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Sports, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 13 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Physical activity (PA) classes help college students engage in weekly PA, which can help improve health and maintain body weight. Traditional weight training (TWT) can improve strength and aerobic capacity. High-intensity functional training (HIFT) such as CrossFit® provides time-efficient workouts with both muscle strengthening and aerobic exercises. We examined changes in muscular strength, power, and endurance and body composition among TWT and HIFT classes. Both groups improved push-up and squat performance, enjoyed the classes, and most planned to continue. Activity classes provide college students with an option for increasing their weekly PA and help maintaining body composition. View this paper
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Article
Effects of a Mentor Program for Coaches on the Coach-Athlete Relationship
Sports 2021, 9(8), 116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080116 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 792
Abstract
The present study was designed to explore the effects of a one-year coach education program on coaches’ perceptions of their communication skills and co-orientation of their coach-athlete relationships. The study was designed with an experimental group and a control group. The experiment group [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to explore the effects of a one-year coach education program on coaches’ perceptions of their communication skills and co-orientation of their coach-athlete relationships. The study was designed with an experimental group and a control group. The experiment group consisted of 66 coaches (and 295 athletes) who received formal mentoring and the control group consisted of 41 coaches (and 148 athletes) who did not receive any mentoring. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling with autoregressive cross-lagged analysis. Results from the self-reported questionnaire at pre-test and post-test showed that the reciprocity of the coach-athlete relationships was not statistically significant. However, coaches’ experience of change in attention skills from the pre-test to the post-test positively predicted changes in their own perception of the coach-athlete relationship, whereas this association was not significant in the athletes’ perceptions. Moreover, the coach education programme increased coaches’ perception of their relational bonds with their athletes, but this increase did not correspond with an increase in athletes’ perception of the relational bonds with their coach. Practical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed in light of these findings. Full article
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Article
Impact of Low Volume Velocity-Controlled vs. Repetition to Failure Resistance Training Session on Measures of Explosive Performance in a Team of Adolescents Basketball Players
Sports 2021, 9(8), 115; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080115 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
This study examined the short-term effects (post 6 h and 24 h) of two equated (70% of 1 repetition maximum (1-RM)) low volume resistance exercise protocols: (i) velocity-controlled (VC) and (ii) repetition to failure (RTF) on upper and lower body performance in competitive [...] Read more.
This study examined the short-term effects (post 6 h and 24 h) of two equated (70% of 1 repetition maximum (1-RM)) low volume resistance exercise protocols: (i) velocity-controlled (VC) and (ii) repetition to failure (RTF) on upper and lower body performance in competitive adolescent male basketball players. Following a randomized, counterbalanced design, ten participants (age: 16 ± 0.5 years) completed either VC or RTF separated by 72 h. VC consisted of 4 sets of 5 explosive repetitions (≥90% of the maximum velocity). RTF involved 2 sets of 10-RM (with no velocity control). Measurements of 20-m sprint, countermovement jump (CMJ) and medicine ball toss (MBT) were collected before (baseline), post 6 h and 24 h after either VC or RTF. Increases of CMJ post 6 h (VC, +6.7%; RTF, +2.4%) and MBT post 24 h (VC, +4.6%; RTF, +4.2%) were observed after both VC and RTF. Only VC potentiated CMJ after 24 h (+2.0 ± 2.3%). No other changes or differences between protocols were observed. Performing a low volume exercise protocol, either VC or RTF, induced similar potentiation effects on the vertical jump (post 6 h) and medicine ball toss (post 24 h) in adolescent basketball players. Only the VC protocol was still effective to potentiate CMJ performance after 24 h. Full article
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Article
Relationship between Biological, Training, and Physical Fitness Variables in the Expression of Performance in Non-Professional Runners
Sports 2021, 9(8), 114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080114 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Sports performance is a multifactorial trait that can be associated with individual and environmental characteristics. In this study, the sample comprised 35 male runners, enrolled in the “InTrack” project. Information regarding variables related to runners’ training was obtained via an online questionnaire, while [...] Read more.
