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Sports, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2020) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Improvements in nutrition knowledge have been associated with increased carbohydrate consumption and greater adherence to dietary recommendations among female athletes. In order to assess whether nutrition knowledge interventions would be beneficial for female Gaelic games players, their current levels of nutrition knowledge were assessed. The level of overall nutrition knowledge was identified as poor, with elite players and those with previous nutrition education scoring higher. Future education interventions with female Gaelic games players may lead to beneficial changes in dietary behaviour and would likely benefit from stratifying content based on athletes’ demographic characteristics, given the differences observed. View this paper
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Review
Epidemiology of Injuries in Ultimate (Frisbee): A Systematic Review
Sports 2020, 8(12), 168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120168 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1914
Abstract
Ultimate is a high-intensity, non-contact team sport played with a flying disc (e.g., frisbee). Despite the growing popularity of ultimate worldwide, there is limited information about the epidemiology of injury in the sport. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive [...] Read more.
Ultimate is a high-intensity, non-contact team sport played with a flying disc (e.g., frisbee). Despite the growing popularity of ultimate worldwide, there is limited information about the epidemiology of injury in the sport. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview and synthesis of the literature on the epidemiology of injury in ultimate. A comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in five electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, SPORTDiscus, and AusportMed). All databases were searched from inception to 1 July 2020. A total of eleven studies were included and qualitatively synthesized. Injury incidence rate estimates ranged from 0.4 to 84.9 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures. The lifetime prevalence of any injury and concussion were 100% and 26%, respectively. The most commonly injured body region was the lower limb, with the knee and thigh being the most frequently injured anatomical locations. The most frequent injury types were muscle injuries and superficial contusions. The most common injury situation was direct contact with another player. There is a substantial risk of injury in ultimate, in particular muscle strains and joint sprains to the knee and shoulder areas. Development and implementation of effective, sport-specific injury prevention initiatives, including improved injury risk management and sport safety culture, should be a priority to reduce the burden of injury in ultimate. Full article
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Article
Training Characteristics and Power Profile of Professional U23 Cyclists throughout a Competitive Season
Sports 2020, 8(12), 167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120167 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3567
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the power profile derived from training and racing, the training characteristics across a competitive season and the relationships between training and power profile in U23 professional cyclists. Methods: Thirty male U23 professional [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the power profile derived from training and racing, the training characteristics across a competitive season and the relationships between training and power profile in U23 professional cyclists. Methods: Thirty male U23 professional cyclists (age, 20.0 ± 1.0 years; weight, 68.9 ± 6.9 kg; V˙O2max, 73.7 ± 2.5 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in this study. The cycling season was split into pre-, early-, mid- and late-season periods. Power data 2, 5, 12 min mean maximum power (MMP), critical power (CP) and training characteristics (Hours, Total Work, eTRIMP, Work·h−1, eTRIMP·h−1, Time<VT1, TimeVT1-2 and Time>VT2) were recorded for each period. Power profiles derived exclusively from either training or racing data and training characteristics were compared between periods. The relationships between the changes in training characteristics and changes in the power profile were also investigated. Results: The absolute and relative power profiles were higher during racing than training at all periods (p ≤ 0.001–0.020). Training characteristics were significantly different between periods, with the lowest values in pre-season followed by late-season (p ≤ 0.001–0.040). Changes in the power profile between early- and mid-season significantly correlated with the changes in training characteristics (p < 0.05, r = −0.59 to 0.45). Conclusion: These findings reveal that a higher power profile was recorded during racing than training. In addition, training characteristics were lowest in pre-season followed by late-season. Changes in training characteristics correlated with changes in the power profile in early- and mid-season, but not in late-season. Practitioners should consider the influence of racing on the derived power profile and adequately balance training programs throughout a competitive season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodization and Programming in Sports)
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Article
Gaelic Football Match-Play: Performance Attenuation and Timeline of Recovery
Sports 2020, 8(12), 166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120166 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
This study investigated acute changes in markers of fatigue and performance attenuation during and following a competitive senior club-level Gaelic football match. Forty-one players were tested immediately pre-match, at half-time, full-time, 24 h post-match and 48 h post-match. Creatine kinase, drop jump height [...] Read more.
