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Societies, Volume 11, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 26 articles

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Article
Social Innovation in the Undergraduate Architecture Studio
Societies 2021, 11(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010026 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Social innovation has been gaining attention as an alternative method for defining socially constructed problems and their solutions in times of failure of more conventional methods. This study focused on the potential of undergraduate architecture students for social innovation in public space production. [...] Read more.
Social innovation has been gaining attention as an alternative method for defining socially constructed problems and their solutions in times of failure of more conventional methods. This study focused on the potential of undergraduate architecture students for social innovation in public space production. A novel collaborative educational method was proposed based on a conceptual framework of social extrapreneurs’ platforms of exploration, experimentation and execution, and problem-based learning. The method was designed for 90 h synchronous and 90 h asynchronous work, in a remote teaching mode. The benefit of the method was foreseen in improving the social processes of public space production, especially in areas with pronounced discrimination. Social innovation in planning is crucial for the capacity of imagining better futures in the context of a system’s evolutionary resilience and has the potential for democratization of public place design. Preliminary results show that the proposed method enables critical thinking, sets the base of action on social justice, and turns students into active agents of social change; thus, it provides an important contribution to the necessary, but still uncharted, paradigm shift in architectural education from an object- to people-driven design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Social Utility and Desirability of E-learning)
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Article
Women Academics in the World of Neoliberal, Managerial Higher Education
Societies 2021, 11(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010025 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
In my last years in academia, I have experienced the intimidating impact of pettybureaucracy and top-down micromanagement that typify managerialism in higher education today. In this paper I use my own experiences to reflect on why this is happening, attempting to gain understanding [...] Read more.
In my last years in academia, I have experienced the intimidating impact of pettybureaucracy and top-down micromanagement that typify managerialism in higher education today. In this paper I use my own experiences to reflect on why this is happening, attempting to gain understanding that can support others still working in the sector to survive and ultimately thrive. I argue that neoliberalism operates as an ideology, shaping the way we perceive and act in the world. In higher education, it is enacted through managerialism, together creating a social imaginary that defines what is expected of managers and what is expected of workers. Women are particularly vulnerable in this social imaginary given that the challenges they face in the workforce are attributed to their own shortcomings rather than any systemic barriers. Women face choices as to how to operate in this social imaginary, but all choices have consequences that need to be understood and managed. Ultimately, systemic disadvantage will not change without significant action taken by collectives of women who have a clear vision of better alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Equity and Academic Progression)
Article
National Identity and Integration Challenges of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Recipients
Societies 2021, 11(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010024 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Approximately 650,000 children and young adults currently reside in the United States with Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) status, providing them with temporary legal status to reside in the country. We explored the phenomenon of how five DACA recipients experienced their national [...] Read more.
Approximately 650,000 children and young adults currently reside in the United States with Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) status, providing them with temporary legal status to reside in the country. We explored the phenomenon of how five DACA recipients experienced their national identities and how it contributed to their acculturation patterns using in-depth semi-structured interviews. We interpreted their comments through the theoretical lens of Berry’s (1997) acculturation theory and Edensor’s (2002) emphasis on everyday life as a critical factor of national identity. Although the participants had the desire to remain in the United States and be a part of U.S. culture, everyday realities of discrimination, and challenges accomplishing common life tasks taken for granted by American peers (getting a driver’s license, travelling, working, obtaining financial aid for higher education) kept the participants from fully integrating into American society and gaining a sense of belonging. Full article
Editorial
Gender Inequity and Academic Progression: How Much of Our Silence Is Chosen?
Societies 2021, 11(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010023 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
In late 2019, I was invited by Societies Journal to establish a Special Issue on a topic of my choosing [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Equity and Academic Progression)
Article
Challenges and Sustainability of China’s Socio-Economic Stability in the Context of Its Demographic Development
Societies 2021, 11(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010022 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Like many developed countries in the world, China currently faces many serious demographic challenges that pose a potential risk to the country’s socio-economic development and stability. The current demographic development and trend is characterized by a change in the reproductive behavior of the [...] Read more.