Sports performance is a multifactorial trait that can be associated with individual and environmental characteristics. In this study, the sample comprised 35 male runners, enrolled in the “InTrack” project. Information regarding variables related to runners’ training was obtained via an online questionnaire, while anthropometric and body composition variables, as well as physical fitness components (muscular power, isometric strength, local muscular endurance, agility, and aerobic capacity) were measured, and a global physical fitness score (based on physical fitness components measured) was computed. The Weltman test (3200 m) was used to estimate runners’ pace and their stride frequency. Linear regression was used, taking the running pace as dependent variable. The final model, comprising biological, physical fitness, spatiotemporal, and training variables, explained 86% of the running performance variance. Muscular power (β = −1.02; 95% CI = (−1.69)–(−0.35)), abdominal muscle endurance (β = −4.81; 95% CI = (−7.52)–(−2.10)), isometric strength (β = −422.95; 95% CI = (−689.65)–(−156.25)), global physical fitness (β = 27.14; 95% CI = 9.52–45.03), and stride frequency (β = −2.99; 95% CI = (−4.29)–(−1.69)) were significantly associated with performance, meaning that better results in tests and increasing the stride frequency leads to better performance. Individual characteristics and physical fitness components were demonstrated to be significant predictors for running performance. Full article
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Article
A Comparison of Motives by Gender and Age Categories for Training at Norwegian Fitness Centres
Sports 2021, 9(8), 113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080113 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Examining participatory motives clarifies what engages and keeps individuals participating in exercise. The popularity of training at fitness centres has greatly increased over the last two decades, but individual determinants for motivation remain uncertain. This study compared motives between gender and age categories [...] Read more.
Examining participatory motives clarifies what engages and keeps individuals participating in exercise. The popularity of training at fitness centres has greatly increased over the last two decades, but individual determinants for motivation remain uncertain. This study compared motives between gender and age categories in training and performing physical activity at Norwegian fitness centres. To compare motives, a survey utilising a standardised questionnaire (MPAM-R) was conducted at six different Norwegian fitness centres. It was hypothesised that the intrinsic motive socialisation and extrinsic motive fitness would be more important among the older age categories for both genders, while the extrinsic motive appearance and intrinsic motive enjoyment would be more important among younger age groups. A total response of 183 men and 150 women, aged 14–80 years, was divided into seven categories based on their age and included in the statistical analysis. The main findings after conducting a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, were that the most important motive for training at fitness centres was increasing fitness, followed by enjoyment, competence, vitality and appearance. The social motive was rated the lowest. Women rated fitness and enjoyment higher compared to men, and men rated the motive for appearance higher than women, but this decreased with age in both genders. With increasing age, the importance of enjoyment and competence decreased in men, while women seemed to place increased importance on vitality with age. The importance of the social motive decreased first as age increased, but then increased again in the age group 41–50 years and older. It was concluded that the motives for participating in exercise at fitness centres was dependent on individual characteristics and that motives about training at fitness centres differed by gender and changed with age. Full article
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Article
Offseason Body Composition Changes Detected by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry versus Multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Collegiate American Football Athletes
Sports 2021, 9(8), 112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080112 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Tracking changes in body composition may provide key information about the effectiveness of training programs for athletes. This study reports on the agreement between bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for tracking body composition changes during a seven-week offseason training [...] Read more.
Tracking changes in body composition may provide key information about the effectiveness of training programs for athletes. This study reports on the agreement between bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for tracking body composition changes during a seven-week offseason training program in 29 NCAA collegiate American football players. Body composition in subjects (mean ± SD; age: 19.7 ± 1.5 y; height: 179.8 ± 6.6 cm; body mass (BM: 96.1 ± 12.6 kg; DXA body fat: 20.9 ± 4.4%) was estimated using BIA (InBody 770) and DXA (Hologic Horizon) before and after the training intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc comparisons were performed. Longitudinal agreement between methods was also examined by concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and Bland–Altman analysis alongside linear regression to identify bias. Significant method by time interactions were observed for BM (DXA: 1.1 ± 2.4 kg; BIA: 1.4 ± 2.5 kg; p < 0.03), arms fat-free mass (FFM) (DXA: 0.4 ± 0.5 kg; BIA: 0.2 ± 0.4 kg; p < 0.03), and legs FFM (DXA: 0.6 ± 1.1 kg; BIA: 0.1 ± 0.6 kg; p < 0.01). Post hoc comparisons indicated that DXA—but not BIA—detected increases in FFM of the arms and legs. Time main effects, but no method by time interactions, were observed for total FFM (DXA: 1.6 ± 1.9 kg; BIA: 1.2 ± 2.1 kg; p = 0.004) and trunk FFM (DXA: 0.7 ± 1.3 kg; BIA: 0.5 ± 1.0 kg; p = 0.02). Changes in total BM (CCC = 0.96), FFM (CCC = 0.49), and fat mass (CCC = 0.50) were significantly correlated between BIA and DXA. DXA and BIA may similarly track increases in whole-body FFM in American collegiate football players; however, BIA may possess less sensitivity in detecting segmental FFM increases, particularly in the appendages. Full article