This study investigated acute changes in markers of fatigue and performance attenuation during and following a competitive senior club-level Gaelic football match. Forty-one players were tested immediately pre-match, at half-time, full-time, 24 h post-match and 48 h post-match. Creatine kinase, drop jump height and contact-time, reactive strength index, countermovement jump height and perceptual responses were assessed at the aforementioned time-points. 18 Hz global positioning system devices were used to record players in-game workload measures. Compared to pre-match, perceptual responses (−27.6%) and countermovement jump height (−3.9%) were significantly reduced at full-time (p < 0.05). Drop jump height (−8.8%), perceptual responses (−27.6%), reactive strength index (−15.6%) and countermovement jump height (−8.6%) were significantly lower 24 h post-match (p < 0.05). Pre-match creatine kinase was significantly increased (+16.2% to +159.9%) when compared to all other time-points (p < 0.05). Total distance, total accelerations, total sprints, sprint distance and average heart rate were all correlated to changes in perceptual responses (r = 0.34 to 0.56, p < 0.05). Additionally, maximum speed achieved (r = 0.34) and sprint distance (r = 0.31) were significantly related to countermovement jump changes (p < 0.05), while impacts (r = 0.36) were correlated to creatine kinase increases (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that Gaelic football match-play elicits substantial neuromuscular, biochemical and perceptual disturbances. Full article
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Article
The Relationships between Internal and External Load Measures for Division I College Football Practice
Sports 2020, 8(12), 165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120165 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore the relationships between internal and external load measures in American football. Thirty football players wore a portable integrated monitor unit for 10 weeks during the fall football season. Relationships between internal and external load measurements [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to explore the relationships between internal and external load measures in American football. Thirty football players wore a portable integrated monitor unit for 10 weeks during the fall football season. Relationships between internal and external load measurements were determined. Internal load consisted of heart rate zones and heart rate-derived measures and session Ratings of Perceived Exertion (sRPE). External load consisted of distance in different speed zones, total distance traveled, and accelerations. There were many significant positive relationships, but the meaningful relationships (r > 0.5) were between heart rate-derived measures of load (Training Impulse and heart rate reserve) and low-intensity movement and total distance. Only accelerations between 1 and 1.99 m·s−2 were moderately correlated to heart rate-derived internal load. RPE values alone did not correlate strong enough with any of the measure but sRPE training load (sRPE-TL) correlated to most external values. Overall, moderate correlations were present between heart rate-derived internal load to total distance and lower intensity movement. sRPE-TL values had high correlations but were highly dependent on duration, not perceived exertion. When addressing load in American football, duration of the session is a key component in determining internal load as HR data and sRPE alone do not correlate highly with external loads. Full article
Article
Comparison of Morning Heart Rate Variability at the Beginning and End of a Competition Season in Elite Speed Skaters
Sports 2020, 8(12), 164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120164 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1347
Abstract
The aim of this study was to clarify whether the physiological fatigue status of elite speed skaters is influenced by the approximately five-month international competition season by comparing morning heart rate variability (HRV) at the beginning of the competition season (Japan Single Distances [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to clarify whether the physiological fatigue status of elite speed skaters is influenced by the approximately five-month international competition season by comparing morning heart rate variability (HRV) at the beginning of the competition season (Japan Single Distances Championships: JSDC) with that at the end of the competition season (World Single Distances Championships: WSDC). Five international-class speed skaters participated in the study. HRV indices and subjective fatigue were measured each morning of the four days prior to the first races of the JSDC and WSDC in the 2007/2008 season. The parasympathetic HRV indices: root mean square of the successive R-R interval differences (RMSSD) (JSDC, 61.0 ms; WSDC, 42.1 ms; p < 0.05), high-frequency component power (HF) (JSDC, 1393 ms2; WSDC, 443 ms2; p < 0.05), and normalized unit of HF (HFnu) (JSDC, 53.2%; WSDC, 25.5%; p < 0.05) were lower for the WSDC than for the JSDC. The decrease in these indices may reflect the skaters’ accumulated fatigue during the course of the competition season. Morning measurements of HRV may thus be an efficient way for elite speed skaters and coaches to objectively monitor physiological fatigue throughout the competition season. Full article
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Article
Supra-Versus Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Verification of VO2max in Males and Females
Sports 2020, 8(12), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120163 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
This study was designed to determine the optimal intensity for verification phase testing (VP) in healthy, young adults. Thirty one young, active participants (16 females) completed a cycle ergometer graded exercise test (GXT) VO2max test and 4 VP tests at 80, 90, [...] Read more.
