Next Issue
Volume 9, December
Previous Issue
Volume 9, October

Sports, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We aimed to uncover which rectus femoris strain injury types affect regional activation within the rectus femoris. The rectus femoris has a region-specific functional role; the proximal region of the rectus femoris contributes more than the middle and distal regions during hip flexion. Although a history of strain injury modifies the region-specific functional role within the rectus femoris, it was not obvious which rectus femoris strain injury types affect regional activation within it. We studied 12 soccer players with a history of rectus femoris strain injury. Injury data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and magnetic resonance imaging. To confirm the region-specific functional role of the rectus femoris, surface multichannel electromyographic signals were recorded. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Impact of Training Protocols on Lifting Velocity Recovery in Resistance Trained Males and Females
Sports 2021, 9(11), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110157 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 989
Abstract
It has been suggested that sex differences exist in recovery following strength training. This study aimed to investigate the differences in recovery kinetics between resistance trained males and females following two different back squat (BSq) protocols. The first protocol (eight females and eight [...] Read more.
It has been suggested that sex differences exist in recovery following strength training. This study aimed to investigate the differences in recovery kinetics between resistance trained males and females following two different back squat (BSq) protocols. The first protocol (eight females and eight males) consisted of five sets of five repetitions at 80% of their one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the BSq (SMRT), while the second (seven females and eight males) consisted of five sets to muscular failure (MF) with a 4–6RM load (RMRT). The recovery was quantified with the mean concentric velocity (MV) at 80% of the 1RM immediately before and 5 min, 24, 48, and 72 h after the training protocol. Following the SMRT, a significant between-sex difference, favoring the females, was observed at 5 min, 24 h, and 48 h following the SMRT (p < 0.05, Effect Size (ES) = 1.01–2.25). Following the RMRT, only the males experienced a significant drop in performance after 5 min compared to the baseline (p = 0.025, ES = 1.34). However, no sex differences were observed at any timepoint (p > 0.05). These results suggest that males experienced more fatigue than females following a protocol where the volume relative to the 1RM was matched, while no differences in fatigue were evident following a protocol in which multiple sets were performed to MF. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Considerations of Control Groups: Comparing Active-Control with No Treatment for Examining the Effects of Brief Intervention
Sports 2021, 9(11), 156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110156 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Background: A large-scale online study completed by this research team found that brief psychological interventions were associated with high-intensity pleasant emotions and predicted performance. The present study extends this work using data from participants (n = 3376) who completed all self-report data [...] Read more.
Background: A large-scale online study completed by this research team found that brief psychological interventions were associated with high-intensity pleasant emotions and predicted performance. The present study extends this work using data from participants (n = 3376) who completed all self-report data and engaged in a performance task but who did not engage with an intervention or control condition and therefore present as an opportunistic no-treatment group. Methods: 41,720 participants were selected from the process and outcome focus goals intervention groups, which were the successful interventions (n = 30,096), active-control (n = 3039), and no-treatment (n = 8585). Participants completed a competitive task four times: first as practice, second to establish a baseline, third following an opportunity to complete a brief psychological skills intervention, and lastly following an opportunity to repeat the intervention. Repeated measures MANOVA indicated that over four performance rounds, the intensity of positive emotions increased, performance improved, and the amount of effort participants exerted increased; however, these increases were significantly smaller in the no-treatment group. Conclusions: Findings suggest that not engaging in active training conditions had negative effects. We suggest that these findings have implications for the development and deployment of online interventions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Slow and Steady, or Hard and Fast? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Body Composition Changes between Interval Training and Moderate Intensity Continuous Training
Sports 2021, 9(11), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110155 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 3670
Abstract
Purpose: To conduct a systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis of the current literature as to the effects of interval training (IT) vs moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on measures of body composition, both on a whole-body and regional level. Methods: We searched English-language [...] Read more.