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Article
Physical and Anthropometric Characteristics Do Not Differ According to Birth Year Quartile in High-Level Junior Australian Football Players
Sports 2021, 9(8), 111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080111 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 823
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore differences in the physical fitness and anthropometric profiles between birth year quartiles of players attending the Australian Football League (AFL) National Draft Combine. Date of birth, anthropometric, 20 m sprint, vertical and running vertical jump, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore differences in the physical fitness and anthropometric profiles between birth year quartiles of players attending the Australian Football League (AFL) National Draft Combine. Date of birth, anthropometric, 20 m sprint, vertical and running vertical jump, AFL planned agility, and 20 m Multi-Stage Fitness Test (MSFT) data were obtained for players selected to attend the Combine between 1999 and 2019 (n = 1549; Mage = 18.1; SDage = 0.3). The underlying density distributions of the data were visually explored using violin plots overlaid with box and whisker plots. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was then used to model the main effect of birth quartile (four levels) on the physical and anthropometric scores. Results showed that physical and anthropometric test scores did not significantly differ according to birth quartile (V = 0.008, F = 0.880, p = 0.631). We conclude that the physical and anthropometric profiles of high-level junior Australian Football players were similar according to birth year quartile across the modeled period. Therefore, how players utilize their physical and anthropometric attributes during game-play via contextualized, representative assessments, such as small-sided games, should be considered when examining potential causes of a RAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
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Article
Effects of Heavy Isotopes (2H1 and 18O16) Depleted Water Con-Sumption on Physical Recovery and Metabolic and Immunological Parameters of Healthy Volunteers under Regular Fitness Load
Sports 2021, 9(8), 110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080110 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Water depleted of heavy isotopes, such as 2H1 and 18O16 (HIDW), has shown numerous biological/health effects in vitro, in vivo, and in epidemiological studies. Major observations were related to cell growth/differentiation, immune/nervous system responses, endurance/adaptation, mitochondrial electron [...] Read more.
Water depleted of heavy isotopes, such as 2H1 and 18O16 (HIDW), has shown numerous biological/health effects in vitro, in vivo, and in epidemiological studies. Major observations were related to cell growth/differentiation, immune/nervous system responses, endurance/adaptation, mitochondrial electron transfer, energy production, glucose metabolism, etc. No human studies to confirm physiological, metabolic, and immune responses to the consumption of HIDW have been performed. A placebo-controlled study on healthy volunteers (n = 50) under fitness load who consumed 1.5 L HIDW (58 ppm 2H and 1780 ppm 18O) or normal water for 60 days was carried out. Plasma content of 2H1 and 18O16, markers of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism, anthropometric, cardio-vascular, oxidant/antioxidant, and immunological parameters were determined. Significant decrease in plasma heavy isotopes in the group consuming HIDW was observed in concomitance with an increase in ATP, insulin, and LDH, and diminished plasma lactate. Several anthropometric and cardio-vascular parameters were improved as compared to placebo group. Lipid markers demonstrated antiatherogenic effects, while oxidant/antioxidant parameters revealed HIDW-induced hormesis. Antibacterial/antiviral immunity was remarkably higher in HIDW versus placebo group. Conclusions: HIDW consumption by humans under fitness load could be a valid approach to improve their adaptation/recovery through several mechanisms. Full article
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Article
Quantifying Accelerations and Decelerations in Elite Women Soccer Players during Regular In-Season Training as an Index of Training Load
Sports 2021, 9(8), 109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080109 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Accelerations (ACC) and decelerations (DEC) are important and frequent actions in soccer. We aimed to investigate whether ACC and DEC were good indicators of the variation of training loads in elite women soccer players. Changes in the training load were monitored during two [...] Read more.