Like many developed countries in the world, China currently faces many serious demographic challenges that pose a potential risk to the country’s socio-economic development and stability. The current demographic development and trend is characterized by a change in the reproductive behavior of the population, characterized by a decline in birth rates, a change in family behavior, and a shift in the value system. This paper is aimed at identifying the impact of population policy and the degree of its influence on both the economic and social system of the country. Based on a deterministic approach, the findings reveal and demonstrate the serious demographic challenges facing China, and we are noting that there is no guarantee that parametric adjustments, such as shifting the retirement age, will de facto ensure the financial health of the pension system by preventing bankruptcy. We point out the risks and prospects for the sustainability of China’s socio-economic development based on an analysis of past and current Chinese demographic policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Ageing-Challenges, Spatialities and Gender Perspective)
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Article
Trends in Attitudes of Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics toward Intermarriage in the Twenty-First Century
Societies 2021, 11(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010021 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
No study has simultaneously compared attitudes of whites, blacks, Asians, and Hispanics toward intermarriage over time. This study offers a comparative analysis of the changes in attitudes of whites, blacks, Asians, and Hispanics toward intermarriage with different racial or ethnic groups in the [...] Read more.
No study has simultaneously compared attitudes of whites, blacks, Asians, and Hispanics toward intermarriage over time. This study offers a comparative analysis of the changes in attitudes of whites, blacks, Asians, and Hispanics toward intermarriage with different racial or ethnic groups in the twenty-first century, using nationally representative samples from General Social Surveys 2000–2018. Our trend analyses reveal that whites’ support for intermarriage with minorities has generally increased, albeit at a relatively lower level; blacks’ support for intermarriage with Asians, Hispanics, and whites has been quite stable at a relatively high level; Asians’ and Hispanics’ support for intermarriage with other minorities has generally shown an upswing trend with some minor fluctuations, but their support for intermarriage with whites has gone in the opposite direction with oscillations. The results of our generalized linear ordinal logistic regression models show that either including or excluding control variables, whites’ attitudes have become generally more supportive of intermarriage with minorities, blacks’ support for intermarriage has displayed an undulated pattern, and Asians’ and Hispanics’ support for intermarriage reveal diverse patterns depending on the group to intermarry with. The findings indicate a general trend of narrowing intergroup social distances as well as some increases in social distance between certain groups in the United States in the twenty-first century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on International Migrations and Security Governance)
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Article
Experiencing Emotions in Video-Mediated Psychological Counselling Versus to Face-to-Face Settings
Societies 2021, 11(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010020 - 11 Mar 2021
Viewed by 484
Abstract
How does using video technology influence the emotional experience of communication in psychological counselling? In this paper, the experience of emotion—as an essential factor in the communication between counsellor and client—is systematically compared for face-to-face and video formats. It is suggested that the [...] Read more.
How does using video technology influence the emotional experience of communication in psychological counselling? In this paper, the experience of emotion—as an essential factor in the communication between counsellor and client—is systematically compared for face-to-face and video formats. It is suggested that the research methodology for studying computer-mediated forms of communication links lab and (virtual) reality in an ideal way. Based on a sample of 27 cases, significant differences and their observed effect sizes are presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the emotional experience in direct and mediated interaction and thus to contribute to the systematic search for evidence as to whether and how the emotional experience in psychological counselling interviews changes during video-mediated transmission. The results suggest, among others, that negative emotions are more intense in the video format and positive emotions are intensified in the face-to-face format. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Development of Attraction in Video-Mediated Communication)
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Review
Designing the Participation on Local Development Planning: From Literature Review to Adaptive Framework for Practice
Societies 2021, 11(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010019 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 542
Abstract
This exploratory review of the literature provides a comprehensive overview of the settings that are available to the planner when managing participatory strategic planning of spatial socio-economic development on the local level. We contextualize individual potential configurations of participation in local development planning [...] Read more.