Purpose: To conduct a systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis of the current literature as to the effects of interval training (IT) vs moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on measures of body composition, both on a whole-body and regional level. Methods: We searched English-language papers on PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, and sportrxiv for the following inclusion criteria: (a) randomized controlled trials that directly compared IT vs MICT body composition using a validated measure in healthy children and adults; (b) training was carried out a minimum of once per week for at least four weeks; (c) published in a peer-reviewed English language journal or on a pre-print server. Results: The main model for fat mass effects revealed a trivial standardized point estimate with high precision for the interval estimate, with moderate heterogeneity (−0.016 (95%CI −0.07 to 0.04); I2 = 36%). The main model for fat-free mass (FFM) effects revealed a trivial standardized point estimate with high precision for the interval estimate, with negligible heterogeneity (−0.0004 (95%CI −0.05 to 0.05); I2 = 16%). The GRADE summary of findings suggested high certainty for both main model effects. Conclusions: Our findings provide compelling evidence that the pattern of intensity of effort and volume during endurance exercise (i.e., IT vs MICT) has minimal influence on longitudinal changes in fat mass and FFM, which are likely to minimal anyway. Trial registration number: This study was preregistered on the Open Science Framework. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Nutritional Considerations for Para-Cycling Athletes: A Narrative Review
Sports 2021, 9(11), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110154 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Para-cycling is a sport including athletes with different disabilities competing on the track and on the roads using bicycles, tandems, tricycles, and handbikes. Scientific literature in this special population is scarce, especially in the field of sports nutrition. This review summarizes the physiological [...] Read more.
Para-cycling is a sport including athletes with different disabilities competing on the track and on the roads using bicycles, tandems, tricycles, and handbikes. Scientific literature in this special population is scarce, especially in the field of sports nutrition. This review summarizes the physiological aspects and demands of para-cycling. This information together with the existing literature on nutritional interventions in this population, helps to discuss the nutritional considerations. To date, only a limited amount of recommendations are available for this population. In most para-cycling athletes, a reduction in active muscle mass and consequently a reduction in resting energy expenditure occurs, except for visually impaired athletes. Furthermore, carbohydrate and protein intake and hydration, supplementation, heat, and weight loss need to be tailored to the disability-specific adaptations such as the reduced active muscle mass, neurogenic bladder, and bowel, a reduced metabolic cost during exercise, and a higher risk of micronutrient deficiency. Full article
Review
Acute and Long-Term Effects of Attentional Focus Strategies on Muscular Strength: A Meta-Analysis
Sports 2021, 9(11), 153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110153 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 819
Abstract
This review aimed to perform a meta-analysis examining the following: (a) acute effects of adopting an internal focus vs. external focus of attention on muscular strength; and (b) long-term effects of adopting an internal focus vs. external focus of attention during resistance training [...] Read more.
This review aimed to perform a meta-analysis examining the following: (a) acute effects of adopting an internal focus vs. external focus of attention on muscular strength; and (b) long-term effects of adopting an internal focus vs. external focus of attention during resistance training on gains in muscular strength. We searched through five databases to find eligible studies. Random-effects meta-analyses of standardized mean differences were conducted to analyze the data. Ten studies were included. In the meta-analysis for the acute effects, there was a significant positive effect of external focus on muscular strength (standardized mean difference: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.22, 0.46). In the meta-analysis for the long-term effects, there was no significant difference between training with an internal focus and external focus on muscular strength gains (standardized mean difference: 0.32; 95% confidence interval: –0.08, 0.73). In the subgroup analysis for lower-body exercises, we found a significant positive effect of training with an external focus on muscular strength gains (standardized mean difference: 0.47; 95% confidence interval: 0.07, 0.87). In summary, our findings indicate an acute increase in muscular strength when utilizing an external focus of attention. When applied over the long-term, using an external focus of attention may also enhance resistance training-induced gains in lower-body muscular strength. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Analysis of Acceleration, Deceleration and High-Intensity Skating during Elite Bandy Match-Play: A Case Study
Sports 2021, 9(11), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110152 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Profiles of physical workload in sports are useful to optimize performance and reduce the risk of injury. The aim of the study was to investigate physical workload in 10 elite bandy players by describing acceleration, deceleration, and high-intensity skating during bandy match-play. During [...] Read more.