Accelerations (ACC) and decelerations (DEC) are important and frequent actions in soccer. We aimed to investigate whether ACC and DEC were good indicators of the variation of training loads in elite women soccer players. Changes in the training load were monitored during two different selected weeks (considered a “low week” and a “heavy week”) during the in-season. Twelve elite soccer women playing in the French first division wore a 10-Hz Global Positioning System unit recording total distance, distance within speed ranges, sprint number, ACC, DEC, and a heart rate monitor during six soccer training sessions and rated their perceived exertion (RPE). They answered the Hooper questionnaire (sleep, stress, fatigue, DOMS) to get an insight of their subjective fitness level at the start (Hooper S) and at the end of each week (Hooper E). A countermovement jump (CMJ) was also performed once a week. During the heavy week, the training load was significantly greater than the low week when considering number of ACC >2 m·s−2 (28.2 ± 11.9 vs. 56.1 ± 10.1, p < 0.001) and number of DEC < −2 m·s−2 (31.5 ± 13.4 vs. 60.9 ± 14.4, p < 0.001). The mean heart rate percentage (HR%) (p < 0.05), RPE (p < 0.001), and Hooper E (p < 0.001) were significantly greater during the heavy week. ACC and DEC showed significant correlations with most outcomes: HR%, total distance, distance per min, sprint number, Hooper index of Hooper E, DOMS E, Fatigue E, RPE, and session RPE. We concluded that, for elite women soccer players, quantifying ACC and DEC alongside other indicators seemed to be essential for a more complete training load monitoring. Indeed, it could lead to a better understanding of the reasons why athletes get fatigued and give insight into neuromuscular, rather than only energetic, fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Recovery in Sport)
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Review
Utility of Verification Testing to Confirm Attainment of Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Unhealthy Participants: A Perspective Review
Sports 2021, 9(8), 108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080108 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 838
Abstract
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is strongly associated with endurance performance as well as health risk. Despite the fact that VO2max has been measured in exercise physiology for over a century, robust procedures to ensure that VO2max is [...] Read more.
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is strongly associated with endurance performance as well as health risk. Despite the fact that VO2max has been measured in exercise physiology for over a century, robust procedures to ensure that VO2max is attained at the end of graded exercise testing (GXT) do not exist. This shortcoming led to development of an additional bout referred to as a verification test (VER) completed after incremental exercise or on the following day. Workloads used during VER can be either submaximal or supramaximal depending on the population tested. Identifying a true VO2max value in unhealthy individuals at risk for or having chronic disease seems to be more paramount than in healthy and active persons, who face much lower risk of premature morbidity and mortality. This review summarized existing findings from 19 studies including 783 individuals regarding efficacy of VER in unhealthy individuals to determine its efficacy and feasibility in eliciting a ‘true’ VO2max in this sample. Results demonstrated that VER is a safe and suitable approach to confirm attainment of VO2max in unhealthy adults and children, as in most studies VER-derived VO2max is similar of that obtained in GXT. However, many individuals reveal higher VO2max in response to VER and protocols used across studies vary, which merits additional work identifying if an optimal VER protocol exists to elicit ‘true’ VO2max in this particular population. Full article
Article
Muscular Strength, Power, and Endurance Adaptations after Two Different University Fitness Classes
Sports 2021, 9(8), 107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080107 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) classes help college students add weekly PA, which can help improve health and maintain body weight. Traditional weight training (TWT) can improve strength and aerobic capacity. High-intensity functional training such as CrossFit® (CF) provides time-efficient workouts with both muscle [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) classes help college students add weekly PA, which can help improve health and maintain body weight. Traditional weight training (TWT) can improve strength and aerobic capacity. High-intensity functional training such as CrossFit® (CF) provides time-efficient workouts with both muscle strengthening and aerobic exercises. Limited research has compared these classes for college students. We examined changes in muscular strength, power, and endurance as well as body composition. Participants were 85 healthy college students enrolled in TWT (n = 36, age 22.6 ± 4.1 years, 72.2% male) or CF (n = 49, age 21.8 ± 3.2 years, 55.1% male) classes meeting twice/wk for 8 weeks between October 2017 and May 2018. Baseline and posttest measurements included a vertical jump, grip strength, a 2 min push-up test, a 1 min squat test, height, weight, and a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Although no significant group × time interactions were found, there was a significant main effect of time for push-ups and squats (both p < 0.001). Participants enjoyed the classes and most planned to continue. Both classes improved muscular endurance although no significant differences were found between them. Activity classes provide college students with an option for increasing their weekly PA and help maintain body composition. Future research should examine the benefits from longer or more frequent classes. Full article
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Review
Optimization of the Critical Speed Concept for Tactical Professionals: A Brief Review
Sports 2021, 9(8), 106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080106 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 838
Abstract
Tactical professionals often depend on their physical ability and fitness to perform and complete occupational tasks to successfully provide public services or survive on the battlefield. Critical speed (CS), or maximal aerobic steady-state, is a purported measure that predicts performance, prescribes exercise, and [...] Read more.