This exploratory review of the literature provides a comprehensive overview of the settings that are available to the planner when managing participatory strategic planning of spatial socio-economic development on the local level. We contextualize individual potential configurations of participation in local development planning practice, documented in a number of case studies from different parts of the world, in order to reflect the multidimensionality of the participatory planning process. These reflections are used to build a participation plan model, which aimed to help local planners, especially local governments, to optimize the participation of local stakeholders, according to the specifics of the local environment. The paper evaluates the options of planners to manage the participation from perspective of the organization of participation, the determination of its scope, selection of stakeholders, methods and techniques of communication, decision-making and visualization, as well as the deployment of resources, or the possibility of promotion and dissemination of information. As a practical implication of this review, we compose a participation matrix, which is intended to be an auxiliary tool for planners to establish own locally-specific participation plans and that can serve as tool for education, or life-long learning of planners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Ageing-Challenges, Spatialities and Gender Perspective)
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Article
Representation and Agency of Aging Superheroes in Popular Culture and Contemporary Society
Societies 2021, 11(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010018 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
The figure of the superhero has always been regarded as an iconic representative of American society. Since the birth of the first superhero, it has been shaped by the most important historical, political, and social events, which were echoed in different comic issues. [...] Read more.
The figure of the superhero has always been regarded as an iconic representative of American society. Since the birth of the first superhero, it has been shaped by the most important historical, political, and social events, which were echoed in different comic issues. In principle, in the superhero genre, there has never been a place for aging superheroes, for they stand as a symbol of power and protection for the nation. Indeed, their mythical portrayal of young and strong broad-chested men with superpowers cannot be shattered showing them fragile or disabled. The aim of this article is to delve into the complex paradigm of the passage of time in comics and to analyze one of the most famous superheroes of all times, Superman, in terms of his archetypical representation across time. From the perspective of cultural and literary gerontology, the different issues of Action Comics will be examined, as well as an alternative graphic novel Kingdom Come (2008) by Mark Waid and Alex Ross, where Superman appears as an aged man. Although it breaks the standards of the genre, in the end it does not succeed to challenge the many stereotypes embedded in society in regard to aging, associated with physical, cognitive, and emotional decline. Furthermore, this article will show how a symbolic use of the monomythical representation of a superhero may penetrate into other cultural expressions to instill a more positive and realistic portrayal of aging. Full article
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Article
Lithuanian National Costume in the 19th Century and in the 2nd Half of the 20th Century: Cultural Pollution and Remains of Authenticity
Societies 2021, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc11010017 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Lithuanian authors, authors abroad, and artists have presented Lithuanian folk clothes in their works. However, the oldest examples of these representations are not very reliable, because the authors painted them according to the descriptions of other people or copied works among each other. [...] Read more.
Lithuanian authors, authors abroad, and artists have presented Lithuanian folk clothes in their works. However, the oldest examples of these representations are not very reliable, because the authors painted them according to the descriptions of other people or copied works among each other. In the 20th century, the national costume of Lithuania changed considerably. Attention was not given to ethnographic regional peculiarities; instead, similar materials were chosen without any analysis. This article performs a comparative analysis of folk (the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century) and national (the second half of the 20th century) Lithuanian costumes to establish signs of cultural pollution and remaining authenticity. Over 500 articles of clothing with different purposes are collected from Lithuanian museums. Fabric parameters, such as raw materials, weaving technique, weave, pattern, decoration elements, etc., are established. The research results show that authentic folk clothes of the 19th century differ from the national costume of the second half of the 20th century in their cut, decoration, and patterns. No differences between ethnographic regions survived in the national costumes. Thus, at present, we must preserve our tangible heritage and re-create, as authentically as possible, national costume for folk songs and dance ensembles, folk restaurants, and rural tourism homesteads. Full article
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Article
Student Perception of the Social Value of Responsible Management
Societies 2021, 11(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010016 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
In responsible management, managerial efficiency and sustainable development meet and influence each other. In order to give meaning to their organisation, to respect and look after their collaborators, a manager must promote a set of values on a personal, organisational and societal level. [...] Read more.