Profiles of physical workload in sports are useful to optimize performance and reduce the risk of injury. The aim of the study was to investigate physical workload in 10 elite bandy players by describing acceleration, deceleration, and high-intensity skating during bandy match-play. During 13 home matches, 10 male elite bandy players wore a GPS unit to measure changes in the total distance, total distance skating in two speed zones, and total distance of acceleration and deceleration. A within-subject design was used to measure changes over time during match-play by comparing first and second halves as well as comparisons for consecutive 15 min intervals. No significant differences were observed for high-intensity or very high-intensity acceleration and deceleration for comparisons by halves or for 15-min intervals. For comparisons by halves, a significant time-dependent effect was observed on very fast skating (1337.6 m vs. 1160.9 m), sprint skating (300.0 m vs. 272.0 m), low-intensity acceleration (342.7 m vs. 333.0 m), and total distance covered (10,916.9 m vs. 10,450.3 m). These variables, along with low-intensity deceleration, were also significant for the 15 min interval comparisons. The results show that there is no time-dependent reduction in high-intensity acceleration and deceleration in elite bandy match-play. However, elite bandy players do not maintain the distance of high-intensity skating throughout a whole match. Full article
Erratum
Erratum: Niering, M.; Muehlbauer, T. Effects of Physical Training on Physical and Psychological Parameters in Individuals with Patella Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports 2021, 9, 12
Sports 2021, 9(11), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110151 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
The authors would like to correct an error in the name of the condition in the recently published paper [...] Full article
Article
Central Tendon Injury Impairs Regional Neuromuscular Activation of the Rectus Femoris Muscle
Sports 2021, 9(11), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110150 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
We aimed to uncover which rectus femoris strain injury types affect regional activation within the rectus femoris. The rectus femoris has a region-specific functional role; the proximal region of the rectus femoris contributes more than the middle and distal regions during hip flexion. [...] Read more.
We aimed to uncover which rectus femoris strain injury types affect regional activation within the rectus femoris. The rectus femoris has a region-specific functional role; the proximal region of the rectus femoris contributes more than the middle and distal regions during hip flexion. Although a history of strain injury modifies the region-specific functional role within the rectus femoris, it was not obvious which rectus femoris strain injury types affect regional activation within it. We studied 12 soccer players with a history of rectus femoris strain injury. Injury data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and magnetic resonance imaging. To confirm the region-specific functional role of the rectus femoris, surface multichannel electromyographic signals were recorded. Accordingly, eight legs had a history of central tendon injury, four had a history of myofascial junction injury, and four had a healed strain injury. When the injury was limited to the central tendon, the region-specific functional role disappeared. The region-specific functional role was confirmed when the injury was outside the central part. The neuromuscular function was also inhibited when the longitudinal range of the injured region was long. Our findings suggest that a central tendon injury with a long injury length impairs regional neuromuscular activation of the rectus femoris muscle. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Differences in Squat Jump, Linear Sprint, and Change-of-Direction Performance among Youth Soccer Players According to Competitive Level
Sports 2021, 9(11), 149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110149 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 578
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to analyze significant differences in performance depending on the level of play (elite vs. amateur) in youth soccer players (under 17 years. old (U17) and U19). A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 45 elite and amateur male [...] Read more.