This study was designed to determine the optimal intensity for verification phase testing (VP) in healthy, young adults. Thirty one young, active participants (16 females) completed a cycle ergometer graded exercise test (GXT) VO2max test and 4 VP tests at 80, 90, 100, and 105% of the maximum wattage achieved during the GXT. GXT and VP VO2max values showed a significant test x sex interaction (p = 0.02). The males elicited significantly higher VO2max values during the GXT, 80%, and 90% when compared to the 105%, (105 vs. GXT: p = 0.05; 105% vs. 80%: p < 0.01; 105% vs. 90%: p = 0.02). There were no significant differences in VO2max across the tests in the females (p > 0.05); 80% of the males achieved their highest VP VO2max during a submaximal VP test compared to only 37.5% of the females. A secondary study conducted showed excellent reliability (ICCs > 0.90) and low variation (CVs < 3%) for the 90% VP. Our findings show that a submaximal verification phase intensity is ideal for young healthy males to elicit the highest VO2max during cycle ergometer testing. For females, a range of intensities (80–105%) produce similar VO2max values. However, the 80% VP yields an unnecessarily high time to exhaustion. Full article
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Article
The Relationship between Motivational Climate and Personal Treatment Satisfaction among Young Soccer Players in Norway: The Moderating Role of Supportive Coach-Behaviour
Sports 2020, 8(12), 162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120162 - 12 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Motivational climate and coach-behaviour seem important to understand sport involvement and participation. However, less is known about the potential interaction between these facets, and how it relates to athlete satisfaction. This study’s purpose is to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, [...] Read more.
Motivational climate and coach-behaviour seem important to understand sport involvement and participation. However, less is known about the potential interaction between these facets, and how it relates to athlete satisfaction. This study’s purpose is to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, supportive coach-behaviour, and athletes’ personal treatment satisfaction among young soccer players. More specifically, we investigated the moderating effect of supportive coach-behaviour on the relationship between motivational climate and personal treatment satisfaction. Five hundred and thirty-two players (Mean age = 15.4 years, SD = 1.2) attending a Norwegian national soccer tournament participated in the study. Self-completion questionnaires were used to attain data. A linear regression analysis revealed that mastery of climate and supportive coach-behaviour were positively associated with personal treatment satisfaction. A negative association was found between performance climate and personal treatment satisfaction. Further, moderation analyses revealed that supportive coach-behaviour moderated the relationship between performance climate and personal treatment satisfaction. The findings indicate that a performance climate may not be as maladaptive when coaches provide supportive behaviour. The findings highlight the value of a further examination of the interaction between motivational climate and coaching behaviours, and its potential relations to young athlete’s sport experience. Full article
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Article
Position Specific Running Performances in Professional Football (Soccer): Influence of Different Tactical Formations
Sports 2020, 8(12), 161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120161 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Running performances (RPs) are known to be important parameters of success in football (soccer), but there is a lack of studies where RPs are contextualized regarding applied tactical solutions. This study aims to quantify and analyze the differences in position-specific RPs in professional [...] Read more.
Running performances (RPs) are known to be important parameters of success in football (soccer), but there is a lack of studies where RPs are contextualized regarding applied tactical solutions. This study aims to quantify and analyze the differences in position-specific RPs in professional football, when games are played with three defensive players (3DP) and four defensive players (4DP). The participants here include professional football players (M ± SD, age 23.57 ± 2.84 years, body height 181.9 ± 5.17 cm, body mass 78.36 ± 4.18 kg) playing at the highest competitive level in Croatia. RPs were measured by global positioning system and classified into four groups based on playing positions: central defenders (CD; n = 47), wide defenders (WD; n = 24), midfielders (MF; n = 48), or forwards (FW; n = 19). Analysis of variance and discriminant canonical analysis are used to identify differences between 3DP and 4DP tactical solutions in terms of the RPs for each playing position. The number of accelerations and decelerations most significantly contributed to the differentiation of 3DP and 4DP among MFs (Wilks λ = 0.31, p < 0.001), with higher occurrences with 3DP. For CDs, total distance, and high-intensity running were higher in 3DP (Wilks λ = 0.66, p < 0.001). No multivariate differences were found for FW and WD players in terms of the RPs between 3DP and 4DP tactical formations. The characteristics and differences shown in this study may provide useful information for coaching staff regarding changing in-season tactical formations. Additionally, the results are useful for optimizing training programs for football players with different playing positions. When changing from 4DP to 3DP tactical formations, WDs training programs should include more of high-intensity running, while MFs training programs should be more based on short intensity activities (accelerations and decelerations). Full article
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Article
Lung Function and Respiratory Muscle Adaptations of Endurance- and Strength-Trained Males
Sports 2020, 8(12), 160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120160 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Diverse exercise-induced adaptations following aerobic endurance compared to strength-training programs is well documented, however, there is paucity of research specifically focused on adaptations in the respiratory system. The aim of the study was to examine whether differences in lung function and respiratory muscle [...] Read more.