In responsible management, managerial efficiency and sustainable development meet and influence each other. In order to give meaning to their organisation, to respect and look after their collaborators, a manager must promote a set of values on a personal, organisational and societal level. The purpose of this paper is to study the social value attributed to responsible management by students of a technical university. We have therefore undertaken to study a set of seven values attributed to responsible management and, more precisely, their utility and social desirability on a personal, organisational and societal level. The values have been operationalized with personality descriptors. The 60 participants in this study are students from a Romanian technical university. They had to assess, on four scales of seven points each (two for desirability and two for social utility), the value of a person characterised by one of the seven values attributed to responsible management. The results show us that efficiency is the value perceived by the students as being the most desirable for responsible management, and that in terms of social utility, agility is the most appreciated value. We found that there is indeed an effect of the context in which these values are perceived. Efficiency, audacity, dedication and integrity are perceived as more useful at an organisational level, while solidarity was perceived as more useful on a societal level. At the organisational level we also found a gender effect, in the sense that women appreciate people who are efficient, have integrity or are humble more than men do. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Societies in 2020
Societies 2021, 11(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010015 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Societies maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
A Critical Discourse Analysis of Representations of Travellers in Public Policies in Ireland
Societies 2021, 11(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010014 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
In Ireland, negative stereotypes of the Traveller population have long been a part of society. The beliefs that surround this minority group may not be based in fact, yet negative views persist such that Travellers find themselves excluded from mainstream society. The language [...] Read more.
In Ireland, negative stereotypes of the Traveller population have long been a part of society. The beliefs that surround this minority group may not be based in fact, yet negative views persist such that Travellers find themselves excluded from mainstream society. The language used in discourse plays a critical role in the way Travellers are represented. This study analyses the discourse in the public policy regarding Travellers in the National Traveller and Roma Inclusion Strategy (NTRIS) 2017–2021. This study performs a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the policy with the overall aims of showing signs of the power imbalance through the use of language and revealing the discourses used by elite actors to retain power and sustain existing social relations. The key findings show that Travellers are represented as a homogenous group that exists outside of society. They have no control over how their social identity is constructed. The results show that the constructions of negative stereotypes are intertextually linked to previous policies, and the current policy portrays them in the role of passive patients, not powerful actors. The discursive practice creates polarity between the “settled” population and the “Travellers”, who are implicitly blamed by the state for their disadvantages. Through the policy, the government disseminates expert knowledge, which legitimises the inequality and supports this objective “truth”. This dominant discourse, which manifests in wider social practice, can facilitate racism and social exclusion. This study highlights the need for Irish society to change the narrative to support an equitable representation of Travellers. Full article
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Article
Perceived Intimacy Differences of Daily Online and Offline Interactions in People’s Social Network
Societies 2021, 11(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010013 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
This study examined which media people use on a day-to-day basis to communicate and whether tie strength influenced this media use. Furthermore, we analyzed whether online and offline interactions differ in perceived intimacy and whether tie strength impacts perceived interaction intimacy: 347 real [...] Read more.
This study examined which media people use on a day-to-day basis to communicate and whether tie strength influenced this media use. Furthermore, we analyzed whether online and offline interactions differ in perceived intimacy and whether tie strength impacts perceived interaction intimacy: 347 real interactions of 9 participants (3 male, 6 female) were analyzed; 172 online (WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, email, SMS interactions) and 175 offline (recorded phone and face-to-face conversations). The results revealed that the participants communicated most frequently face-to-face or via WhatsApp, especially with strong ties. Furthermore, participants rated their interactions with strong ties as more intimate compared to weak-tie interactions. Our findings have implications for Social Information Processing theory, as our findings show that people are equally able to communicate intimate messages online and offline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Development of Attraction in Video-Mediated Communication)
Article
Fourth Ageism: Real and Imaginary Old Age
Societies 2021, 11(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010012 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the issue of ageism and its salience in current debates about the COVID-19 pandemic. In it, we address the question of how best to interpret the impact that the pandemic has had on the older population. While many [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with the issue of ageism and its salience in current debates about the COVID-19 pandemic. In it, we address the question of how best to interpret the impact that the pandemic has had on the older population. While many feel angry at what they see as discriminatory lock-down practices confining older people to their homes, others are equally concerned by the failure of state responses to protect and preserve the health of older people, especially those receiving long-term care. This contrast in framing ageist responses to the pandemic, we suggest, arises from differing social representations of later life, reflecting the selective foregrounding of third versus fourth age imaginaries. Recognising the tension between social and biological parameters of ageing and its social categorisations, we suggest, may offer a more measured, as well as a less discriminatory, approach to addressing the selective use of chronological age as a line of demarcation within society. Full article
Editorial
Citizenship Education and Civil Society
Societies 2021, 11(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010011 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Contemporary societies face a range of important challenges, including: climate change; poverty; wealth, income, and other forms of social inequality; human rights abuses; misinformation and fake news; the growth of populist movements; and citizen disenchantment with democratic politics [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Citizenship Education and Civil Society)
Concept Paper
Pushing Back on Displacement: Community-Based Redevelopment through Historically Black Churches
Societies 2021, 11(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010010 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Gentrification and subsequent displacement are common problems in cities, and result in the removal of poor communities and communities of color from urban areas as they move to cheaper locations in the metropolitan region. Here we describe a community-based approach to redevelopment by [...] Read more.