The aim of this investigation was to analyze significant differences in performance depending on the level of play (elite vs. amateur) in youth soccer players (under 17 years. old (U17) and U19). A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 45 elite and amateur male youth soccer players (16.56 ± 0.9 years old) were evaluated in their performances in squat jump (SJ), 10 m linear sprint (LS), 20 m LS, 505 agility test (505) and Illinois agility test (IAT). Differences in performances were analyzed with a 2 × 2 MANOVA, post-hoc ANOVAs, and Hedges’ g (g) for pairwise comparisons of subgroups (level of play and age group). This investigation showed that the elite player performance was significantly (p < 0.05) better in all performance tests than amateur players in both age groups. Interestingly, this investigation showed that the more complex the target exercise, the larger the effect sizes for group differences (SJ: g = 0.64–1.18, LS: g = 0.05–2.23, change-of-direction (COD): g = 3.01–6.84). The SJ, LS, 505, and IAT may prove useful in talent selection test batteries to separate between competitive levels in youth soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
Article
The Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Hip Rotation Range-of-Motion Measurement Using a Smartphone Application in Academy Football (Soccer) Players
Sports 2021, 9(11), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110148 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
The clinical assessment of hip rotation range-of-motion (ROM) is important for managing hip and groin injuries in footballers. Previously published reliability studies on hip ROM have employed protocols that are difficult to replicate under everyday clinical conditions. This single trial, intra- and inter-rater [...] Read more.
The clinical assessment of hip rotation range-of-motion (ROM) is important for managing hip and groin injuries in footballers. Previously published reliability studies on hip ROM have employed protocols that are difficult to replicate under everyday clinical conditions. This single trial, intra- and inter-rater reliability study included 41 male academy football (soccer) players, aged 14–15 years, from one European football academy. Passive hip internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) ROM were measured in supine with hip and knee flexed to 90°. The ROM was determined using a smartphone application, with the smartphone attached to the lower leg. The tests were performed on two separate occasions, one week apart, by two different physiotherapists and on both sides (left and right hips). Reliability was evaluated using Intra-Class Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and Minimal Detectable Change (MDC). Hip IR and ER ROM displayed moderate to good intra-rater agreement (ICCs 0.54–0.75), with MDCs ranging from 10.9° to 16.4°. Inter-rater reliability displayed poor to moderate reliability (ICCs 0.33–0.75), with MDCs ranging from 11.7° to 16.5°. A hip rotation ROM test using a smartphone application and a protocol closely reflecting everyday clinical conditions displayed moderate to good intra-rater reliability and poor to moderate inter-rater reliability. Due to the high MDCs, the practical applicability of this test procedure is limited and further refinement is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Injury: Prevention and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Is the Integration of Additional Eccentric, Balance and Core Muscles Exercises into a Typical Soccer Program Effective in Improving Strength and Postural Stability?
Sports 2021, 9(11), 147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110147 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Soccer teams integrate specific exercises into their typical workout programs for injury prevention. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the incorporation of a brief and supplementary training program that involves eccentric, balance, and core exercises into the weekly soccer schedule [...] Read more.
Soccer teams integrate specific exercises into their typical workout programs for injury prevention. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the incorporation of a brief and supplementary training program that involves eccentric, balance, and core exercises into the weekly soccer schedule can cause positive neuromuscular adaptations. Twenty-one soccer players were randomly allocated to either a training (n = 11) or a control group (n = 10). All players followed their teams’ typical program, consisting of 4–5 soccer-specific sessions plus 1 match, weekly. Training group players additionally performed biweekly, hamstring eccentric, balance, and core stability exercises for 8 weeks. Isokinetic concentric and eccentric peak torque (PT) of the hamstrings and quadriceps, changes in the center of pressure (COP) during a 30 s single-leg stance, and a supine bridge (trunk stability) test were assessed before and after the intervention. After the intervention, a 27% increase in hamstring concentric PT and a 33% reduction in COP sway in the stance test, were observed for the training group only (p < 0.05). These improvements were significant only for the non-dominant leg. Furthermore, the control group displayed an increase in COP sway during the bridge test compared to baseline values (p < 0.05), which reflects a deterioration in postural balance over time. Consequently, incorporating small doses of hamstring eccentric, proprioception, and core stability exercises into a typical training program of youth soccer players improves strength and postural balance in the non-dominant leg, as well as core muscle performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Elite Youth Soccer Players’ Sources and Types of Soccer Confidence
Sports 2021, 9(11), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110146 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Sport confidence is a psychological characteristic considered vital for youth soccer players to possess. However, only limited research has explored the types and sources of sport confidence important to elite youth performers in professional soccer academies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 academy [...] Read more.