Tactical professionals often depend on their physical ability and fitness to perform and complete occupational tasks to successfully provide public services or survive on the battlefield. Critical speed (CS), or maximal aerobic steady-state, is a purported measure that predicts performance, prescribes exercise, and detects training adaptions with application to tactical professionals. The CS concept has the versatility to adapt to training with load carriage as an integrated bioenergetic system approach for assessment. The aims of this review are to: (1) provide an overview of tactical populations and the CS concept; (2) describe the different methods and equipment used in CS testing; (3) review the literature on CS associated with tactical occupational tasks; and (4) demonstrate the use of CS-derived exercise prescriptions for tactical populations. Full article
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Article
Normative Reference of the Single Leg, Medial Countermovement Jump in Adolescent Youth Ice Hockey Players
Sports 2021, 9(8), 105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080105 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Functional performance tests provide quantitative information on specialized sport movements and are important for documenting training and fatigue. The single leg, medial countermovement jump provides objective measures of frontal plane force, velocity and power, and is relevant for ice hockey players given the [...] Read more.
Functional performance tests provide quantitative information on specialized sport movements and are important for documenting training and fatigue. The single leg, medial countermovement jump provides objective measures of frontal plane force, velocity and power, and is relevant for ice hockey players given the similar lateral movement to ice skating. This study measured normative single leg, medial countermovement jump parameters (i.e., vertical and lateral maximum force, average concentric power and average concentric power during the last 100 ms) amongst male youth ice hockey players and assessed interlimb asymmetry in these healthy athletes. Ninety-one elite youth players participated in the study. Participants completed three right and three left jumps. Non-parametric tests were performed to evaluate between-jump and between-group comparisons. Many differences in jump force and power parameters were observed between the 10U/11U and 12U/13U age groups, and the 12U/13U and 14U/15U age groups, but differences were not as consistent between older or younger players. The average asymmetry index for each age group was less than 15% for force parameters, while the power parameters had larger asymmetry indices (between 9% and 22%). Our results provide age-specific reference values and asymmetry indices for male elite youth ice hockey players aged 10–18 years performing the single leg, medial countermovement jump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Performance Monitoring in Sports)
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Article
Physical, Physiological, and Technical Demands in Ultimate Frisbee Small-Sided Games: Influence of Pitch Size
Sports 2021, 9(8), 104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9080104 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 999
Abstract
Small-sided games (SSGs) are common drills used in various team sports, but the exercise intensity in ultimate Frisbee SSG has not yet been investigated. To clarify the physical, physiological, and technical demands of ultimate Frisbee SSG, we investigated the influence of pitch size [...] Read more.
Small-sided games (SSGs) are common drills used in various team sports, but the exercise intensity in ultimate Frisbee SSG has not yet been investigated. To clarify the physical, physiological, and technical demands of ultimate Frisbee SSG, we investigated the influence of pitch size on exercise intensity during SSG. Nine male college ultimate Frisbee players played (3 vs. 3) SSG on small (SSGS: 30 × 15 m) and large (SSGL: 40 × 20 m) pitches; both SSGs comprised of four 4 min periods, interspersed by 5 min of passive recovery. Players’ mean heart rate (170 ± 8 and 171 ± 7 bpm), peak heart rate (184 ± 7 and 184 ± 5 bpm), and blood lactate concentration (11.3 ± 4.7 and 11.8 ± 4.6 mmol/L) were similar in SSGS and SSGL, respectively. The total distance covered (1984 ± 166 m and 1702 ± 80 m) and the distance covered during quick (860 ± 112 m and 696 ± 69 m) and high-intensity running (439 ± 95 and 255 ± 44) in SSGL were significantly longer than those in SSGS (p < 0.05). Conversely, the number of accelerations (45 ± 3 and 41 ± 3) and decelerations (44 ± 3 and 40 ± 4), catching errors (2 ± 1 and 1 ± 1), and turnovers (8 ± 2 and 6 ± 2) in SSGS were significantly greater than those in SSGL (p < 0.05). This study suggests that ultimate Frisbee SSG provides high-intensity training, which stimulates the glycolytic pathway. Furthermore, manipulating SSG pitch size effectively modulates the physical demands of SSG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology and Physical Demands of Intermittent Exercise)
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