Diverse exercise-induced adaptations following aerobic endurance compared to strength-training programs is well documented, however, there is paucity of research specifically focused on adaptations in the respiratory system. The aim of the study was to examine whether differences in lung function and respiratory muscle strength exist between trainers predominately engaged in endurance compared to strength-related exercise. A secondary aim was to investigate if lung function and respiratory muscle strength were associated with one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the strength trainers, and with VO2 max and fat-free mass in each respective group. Forty-six males participated in this study, consisting of 24 strength-trained (26.2 ± 6.4 years) and 22 endurance-trained (29.9 ± 7.6 years) participants. Testing involved measures of lung function, respiratory muscle strength, VO2 max, 1RM, and body composition. The endurance-trained compared to strength-trained participants had greater maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) (11.3%, p = 0.02). The strength-trained compared to endurance-trained participants generated greater maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) (14.3%, p = 0.02) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) (12.4%, p = 0.02). Moderate–strong relationships were found between strength-trained respiratory muscle strength (MIP and MEP) and squat and deadlift 1RM (r = 0.48–0.55, p ≤ 0.017). For the strength-trained participants, a strong relationship was found between MVV and VO2 max (mL·kg−1·min−1) (r = 0.63, p = 0.003) and a moderate relationship between MIP and fat-free mass (r = 0.42, p = 0.04). It appears that endurance compared to strength trainers have greater muscle endurance, while the latter group exhibits greater respiratory muscle strength. Differences in respiratory muscle strength in resistance trainers may be influenced by lower body strength. Full article
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Article
Force-Time Waveform Shape Reveals Countermovement Jump Strategies of Collegiate Athletes
Sports 2020, 8(12), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120159 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to relate the shape of countermovement jump (CMJ) vertical ground reaction force waveforms to discrete parameters and determine if waveform shape could enhance CMJ analysis. Vertical ground reaction forces during CMJs were collected for 394 male and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to relate the shape of countermovement jump (CMJ) vertical ground reaction force waveforms to discrete parameters and determine if waveform shape could enhance CMJ analysis. Vertical ground reaction forces during CMJs were collected for 394 male and female collegiate athletes competing at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 and National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) levels. Jump parameters were calculated for each athlete and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on normalized force-time waveforms consisting of the eccentric braking and concentric phases. A K-means clustering of PCA scores placed athletes into three groups based on their waveform shape. The overall average waveforms of all athletes in each cluster produced three distinct vertical ground reaction force waveform patterns. There were significant differences across clusters for all calculated jump parameters. Athletes with a rounded single hump shape jumped highest and quickest. Athletes with a plateau at the transition between the eccentric braking and concentric phase (amortization) followed by a peak in force near the end of the concentric phase had the lowest jump height and slowest jump time. Analysis of force-time waveform shape can identify differences in CMJ strategies in collegiate athletes. Full article
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Article
Relationships among Actual Motor Competence, Perceived Motor Competence, and Health-Related Fitness in College-Aged Males
Sports 2020, 8(12), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8120158 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Actual motor competence (MC), perceived motor competence (PMC), and health-related fitness (HRF) exhibit a dynamic and reciprocal relationship in child populations, but little is known about the nature of these relationships in young adulthood. The purpose of the study was to assess these [...] Read more.
