
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 24 October 2020 / Published: 27 October 2020
Easy-to-apply and quick methods for evaluate body composition are often preferred when assessing soccer teams. This study aimed to develop new equations for the somatotype quantification that would reduce the anthropometric measurements required by the Heath and Carter method, integrating the somatotype assessment to the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). One hundred and seventy-six male elite soccer players (age 26.9 ± 4.5 years), registered in the Italian first division (Serie A), underwent anthropometric measurements and BIA. Endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy were obtained according to the Heath and Carter method, while fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) estimated using a BIA-derived equation specific for athletes. The participants were randomly split into development (n = 117) and validation groups (n = 59, 1/3 of sample). The developed models including resistance2/stature, FM%, FFM, contracted arm and calf circumference, triceps, and supraspinal skinfolds had high predictive ability for endomorphy (R2 = 0.83, Standard Error of Estimate (SEE) = 0.16) mesomorphy (R2 = 0.80, SEE = 0.36), and ectomorphy (endomorphy (R2 = 0.87, SEE = 0.22). Cross validation revealed R2 of 0.80, 0.84, 0.87 for endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy, respectively. The proposed strategy allows the integration of somatotype assessment to BIA in soccer players, reducing the number of instruments and measurements required by the Heath and Carter approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthropometry; BIA; body composition; morphology; predictive equation anthropometry; BIA; body composition; morphology; predictive equation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Campa, F.; Bongiovanni, T.; Matias, C.N.; Genovesi, F.; Trecroci, A.; Rossi, A.; Iaia, F.M.; Alberti, G.; Pasta, G.; Toselli, S. A New Strategy to Integrate Heath–Carter Somatotype Assessment with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Elite Soccer Players. Sports 2020, 8, 142. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8110142

AMA Style

Campa F, Bongiovanni T, Matias CN, Genovesi F, Trecroci A, Rossi A, Iaia FM, Alberti G, Pasta G, Toselli S. A New Strategy to Integrate Heath–Carter Somatotype Assessment with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Elite Soccer Players. Sports. 2020; 8(11):142. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8110142

Chicago/Turabian Style

Campa, Francesco, Tindaro Bongiovanni, Catarina N. Matias, Federico Genovesi, Athos Trecroci, Alessio Rossi, F. M. Iaia, Giampietro Alberti, Giulio Pasta, and Stefania Toselli. 2020. "A New Strategy to Integrate Heath–Carter Somatotype Assessment with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Elite Soccer Players" Sports 8, no. 11: 142. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8110142

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