Gentrification and subsequent displacement are common problems in cities, and result in the removal of poor communities and communities of color from urban areas as they move to cheaper locations in the metropolitan region. Here we describe a community-based approach to redevelopment by historic Black churches that seeks to counter such displacement and cultural removal. We explain the history of a historically Black neighborhood in Seattle and the founding and rationale for a church-led project called the Nehemiah Initiative. Our perspective is that of participants in the work of the Nehemiah Initiative and as faculty and students from a local university partner supporting it. We conclude with policy strategies that can be used to support such redevelopment in Seattle, with understanding that some may be broadly applicable to other cities. Full article
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Concept Paper
Does Sociology Need Open Science?
Societies 2021, 11(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010009 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1676
Abstract
Reliability, transparency, and ethical crises pushed many social science disciplines toward dramatic changes, in particular psychology and more recently political science. This paper discusses why sociology should also change. It reviews sociology as a discipline through the lens of current practices, definitions of [...] Read more.
Reliability, transparency, and ethical crises pushed many social science disciplines toward dramatic changes, in particular psychology and more recently political science. This paper discusses why sociology should also change. It reviews sociology as a discipline through the lens of current practices, definitions of sociology, positions of sociological associations, and a brief consideration of the arguments of three highly influential yet epistemologically diverse sociologists: Weber, Merton, and Habermas. It is a general overview for students and sociologists to quickly familiarize themselves with the state of sociology or explore the idea of open science and its relevance to their discipline. Full article
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Concept Paper
A Proof-of-Concept Pilot for an Intervention with Pregnant Mothers Who Have Had Children Removed by the State: The ‘Early Family Drug and Alcohol Court Model’
Societies 2021, 11(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010008 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
This paper describes a ‘proof-of-concept’ pilot of the ‘Early FDAC model’. The evaluated Family Drug and Alcohol Court (FDAC) model, on which Early FDAC is based, is summarised and the rationale for introducing the pilot variation is set out. This short paper describes [...] Read more.
This paper describes a ‘proof-of-concept’ pilot of the ‘Early FDAC model’. The evaluated Family Drug and Alcohol Court (FDAC) model, on which Early FDAC is based, is summarised and the rationale for introducing the pilot variation is set out. This short paper describes the learning from the pilot that set out to work with 30 families across three FDAC teams between 2015 and 2019. At the time of the pilot, there were, and remain, few other interventions in England for pregnant mothers who have already had children removed. An adaptation of the evaluated FDAC model suggested itself because of the overlap with families in public law care proceedings and emerging evidence that FDAC delivers a better experience of justice for families and professionals, better outcomes for children and families and better use of public money. Pilot families were engaged as soon as possible in the pregnancy (hence ‘Early’), and continued to receive support for up to two years. The process started in pre-proceedings with the aim of avoiding court. Where proceedings were necessary, cases were heard in an FDAC court, with provision for a post-proceedings phase. There were problems with recruitment and engagement and families had fewer ‘solvable problems’. Nevertheless, outcomes were promising, with 18 families keeping their children. This represents one-third of the referred families and almost two-thirds of the families who undertook a ‘Trial for Change’. Full article
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Article
Moving from the Margins: Towards an Inclusive Urban Representation of Older People in Zimbabwe’s Policy Discourse
Societies 2021, 11(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010007 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Population ageing has become a major global demographic shift but perhaps less noticeable in the Global South. Zimbabwe, like many African countries, is experiencing and will continue to witness an increase in older age, hence questioning its readiness to handle such change. Ageing [...] Read more.
Population ageing has become a major global demographic shift but perhaps less noticeable in the Global South. Zimbabwe, like many African countries, is experiencing and will continue to witness an increase in older age, hence questioning its readiness to handle such change. Ageing in Zimbabwe is currently occurring in the context of increasing poverty, political unrest, changing family structures, and weakening infrastructures. Despite this, Zimbabwe is committed to promoting change and betterment for its citizens through adherence to international agendas and national development strategies. However, the first step towards the realisation of an inclusive urban environment begins with a fair representation of the various actors and social groups. This review paper is aimed at examining the representation of Zimbabwe’s older people, a subject that has rarely been the focus of critical analysis, concentrating on the political discourse in urban development programmes. A sample of 45 international and national policy documents published post-2002, was carefully selected and inspected to determine the level of presence of older people using discourse analysis. The findings reveal that in the context of the efforts made towards a Zimbabwe that is inclusive of all citizens, the idea of older persons as subjects of rights and active participants has yet to truly gain sufficient currency. There is a dominance of a one-dimensional perspective across the majority of the publications, with older people constructed as “dependent”, “vulnerable” and “passive”, overseeing vital contributions to society. A realistic and more empowering representation of this social group, showing them as active caregivers rather than passive recipients is therefore a necessity if Zimbabwe is to fulfil its vision of inclusivity. Full article
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Review
Decolonising Terrorism Journals
Societies 2021, 11(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010006 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Decolonisation of knowledge over the past few years has gained much traction among scholars and students in many countries. This situation has led to calls for the decolonisation of knowledge, academia, the university, and university curricula. That said, the knowledge production side of [...] Read more.
Decolonisation of knowledge over the past few years has gained much traction among scholars and students in many countries. This situation has led to calls for the decolonisation of knowledge, academia, the university, and university curricula. That said, the knowledge production side of the terrorism industry, which sits inside academia, so far has escaped calls to decolonise. This situation is somewhat surprising because the terrorism industry has had a tremendous impact on many countries, especially Muslim majority ones. The 9/11 terrorist attacks have resulted in a tremendous amount of knowledge being produced and published on terrorism and counterterrorism. However, little is known about “who is publishing on terrorism and where they are based”. To this end, this paper adopts a decolonial approach and addresses the questions of “who is publishing on terrorism and where they are based” by analysing seven terrorism journals. It argues that most of the publications and knowledge on terrorism in the seven terrorism journals are produced by scholars with Western heritage and are based at Western institutions, which is connected to the coloniality of knowledge. Full article
Article
In the Shadow of the Mountain: A Socio-Historical Case Study on Rapid Population Growth in Two Neighboring Population Centers in the Western United States
Societies 2021, 11(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010005 - 09 Jan 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
US Census population estimates show that every state in the Western US reported significant population growth increases over the past two decades. Furthermore, Western population growth represents one of the largest and most significant US demographic trends in recent decades. For many Western [...] Read more.