Actual motor competence (MC), perceived motor competence (PMC), and health-related fitness (HRF) exhibit a dynamic and reciprocal relationship in child populations, but little is known about the nature of these relationships in young adulthood. The purpose of the study was to assess these relationships in a sample of college-aged males. A total of 55 participants enrolled in an undergraduate Kinesiology course completed the study. Perceived motor competence (PMC) was assessed with the Physical Self-Perception Profile questionnaire; MC was assessed using maximum throw and kick speed and maximum jump distance; HRF was assessed with a two-minute push-up test, two-minute sit-up test, and the Multistage 20-m Shuttle Run Test. Pearson’s bivariate correlations were calculated to assess relationships among PMC total score, MC scores, and HRF scores. Two separate indices were calculated to create composite total MC and total HRF scores used for subsequent analyses. Significant correlations were found between PMC total score, MC index, and HRF index. Multiple linear regressions were used for analyzing predictive measures for HRF and PMC scores. From the two regression models, significance varied among total MC scores, PMC scores, and HRF individual measures. These findings may suggest that relationships among MC, HRF, and PMC strengthen over developmental time in young adult males. Full article
Article
Changes in Inflammatory Cytokines and Irisin in Response to High Intensity Swimming in Adolescent versus Adult Male Swimmers
Sports 2020, 8(12), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120157 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Swimming is a popular youth sport that is considered beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. However, the potential inflammatory outcomes of high intensity swimming in younger swimmers are unclear, as is the response of irisin, a myokine released during exercise with anti-inflammatory properties. This study [...] Read more.
Swimming is a popular youth sport that is considered beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. However, the potential inflammatory outcomes of high intensity swimming in younger swimmers are unclear, as is the response of irisin, a myokine released during exercise with anti-inflammatory properties. This study compared the plasma concentrations of interleukins 1-beta (IL-1β), 6 (IL-6), 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and irisin in response to intense swimming between adolescent and adult male swimmers. Thirty-two swimmers (16 adolescents, 14 ± 1 years; 16 adults, 21.5 ± 3.1 years) completed a high intensity interval swimming trial. At rest, only TNF-α was higher (33%, p < 0.05) in adolescents compared with adults. There was an overall significant increase in IL-1β from pre- to post-swimming (3% in adolescents, 24% in adults), but no significant interaction. IL-10 significantly increased in both groups (+34% in adolescents, +56% in adults). IL-6 and TNF-α increased significantly (+32% and +26%, respectively) in adults, but not in adolescents (+2% and −9%, respectively). Adults showed a small, but significant decrease in irisin (−5%), with no change in adolescents. The lack of an IL-6, TNF-α and irisin response to intense swimming in adolescent swimmers may suggest a blunted inflammatory and myokine response following high intensity exercise in trained youth. Full article
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Article
Self-Selected Versus Standardised Warm-Ups; Physiological Response on 500 m Sprint Kayak Performance
Sports 2020, 8(12), 156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120156 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of a self-selected (SS) warm-up on 500 m sprint kayak performance (K500) compared to continuous (CON) and intermittent high intensity (INT)-type warm-ups. Twelve nationally ranked sprint kayakers (age 17.7 ± 2.3 years, mass 69.2 ± 10.8 kg) performed [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a self-selected (SS) warm-up on 500 m sprint kayak performance (K500) compared to continuous (CON) and intermittent high intensity (INT)-type warm-ups. Twelve nationally ranked sprint kayakers (age 17.7 ± 2.3 years, mass 69.2 ± 10.8 kg) performed CON (15 min at the power at 2 m·mol−1), INT (10 min at 2 m·mol−1, followed by 5 × 10 s sprints at 200% power at VO2max with 50 s recovery at 55% power at VO2max), and SS (athlete’s normal competition warm-up) warm-ups in a randomised order. After a five-minute passive recovery, K500 performance was determined on a kayak ergometer. Heart rate and blood lactate (BLa) were recorded before and immediately after each warm-up and K500 performance. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at the end of the warm-up and K500. BLa, heart rate, and RPE were generally higher after the INT than CON and SS warm-ups (p < 0.05). No differences in these parameters were found between the conditions for the time trial (p > 0.05). RPE and changes in BLa and heart rate after the K500 were comparable. There were no differences in K500 performance after the CON, SS, or INT warm-ups. Applied practitioners can, therefore, attain similar performance independent of warm-up type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization of Human Performance and Health)
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Article
Predicting Maximal Oxygen Uptake Using the 3-Minute All-Out Test in High-Intensity Functional Training Athletes
Sports 2020, 8(12), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120155 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and critical speed (CS) are key fatigue-related measurements that demonstrate a relationship to one another and are indicative of athletic endurance performance. This is especially true for those that participate in competitive fitness events. However, the accessibility [...] Read more.