Sport confidence is a psychological characteristic considered vital for youth soccer players to possess. However, only limited research has explored the types and sources of sport confidence important to elite youth performers in professional soccer academies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 academy footballers (aged 10 or 11). Abductive hierarchical content analysis identified types of confidence to include achievement, skill execution, psychological factors, superiority to opposition and tactical awareness. Key sources of confidence identified by players were performance accomplishments, coaching, social support, and preparation. Even though the dimensions reported were similar to previous research, a number of unique sub-themes of confidence sources emerged, including pre-training/competition emotions, coach and team-mate feedback. The results demonstrate the importance of considering maturation levels and context when seeking to understand and develop confidence in youth performers. Full article
Article
The Between-Competition Running Demands of Elite Hurling Match-Play
Sports 2021, 9(11), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110145 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 702
Abstract
The current study aimed to investigate the differences in running demands between the National Hurling League (NHL) and the Championship, and within playing positions. GPS (10 Hz, STATSports Apex GNSS) were used to analyse the running demands during 34 games (2017–2020 seasons) of [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to investigate the differences in running demands between the National Hurling League (NHL) and the Championship, and within playing positions. GPS (10 Hz, STATSports Apex GNSS) were used to analyse the running demands during 34 games (2017–2020 seasons) of the Championship and the NHL. The running demands (total-, relative-, high-speed- [>17 km·h−1] and sprint [≥22 km·h−1] distance, number and length of sprints, and peak speed) were compared between competitions. Greater total- [ES = 0.32], relative- [ES = 0.26], and sprint-distance [ES = 0.41], and number of sprints [ES = 1.29] were completed in the Championship. The high-speed distance was similar between competitions. Half-backs and half-forwards covered greater total- (ES = 0.91 and 0.21, respectively), relative- (ES = 1.14 and 0.68, respectively), high-speed- (ES = 0.69 and 0.44, respectively), and sprint-distance (ES = 0.50 and 1.26, respectively), number of sprints (ES = 2.66 and 1.73, respectively), and peak speed (ES = 1.09 and 1.32, respectively) in the Championship. There was no difference (p < 0.05) in the sprint distance covered between positions in the Championship. The results showed that the Championship is more physically demanding. The findings present key implications for the transition between competitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology and Physical Demands of Intermittent Exercise)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Concept Paper
Analysis of Pacing Strategies in AMRAP, EMOM, and FOR TIME Training Models during “Cross” Modalities
Sports 2021, 9(11), 144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9110144 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Empirically, it is widely discussed in “Cross” modalities that the pacing strategy developed by an athlete or trainee has a significant impact on the endurance performance in a WOD in the AMRAP, EMOM, or FOR TIME model. We can observe at least six [...] Read more.
Empirically, it is widely discussed in “Cross” modalities that the pacing strategy developed by an athlete or trainee has a significant impact on the endurance performance in a WOD in the AMRAP, EMOM, or FOR TIME model. We can observe at least six pacing strategies adopted during the cyclical modalities in the endurance performance in the scientific literature. However, besides these modalities, exercises of acyclical modalities of weightlifting and gymnastics are performed in the “Cross” modalities. These exercises may not allow the same pacing strategies adopted during cyclic modalities’ movements due to their motor characteristics and different intensity and level of effort imposed to perform the motor gesture. In addition to the intensity and level of effort that are generally unknown to the coach and athlete of the “Cross” modalities, another factor that can influence the adoption of a pacing strategy during a WOD in the AMRAP, EMOM, or FOR TIME model is the task endpoint knowledge, which varies according to the training model used. Thus, our objective was to evaluate situations in which these factors can influence the pacing strategies adopted in a self-regulated task with cyclic and acyclic modalities movements during an endurance workout in the AMRAP, EMOM, and FOR TIME model. Given the scarcity of studies in the scientific literature and the increasing discussion of this topic within the “Cross” modalities, this manuscript can help scientists and coaches better orient their research problems or training programs and analyze and interpret new findings more accurately. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop