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Sports, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Muscle power depends on several biological attributes, including muscle fiber composition and muscle fascicle length. Therefore, it is relevant to explore the possible relationship between muscle fiber composition and fascicle length in a particular muscle, as well as their contribution to human muscle power performance in individuals with minimal exposure to systematic resistance/power training. Such individuals may have muscles with long fascicles, together with a predominance of type II muscle fibers. This hypothesis suggests that, in sedentary individuals, certain phenotypes should exist, by which muscles with longer fascicles may also be characterized by a proportional predominance of type II and %CSA. View this paper
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Article
The Influence of Active Hamstring Stiffness on Markers of Isotonic Muscle Performance
Sports 2021, 9(5), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050070 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Background: Previous research demonstrates hamstring muscle-tendon stiffness (HMTS) influences isometric strength, landing biomechanics and architectural tissue properties. However, the influence on kinetics & kinematics during other modes of strength testing (isotonic dynamometry) has yet to be established. Purpose: Investigate how HMTS influences kinetics [...] Read more.
Background: Previous research demonstrates hamstring muscle-tendon stiffness (HMTS) influences isometric strength, landing biomechanics and architectural tissue properties. However, the influence on kinetics & kinematics during other modes of strength testing (isotonic dynamometry) has yet to be established. Purpose: Investigate how HMTS influences kinetics and kinematics during a novel isotonic muscle performance test which has never been done for the hamstrings. Previous work using dynamometry has been limited to isometric or isokinetic contractions, so the novelty arises from our custom isotonic protocol which allows quantitative assessment of the stretch-shortening cycle. Methods: Twenty-six recreationally active individuals (15 males, 11 females, 23.8 ± 2.5 years) completed baseline testing for anthropometry and maximum isometric hamstring strength (MVIC). At least 48 h later, subjects completed a measure of HMTS (damped oscillation technique) followed by an isotonic knee flexion test (eccentric velocity 180°/s; concentric torque 25% of MVIC). Separate linear regression models with examination of residuals were conducted between HMTS and each muscle performance variable. Standardized coefficients determined the magnitude of the relationships. Results: Significance was found for all outcome variables tested. HMTS and rate of torque development demonstrated the strongest relationship followed by isotonic concentric peak torque. The weakest relationship observed was with isometric peak torque. Conclusions: These findings build off previous work quantifying HMTS by showing HMTS more strongly relates to dynamic versus static muscle testing and identifies the potential clinical utility of isotonic dynamometry. Full article
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Review
Physical Activity Measurement Methodologies: A Systematic Review in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Sports 2021, 9(5), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050069 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 961
Abstract
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a preventable threat to livelihood and longevity in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and insufficient physical activity (PA) is a primary cause of NCDs. A PRISMA-based systematic review of measurement methodologies used to assess PA was [...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a preventable threat to livelihood and longevity in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and insufficient physical activity (PA) is a primary cause of NCDs. A PRISMA-based systematic review of measurement methodologies used to assess PA was conducted. 564 studies published between 1978 and 2020 were reviewed. The majority of the PA measurement employed subjective methodologies and were observational and cross-sectional, with disproportionately fewer studies conducted in economically-challenged member nations, except for Brunei. PA research in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar constituted 0.4–1.1% while Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia contributed 12–37% of all PA research within ASEAN. A decision matrix can be used to determine the measurement methodology of choice to assess PA. Joint research across ASEAN using a common assessment or measurement template that is co-curated by ASEAN researchers that incorporates multi-level and whole-of-society criteria in terms of PA enablers is a recommendation. This could be co-led by more experienced and better-resourced countries so as to produce a unified and universal ‘report card’ for PA measurement within ASEAN. Full article
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Article
An Analysis of Sport-Specific Pain Symptoms through Inter-Individual Training Differences in CrossFit
Sports 2021, 9(5), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050068 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Background: CrossFit is one of the fastest growing “high-intensity functional training” methods in recent years. Due to the very demanding motion sequences and high loads, it was initially assumed that there was an extremely high risk of injury. However, studies have shown that [...] Read more.
Background: CrossFit is one of the fastest growing “high-intensity functional training” methods in recent years. Due to the very demanding motion sequences and high loads, it was initially assumed that there was an extremely high risk of injury. However, studies have shown that injury rates are given between 0.74–3.3 per 1000 h of training, which is not higher than in other individual sports such as weightlifting. The purpose of the study was to estimate the type of pain symptoms that are directly related to CrossFit, to estimate the frequency of injuries that occur within a population of recreational CrossFit athletes, and, finally, to identify the factors influencing the frequency of pain during CrossFit training. Methods: A total of 414 active CrossFit athletes completed an online survey inclusive of 29 items focusing on individual physical characteristics and training behavior, as well as simultaneous or previously practiced sports. Results: There was a significantly higher proportion of knee pain in athletes who had previously or simultaneously played another sport (p = 0.014). The duration, intensity, or type of personal training plan developed, along with personal information such as age, gender, or BMI, had no significant influence on the pain data. We could not find any significant variance between the groups that we formed based on the differently stated one-repetition max (RMs). There were differences in athletes who stated that they did specific accessory exercises for small muscle groups. Above all, athletes performing exercises for the hamstrings and the gluteus medius indicated fewer pain symptoms for the sacro-iliac joint (SIJ)/iliac and lower back locations. Conclusions: It is important not to see CrossFit as a single type of sport. When treating a CrossFit athlete, care should be taken to address inter-individual differences. This underlines the significant differences of this study between the individual athletes with regard to the ability to master certain skills or their previous sporting experience. The mere fact of mastering certain exercises seems to lead to significantly more pain in certain regions. In addition, there seems to be a connection between the previous or simultaneous participation in other sports and the indication of pain in the knee region. Full article
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Article
Factorial Structure of Trunk Motor Qualities and Their Association with Explosive Movement Performance in Young Footballers
Sports 2021, 9(5), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050067 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 918
Abstract
This study examined the factorial structure of trunk motor qualities and their associations with explosive muscular performance of football players. Ninety-one young male football players (age: 15–21 years; body height: 1.78 ± 0.07 m; body mass: 70.3 ± 7.5 kg) performed a series [...] Read more.
This study examined the factorial structure of trunk motor qualities and their associations with explosive muscular performance of football players. Ninety-one young male football players (age: 15–21 years; body height: 1.78 ± 0.07 m; body mass: 70.3 ± 7.5 kg) performed a series of tests: four standing and four seated isometric trunk strength tests, seven trunk power (medicine ball throwing) tests, four trunk endurance tests and four explosive movement performance tests. A principal component factor analysis (PCA) was used to determine the structure of trunk motor qualities, and correlational analyses were used to assess linear associations between trunk motor qualities and explosive performance. The PCA revealed four independent factors—trunk power, standing and seated isometric trunk strength, and trunk muscle endurance. Only trunk power had significant moderate, logically positive associations with sprint and vertical jump performance (common variance: 25–36%), while other associations between trunk motor factors and explosive movement performance were generally low to very low. These results indicate that trunk muscle functions of football players can be described with three independent motor qualities—trunk power, trunk strength and trunk muscle endurance, with only trunk power being moderately associated with players’ sprinting and jumping performance. Full article
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Article
A Novel Approach for Comparison of Reception Performance in a Technique Test and Small-Sided Games
Sports 2021, 9(5), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050066 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between soccer players’ performance of receptions of passes in tests of both isolated technical skills and more match-realistic situations in small-sided games (SSGs). In addition, this study investigated whether the involvement in SSGs [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between soccer players’ performance of receptions of passes in tests of both isolated technical skills and more match-realistic situations in small-sided games (SSGs). In addition, this study investigated whether the involvement in SSGs (number of receptions) correlated with the quality of receptions in the respective SSGs. The participants were 13 male outfield youth soccer players from teams in the first division of the regional U18 league. The quality of receptions was scored by educated coaches according to set criteria of performance. Statistical analyses of correlations were determined using Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient (rs). The main results were (1) a significant correlation in the quality of ball reception between 4vs1 SSGs and 5vs5 SSGs (rs = −0.61, p < 0.01) and (2) a trend towards moderate correlation between the quality of ball reception using a ball projection machine and 5vs5 SSGs (rs = −0.48, p = 0.10). (3) A significant correlation was found between the number of receptions in 5vs5 SSGs and the quality score of receptions in 5vs5 SSGs (rs = −0.70, p < 0.01). The trend towards moderate correlations between 5vs5 SSGs and the isolated technical reception test could imply the importance of training in the technical aspects of ball reception. Moreover, it seems as though the players with the best reception performance are the players who are most involved in SSGs, that is, having the most receptions. Full article
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Review
Understanding a Player’s Decision-Making Process in Team Sports: A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence
Sports 2021, 9(5), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050065 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 1794
Abstract
Three perspectives were taken to explain decision-making within team sports (information processing, recognition primed decision-making, and ecological dynamics perspectives), resulting in conceptual tension and practical confusion. The aim of this paper was to interrogate empirical evidence to (1) understand the process of decision-making [...] Read more.
Three perspectives were taken to explain decision-making within team sports (information processing, recognition primed decision-making, and ecological dynamics perspectives), resulting in conceptual tension and practical confusion. The aim of this paper was to interrogate empirical evidence to (1) understand the process of decision-making within team sports and (2) capture the characteristics of decision-making expertise in a team sport context. Nine electronic databases (SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, PsycTests, PubMed, SAGE journals online, Web of Knowledge, Academic Search Complete, and Web of Science) were searched until the final return in March 2021. Fifty-three articles satisfied the inclusion criteria, were analysed thematically, and synthesised using a narrative approach. Findings indicate that the relative absence or presence of mental representation within the decision-making process depends on factors, including complexity, typicality, time available, and contextual priors available in the game situation. We recommend that future research integrate concepts and methodologies prevalent within each perspective to better understand decision-making within team sports before providing implications for practitioners. Full article
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Article
Reliability of the Single-Leg, Medial Countermovement Jump in Youth Ice Hockey Players
Sports 2021, 9(5), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050064 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Appropriate performance tests are critical for documenting training, fatigue and injury-related changes. Functional performance testing can provide quantitative information on specialized sport movements. The single-leg, medial countermovement jump is an objective measure of frontal plane force, velocity and power, and is particularly applicable [...] Read more.
Appropriate performance tests are critical for documenting training, fatigue and injury-related changes. Functional performance testing can provide quantitative information on specialized sport movements. The single-leg, medial countermovement jump is an objective measure of frontal plane force, velocity and power, and is particularly applicable for ice hockey players given that ice skating involves applying lateral forces. This study assessed the short-term reliability (10 days) of the single-leg, medial countermovement jump performed by ten competitive male youth ice hockey players. Each participant performed three right and three left maximal single-leg, medial countermovement jumps from force plates. Measured variables included lateral and vertical takeoff velocity, lateral and vertical maximal force, maximal force above bodyweight, lateral and vertical peak concentric power, average concentric power, and average concentric power during the last 100 ms of push-off. Relative reliability was quantified by intraclass correlations. Absolute reliability and the smallest real difference were also calculated. The single-leg, medial countermovement jump had moderate-to-excellent test–retest reliability (ICC: 0.50–0.98) for all twelve variables of interest. These results suggest that the single-leg, medial countermovement jump is a reliable test for assessing frontal plane force, velocity and power in ice hockey players, and is a valid functional performance test for this population given the similarity to ice skating. Full article
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Article
Distance and Intensity Profiles in Division I Women’s Soccer Matches across a Competitive Season
Sports 2021, 9(5), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050063 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Women’s participation in soccer has increased rapidly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands imposed on women’s NCAA Division I soccer players across a season according to speed, total distance traveled, and numbers of sprints measured via GPS (Polar [...] Read more.
Women’s participation in soccer has increased rapidly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands imposed on women’s NCAA Division I soccer players across a season according to speed, total distance traveled, and numbers of sprints measured via GPS (Polar Team Pro®). Eighteen athletes (19.2 ± 1.1 years, 50.5 ± 6.5 mL/kg/min and 23.4 ± 3.6% fat) participated in this study. The analysis was obtained through 13 official matches. Speed zones were defined as Zone 1 (1.0 to 5.99 km·h−1), Zone 2 (6.0 to 10.99 km·h−1), Zone 3 (11.0 to 15.49 km·h−1), Zone 4 (15.5 to 19.9 km·h−1) and Zone 5 (sprint > 20 km·h−1), with Zones 4–5 considered as high intensity running. Individual differences in playing time and total distance were highly variable due to substitutions. Average distance traveled per game in quartiles was 3.9 km, 5.6 km and 7.4 km in the 25th, 50th, and 75th quartiles, respectively. Relative to playing time, players travelled an average of 113.64 ± 17.12 m/min (range: 93.7 to 143.5 m/min) and ran one sprint every 4.12 ± 2.06 min. When distance was summated and analyzed for the entire team, significant difference between halves was found for speed Zones 2, 3 and 4, with greater values found in the first half. Total distance, high intensity running and sprint distance were significantly less than previously recorded in professional players. These findings suggest that coaches should consider the unique physiological demands and recovery opportunities present in NCAA play when constructing practices and conditioning programs. Full article
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Article
Variations in the Physical Performance of Olympic Boxers over a Four-Day National Qualifying Tournament
Sports 2021, 9(5), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050062 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine changes in body mass (BM) and power-related measures in Olympic boxers during an official qualifying boxing tournament. Fourteen elite amateur boxers from the Brazilian National Team (eight men and six women) participated in this study. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine changes in body mass (BM) and power-related measures in Olympic boxers during an official qualifying boxing tournament. Fourteen elite amateur boxers from the Brazilian National Team (eight men and six women) participated in this study. Athletes performed three fights in four days against the same opponent of the same weight-category. Before and immediately after every fight, BM, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, and power production in the bench-press and half-squat exercises were assessed in the same order and on the same time of the day. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc analysis was used to determine the variations between pre- and post-measures. The statistical significance was set as p < 0.05. The athletes were able to maintain their baseline weight and physical performance throughout the experimental period, as shown by the lack of significant changes in BM, CMJ height, and upper- and lower-limb power output. Throughout a four-day qualifying tournament, the BM and power-related performance of Olympic boxers were not affected either by match execution or by successive matches. As scoring actions are highly dependent on muscle power, it is likely that these combat athletes are able to maintain optimal levels of performance across consecutive matches. Full article
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Article
Do Athletes Have More of a Cognitive Profile with ADHD Criteria than Non-Athletes?
Sports 2021, 9(5), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050061 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 911
Abstract
The current study investigates the possibility that athletes have more parallel ADHD symptoms than non-athletes. High-level youth sport athletes were compared with non-athletes in leisure time (i.e., sport) and in the school in ADHD symptoms. Athletes and students were evaluated by a trained [...] Read more.
The current study investigates the possibility that athletes have more parallel ADHD symptoms than non-athletes. High-level youth sport athletes were compared with non-athletes in leisure time (i.e., sport) and in the school in ADHD symptoms. Athletes and students were evaluated by a trained psychotherapist using Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) on activities at school and during activities in leisure/sports time. They also filled in the Autism Spectrum Questionnaire (AQ) as a self-report assessment. Results showed significant differences in ASRS-scores for athletes in school and in their sport, with high scores in school and low scores in sport. No differences were found in AQ between the groups. The findings indicate that many athletes might display a cognitive profile of parallel of ADHD criteria. Future research needs to further investigate potential benefits of the cognitive profile in athletes and how they handle different contexts including sport and school settings. Full article
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Article
Trait and Ability Emotional Intelligence and Its Impact on Sports Performance of Athletes
Sports 2021, 9(5), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050060 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered a determinant of sports performance. Two opposing perspectives have been discussed in the theoretical discourse on EI: EI as an ability versus EI as a trait, both widely differing in content and method of assessment. Previous applied sport [...] Read more.
Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered a determinant of sports performance. Two opposing perspectives have been discussed in the theoretical discourse on EI: EI as an ability versus EI as a trait, both widely differing in content and method of assessment. Previous applied sport psychology research is characterized by a heterogeneous use of different conceptualizations and measurements of EI. However, evidence for the superiority of an EI concept does not exist. This study directly compares the ability and trait EI concepts in the relationship with athletic performance. An online survey was conducted (response rate = 19%). Participants completed the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form, a list of questions about biographical information as well as information related to sports performance and sport participation. We used regression analyses and controlled type of sports to investigate how sports performance is influenced by EI. Trait EI positively predicted self-assessment of athletes’ performance (B = 1.02; p < 0.01) whereby ability EI did not predict any outcome of sports performance. The effect of trait EI was independent of the ability EI. Overall, the result indicates some evidence for the superiority of the trait EI in applied sports psychology. Full article
Review
The Influence of Growth, Maturation and Resistance Training on Muscle-Tendon and Neuromuscular Adaptations: A Narrative Review
Sports 2021, 9(5), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050059 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the growth, maturation and resistance training-related changes in muscle-tendon and neuromuscular mechanisms in youth, and the subsequent effect on performance. Sprinting, jumping, kicking, and throwing are common movements in sport that have [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the growth, maturation and resistance training-related changes in muscle-tendon and neuromuscular mechanisms in youth, and the subsequent effect on performance. Sprinting, jumping, kicking, and throwing are common movements in sport that have been shown to develop naturally with age, with improvements in performance being attributed to growth and maturity-related changes in neuromuscular mechanisms. These changes include moderate to very large increases in muscle physiological cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle volume and thickness, tendon CSA and stiffness, fascicle length, muscle activation, pre-activation, stretch reflex control accompanied by large reductions in electro-mechanical delay and co-contraction. Furthermore, a limited number of training studies examining neuromuscular changes following four to 20 weeks of resistance training have reported trivial to moderate differences in tendon stiffness, muscle CSA, muscle thickness, and motor unit activation accompanied by reductions in electromechanical delay (EMD) in pre-pubertal children. However, the interaction of maturity- and training-related neuromuscular adaptions remains unclear. An understanding of how different neuromuscular mechanisms adapt in response to growth, maturation and training is important in order to optimise training responsiveness in youth populations. Additionally, the impact that these muscle-tendon and neuromuscular changes have on force producing capabilities underpinning performance is unclear. Full article
Article
A Comparison of Peak Intensity Periods across Male Field Hockey Competitive Standards
Sports 2021, 9(5), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050058 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1110
Abstract
This investigation aimed to compare the international level peak intensity period of male field hockey players to those experienced during professional and amateur club hockey match play. Twenty-seven players from an international squad were monitored for all activity relating to field hockey over [...] Read more.
This investigation aimed to compare the international level peak intensity period of male field hockey players to those experienced during professional and amateur club hockey match play. Twenty-seven players from an international squad were monitored for all activity relating to field hockey over three seasons. The peak intensity period, of 3 min duration, was extracted from match play files for international and club matches. Club matches were categorised by league standard—professional vs. amateur. The output for the peak intensity period, within positions, was compared using linear mixed models (LMMs) and post hoc pairwise comparisons. Significance levels were set as p < 0.05 and Cohen’s d was utilised for effect sizes. Competition level had a main effect on relative total distance (p < 0.05) and significant interaction effects were found between competition level and position (p < 0.05). Midfielders competing in amateur leagues and international match play completed less relative total distance than those who compete in professional leagues (−47.88 m/min, p < 0.05), (−46.06 m/min, p < 0.05) with large effect sizes reported. No other position displayed significant differences for peak periods. Match play in professional leagues provide opportunities for midfielders to experience peak intensity periods of a greater magnitude than international match play. Full article
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Article
Total Training Volume and Muscle Soreness Parameters Performing Agonist or Antagonist Foam Rolling between Sets
Sports 2021, 9(5), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050057 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1248
Abstract
Background: Foam rolling (FR) has become very popular in recent years; however, the practice of FR between sets of resistance training (RT) for the lower limbs needs further examination. Purpose: Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of [...] Read more.