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and critical speed (CS) are key fatigue-related measurements that demonstrate a relationship to one another and are indicative of athletic endurance performance. This is especially true for those that participate in competitive fitness events. However, the accessibility to a metabolic analyzer to accurately measure VO2max is expensive and time intensive, whereas CS may be measured in the field using a 3 min all-out test (3MT). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between VO2max and CS in high-intensity functional training (HIFT) athletes. Twenty-five male and female (age: 27.6 ± 4.5 years; height: 174.5 ± 18.3 cm; weight: 77.4 ± 14.8 kg; body fat: 15.7 ± 6.5%) HIFT athletes performed a 3MT as well as a graded exercise test with 48 h between measurements. True VO2max was determined using a square-wave supramaximal verification phase and CS was measured as the average speed of the last 30 s of the 3MT. A statistically significant and positive correlation was observed between relative VO2max and CS values (r = 0.819, p < 0.001). Based on the significant correlation, a linear regression analysis was completed, including sex, in order to develop a VO2max prediction equation (VO2max (mL/kg/min) = 8.449(CS) + 4.387(F = 0, M = 1) + 14.683; standard error of the estimate = 3.34 mL/kg/min). Observed (47.71 ± 6.54 mL/kg/min) and predicted (47.71 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) VO2max values were compared using a dependent t-test and no significant difference was displayed between the observed and predicted values (p = 1.000). The typical error, coefficient of variation, and intraclass correlation coefficient were 2.26 mL/kg/min, 4.90%, and 0.864, respectively. The positive and significant relationship between VO2max and CS suggests that the 3MT may be a practical alternative to predicting maximal oxygen uptake when time and access to a metabolic analyzer is limited. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Nutrition Knowledge in Female Gaelic Games Players
Sports 2020, 8(12), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120154 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
Improvements in nutrition knowledge have been associated with increased carbohydrate consumption and greater adherence to dietary recommendations among female athletes. In order to assess whether nutrition knowledge interventions in female Gaelic games players may be beneficial, it is necessary to first of all [...] Read more.
Improvements in nutrition knowledge have been associated with increased carbohydrate consumption and greater adherence to dietary recommendations among female athletes. In order to assess whether nutrition knowledge interventions in female Gaelic games players may be beneficial, it is necessary to first of all investigate current levels of nutrition knowledge in this population. Given that many demographic characteristics have been shown to influence nutrition knowledge, it is also important for these to be investigated. The aims of this study were to evaluate the nutrition knowledge of female Gaelic games players, compare knowledge by players’ characteristics and identify players’ preferences for information and support. A validated 35-item questionnaire was completed by 328 female Gaelic games players (Age: 23.7 ± 5.0 years). Players’ mean nutrition knowledge score was 46.0% ± 11.8% and classified as “poor”. Elite players scored greater (+4.5–5.9%, p < 0.05) than subelite players. Players with higher levels of general education, history of formal nutrition education and previous advice from a nutritionist also presented greater nutrition knowledge (+3.7–7.5%, p < 0.05). Future education interventions with female Gaelic games players may lead to beneficial changes in dietary behaviour and would likely benefit from stratifying content based on athletes’ demographic characteristics, given the differences observed. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Traditional and Stabilization-Oriented Exercises on Deep Stabilization System Function in Elite Futsal Players
Sports 2020, 8(12), 153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120153 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to compare the effect of traditional and stability-oriented strength exercises on trunk stability and deep stabilization system (DSS) activation in elite futsal players. Methods: Twenty elite futsal players (21–34 years, 180 ± 13 cm, 79 ± 15 kg) were [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to compare the effect of traditional and stability-oriented strength exercises on trunk stability and deep stabilization system (DSS) activation in elite futsal players. Methods: Twenty elite futsal players (21–34 years, 180 ± 13 cm, 79 ± 15 kg) were randomly divided into a group that performed stability-oriented exercises and a group that performed traditional strength exercises. Both interventions lasted for 10 weeks and included 25 strength training sessions. Main outcome measures: The DSS pretest and posttest included the diaphragm test, trunk flexion test, back extension test, hip flexion test, intraabdominal pressure test, and a side plank test on a 1–5 point scale. Results: Both groups had similar initial test results, where the stability-oriented exercise group had significantly improved intraabdominal pressure test (p = 0.004, by lower quartile rate), trunk flexion (p = 0.036, by 0.5 grade in median), and side plank (p = 0.002, by 1 grade in median) in posttest results. Traditional exercise did not change the results of any of the included DSS function tests. Conclusions: Stabilization-oriented exercises effectively activate the functions of the DSS and should be prioritized over traditional strength exercises in injury prevention training programs. The use of stabilization-oriented exercises might prevent injury and overloading in elite futsal players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Futsal - From Training to Competition)
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Article
Longitudinal Change of Forearm-Hand Inertia Value and Shoulder Musculature Using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Youth Japanese Baseball Players: Implications for Elbow Injury
Sports 2020, 8(12), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120152 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 812
Abstract
It is important to understand the timing of the maximum increase of forearm-hand inertia value and lean body mass (LBM) of the shoulder girdle musculature when elbow injury frequently occurs. This study aimed to clarify the discrepancies of those in youth baseball players. [...] Read more.
It is important to understand the timing of the maximum increase of forearm-hand inertia value and lean body mass (LBM) of the shoulder girdle musculature when elbow injury frequently occurs. This study aimed to clarify the discrepancies of those in youth baseball players. Forty-three male baseball players (8- to 14-years-old) participated in this study. The forearm-hand inertia value and LBM of the shoulder girdle musculature were calculated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A cubic spline fit was applied to the annual increase forearm-hand inertia value and LBM of the shoulder girdle musculature for each chronological age and years from peak height velocity (PHV) age. As a result of cubic splines fitting, the peak timing for forearm-hand inertia value and LBM of the shoulder girdle musculature was 12.42 and 12.75 years in chronological age, −0.66 and −0.11 years in PHV age. Therefore, the peak timing of forearm-hand inertia value was about 4 months earlier in chronological age and half a year earlier in PHV age than LBM of the shoulder girdle musculature. Acquiring sufficient shoulder girdle musculature during the period when the growth of the shoulder girdle musculature cannot catch up with forearm-hand inertial value is necessary to reduce the elbow load while throwing. Full article
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Article
The Effects of the Barbell Hip Thrust on Post-Activation Performance Enhancement of Change of Direction Speed in College-Aged Men and Women
Sports 2020, 8(12), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120151 - 24 Nov 2020
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Abstract
This study investigated whether the barbell hip thrust (BHT) enhanced change-of-direction (COD) speed measured by the 505 COD speed test. Forty recreationally trained individuals completed three sessions. Session 1 included one-repetition maximum (1RM) BHT testing to measure absolute and relative strength. Sessions 2 [...] Read more.
This study investigated whether the barbell hip thrust (BHT) enhanced change-of-direction (COD) speed measured by the 505 COD speed test. Forty recreationally trained individuals completed three sessions. Session 1 included one-repetition maximum (1RM) BHT testing to measure absolute and relative strength. Sessions 2 and 3 involved two counter-balanced conditioning activities (CAs): 3 sets × 5 repetitions of the BHT at 85% 1RM and a control condition (CC; 6 min rest). The 505 COD speed test was performed 5 and 2.5 min pre-CA, and 4, 8, 12, and 16 min post-CA in each session. A 2 × 5 repeated-measures ANOVA (p < 0.05) calculated performance changes across time post-CA. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA analyzed best potentiated performance. Partial correlations controlling for sex calculated relationships between the 1RM BHT and 505 COD speed test percent potentiation. There was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001), but not for condition (p = 0.271) or condition × time (p = 0.295). There were no significant correlations between 1RM BHT and potentiation. The 85% 1RM BHT did potentiate the 505 4–16 min post-CA but no more than the CC. Nonetheless, a heavy BHT could be programmed prior to COD drills as COD speed could be potentiated and performance improved in men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance of Collegiate or College-Aged Athletes)
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