Background: Foam rolling (FR) has become very popular in recent years; however, the practice of FR between sets of resistance training (RT) for the lower limbs needs further examination. Purpose: Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of FR for the agonists (quadriceps) and antagonists (hamstrings) between multiple sets of the leg extension on repetition maximum performance (RM), fatigue resistance index (FRI), and muscle soreness (MS). Study design: Quasi-experimental clinical trial. Methods: Twenty trained men participated in this study (30.35 ± 6.56 years, 1.77 ± 0.05 cm, 87.70 ± 7.6 kg) and attended seven sessions with 48 h between sessions, (one familiarization session; two 10-RM test and retest sessions; and four experimental sessions). The four experimental sessions were performed in random order and included: agonist foam rolling (AFR), antagonist foam rolling (ANTFR), agonist/antagonist foam rolling (A/ANTFR), and traditional control (TP, without foam rolling). All sessions consisted of three sets for maximal repetitions with a 10-RM load for the leg extension. In the AFR and ANTFR sessions, there was a 120 s rest interval between sets, during which FR was done for the agonists or antagonists, respectively. In the A/ANTFR protocol, there was a 120 s rest interval between sets, during which FR was done for the agonists and antagonists. In the traditional protocol (TP), there was a 120 s passive rest interval between sets. Results: Regarding the total training volume (TTV), significant differences were noted between sessions (F3,57 = 11.014; p = 0.0001). The AFR, ANTFR, and A/ANTFR sessions had significantly higher TTV versus the TP (p < 0.05). Regarding the FRI, significant differences were noted between sessions (F3,57 = 2917, p = 0.042). A significantly higher fatigue index was shown for the ANTFR and AFR sessions versus the TP (p < 0.05). Regarding the total number of repetitions, significant differences were noted between sessions (F3,57 = 11.086, p = 0.0001). The total number of repetitions was significantly higher in the A/ANTFR, ANTFR, and AFR versus the TP session (p < 0.05). MS was significantly lower in the A/ANTFR, ANTFR, and AFR sessions versus the TP session (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, foam rolling between sets for the agonist or antagonist separately or in succession, resulted in greater neuromuscular performance and higher fatigue indices, as well as reducing the perception of acute muscle soreness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance and Physical Fitness Effect of Training and Exercise)
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Article
Weak Association between Vastus Lateralis Muscle Fiber Composition and Fascicle Length in Young Untrained Females
Sports 2021, 9(5), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050056 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1257
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between vastus lateralis muscle fiber length and fiber type composition in individuals with minimal exposure to systematic resistance/power training. In sixty female physical education students (age: 21.03 ± 2.1 years, body weight: 59.8 [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between vastus lateralis muscle fiber length and fiber type composition in individuals with minimal exposure to systematic resistance/power training. In sixty female physical education students (age: 21.03 ± 2.1 years, body weight: 59.8 ± 9.7 kg, body height: 166.2 ± 6.5 cm), with no experience in systematic training, lean body mass, VL muscle architecture and fiber composition type, countermovement jumping (CMJ) performance, and isometric leg press rate of force development were evaluated. Data were analyzed for all participants, as well as two equally numbered groups assigned according to their maximum countermovement jumping power (High-Power or Low-Power group). Significant but low correlations were found between type II muscle fiber percentage and fascicle length (N = 60, p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between type IIa and IIx muscle fiber percentage cross-sectional area (%CSA) and fascicle length (N = 60; r = 0.321, and r = 0.378; respectively, p < 0.05). These correlations were higher for the High-Power group (r = 0.499, and r = 0.522; respectively, p < 0.05), and lower, and nonsignificant, for the Low-Power group. The best predictor of strength/power performance was the lean body mass of the lower extremities (r = 0.389–0.645, p < 0.05). These results suggest that in females with minimal exposure to systematic training, fascicle length may be weakly linked with type II fiber areas, only in females with high-power profiles. Full article
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Article
Applicability of Maximal Ergometer Testing and Sprint Performance in Adolescent Endurance and Sprint Trained Swimmers
Sports 2021, 9(5), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050055 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 918
Abstract
Sprint swimming is a short duration, high intensity sport requiring a relatively greater contribution of energy from anaerobic metabolism. Understanding energy system utilization for the classification of a competitive swimmer (sprint or distance) may be useful for both training prescription and event specialization. [...] Read more.
Sprint swimming is a short duration, high intensity sport requiring a relatively greater contribution of energy from anaerobic metabolism. Understanding energy system utilization for the classification of a competitive swimmer (sprint or distance) may be useful for both training prescription and event specialization. The relationship between anaerobic swim ergometer testing and adolescent sprint swimming performance has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance and physiological responses during a maximal all-out ergometer test as well as the maximal anaerobic lactate test in a group of sprint vs. middle-distance specialized swimmers. Sixteen (n = 16) competitive swimmers (mean ± standard deviation (SD), age 16.8 ± 0.7 year; body mass 67.3 ± 9.8 kg) were categorized into two gender matched groups: sprint (n = 8) and middle-distance (n = 8). Each athlete performed (1) a 45 s swim ergometer maximal test to determine peak and mean power output (Watts (W)), (2) a MANLT test to determine peak and average velocity as well as the post-exercise lactate response, and (3) a 50 m swim time trial. The sprint group showed a higher mean (p = 0.026) and peak (p = 0.031) velocity during the MANLT. In addition, blood lactate concentration was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in the sprint vs. middle-distance trained group at 3 and 12 min after completion of the MANLT (3-min post 11.29 ± 2.32 vs. 9.55 ± 3.48 mmol/L; 12-min post 8.23 ± 2.28 vs. 7.05 ± 2.47 mmol/L). The power output during the 45 s all-out swimming ergometer test was higher in the sprint trained group. The results of this study demonstrate the anaerobic contribution to sprint swimming measured during an all-out dryland ergometer test. Full article
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Communication
Accentuated Eccentric Loading in the Bench Press: Considerations for Eccentric and Concentric Loading
Sports 2021, 9(5), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9050054 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1126
Abstract
This study examined the effects of accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) on bench press velocities across a spectrum of concentric and eccentric loads. Ten strength trained men (bench press one-repetition maximum (1-RM): 124.3 ± 19.4 kg; relative strength ratio: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg∙body mass [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) on bench press velocities across a spectrum of concentric and eccentric loads. Ten strength trained men (bench press one-repetition maximum (1-RM): 124.3 ± 19.4 kg; relative strength ratio: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg∙body mass−1) participated. Subjects completed bench press repetitions using concentric loads from 30% to 80% 1-RM in 10% increments in each experimental session. The AEL protocols were implemented using 100% (AEL100) and 110% 1-RM (AEL110) loads during the eccentric action, while the eccentric load remained the same as the concentric for traditional loading (TRAD). Multilevel models analyzed the effects of each AEL protocol on concentric velocities across concentric loads (p < 0.05). Faster concentric velocities were observed at 30% 1-RM and 80% 1-RM with AEL100 compared to TRAD (p ≤ 0.05) but this effect was reduced for individuals moving the barbell through a greater displacement. Additionally, AEL110 presented a greater change in velocity from 30% to 80% 1-RM than TRAD (p ≤ 0.05). The AEL100 protocol resulted in faster concentric velocities throughout concentric loads of 30–80% 1-RM, but AEL110 may have been too great to elicit consistent performance enhancements. Thus, the efficacy of AEL at various concentric loads is dependent on the eccentric loading and barbell displacement. Full article
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