US Census population estimates show that every state in the Western US reported significant population growth increases over the past two decades. Furthermore, Western population growth represents one of the largest and most significant US demographic trends in recent decades. For many Western US communities, this increase in population growth has resulted in significant changes to its residents’ day-to-day lived experience. Dramatic population growth can change the types of services available, economic opportunities, and perceived satisfaction of communities. This change in the lived experience of a community is perhaps most pronounced when small rural communities undergo a rapid increase in population size. To that end, we present a socio-historical narrative case study examining how population growth-historical and contemporary-has shaped residents’ lived experience in two neighboring population centers in the modern rural West: Utah’s Heber Valley and Park City, Utah. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Ageing-Challenges, Spatialities and Gender Perspective)
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Article
Cultural Capital, Gender and Intergenerational Educational Mobility in Post-Communist Space
Societies 2021, 11(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010004 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Post-communist transition in Eastern Europe has affected social stratification and mobility. There is an argument that transition undermined the role of parental cultural capital and increased the importance of parental economic capital in determining the educational mobility of children. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
Post-communist transition in Eastern Europe has affected social stratification and mobility. There is an argument that transition undermined the role of parental cultural capital and increased the importance of parental economic capital in determining the educational mobility of children. In this paper, we examine whether the parental cultural capital has played a role in educational mobility of cohorts born in 1970–1984 and what has been the contribution of the different states of cultural capital. We also consider the gender heterogeneity in the transmission of educational advantage. The study focuses on one country of Eastern Europe—Lithuania, which underwent the transition to a radical neo-liberal form of capitalism. Using data from the Families and Inequalities Survey of 2019, we apply the descriptive and ordinal regression analysis. The results indicate intergenerational educational upward mobility for women. All states of parental cultural capital (objectified, embodied, institutionalized) are relevant for the educational attainment of the transitional cohort. The effects are more pronounced for women, at least in relation to some states of parental cultural capital. On a more general level, the findings imply that the intergenerational reproduction of educational attainment was not substantially altered by the transition, at least during its initial decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Equity and Academic Progression)
Article
Making School Children’s Participation in Planning Processes a Routine Practice
Societies 2021, 11(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010003 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
Children’s participation in planning has been investigated to some extent. There are, however, unexplored topics, particularly concerning what is needed for children’s participation to become a regular process. Based on case studies in Sweden, this article draws some conclusions. It is quite possible [...] Read more.
Children’s participation in planning has been investigated to some extent. There are, however, unexplored topics, particularly concerning what is needed for children’s participation to become a regular process. Based on case studies in Sweden, this article draws some conclusions. It is quite possible to organize ordinary processes where children participate in community building, in collaboration with planners, as part of their schoolwork. The key question is how this can be done. Clearly, it needs to occur in close collaboration with teachers and pupils, however it also needs to be implemented in a system-challenging manner. Thus, rather than looking for tools with potential to work in the existing school and planners’ world, it is important to design research that aims to create learning processes that have the potential to change praxis. Hence, it is not the case that tools are not needed, rather that children need to help to develop them. Full article
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Article
Crafting New Narratives of Diasporic Resistance with Indo-Caribbean Women and Gender-Expansive People across Generations
Societies 2021, 11(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010002 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
This study used participatory oral history and digital archiving to explore two interrelated questions: How do Indo-Caribbean women and gender-expansive people across generations experience processes of storytelling? What are the challenges and possibilities of oral history and digital archiving for constructing alternative histories [...] Read more.
This study used participatory oral history and digital archiving to explore two interrelated questions: How do Indo-Caribbean women and gender-expansive people across generations experience processes of storytelling? What are the challenges and possibilities of oral history and digital archiving for constructing alternative histories and genealogies of resistance? In the first phase of the study, twelve Indo-Caribbean women and gender-expansive people across generations participated in an oral history workshop where they were introduced to oral history methods, co-created an interview guide, conducted oral history interviews of one another, and engaged in collective reflection about processes of storytelling. In the second phase, four co-authors of a community-owned digital archive participated in semi-structured interviews about their work to craft new narratives of diasporic resistance rooted in the everyday stories of Indo-Caribbean women and gender-expansive people. In this paper, I analyze how Indo-Caribbean women and gender-expansive people practice resistance by breaking silences in their communities around gender-based oppression, shift norms through producing analyses of their own stories, and reshape community narratives. Furthermore, I explore how oral history participants and co-authors of a digital archive understand the risks associated with sharing stories, raising the ethical dilemmas associated with conceptualizing storytelling as purely liberatory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Studies/Perspectives on Migration and the Migrant Experience)
Article
The Social Justice Impact of the Transit-Oriented Development
Societies 2021, 11(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11010001 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 764
Abstract
Transit-oriented development (TOD) is often considered a solution for automobile dependency in the pursuit of sustainability. Although TOD has shown various benefits as sustainable development and smart growth, there are potential downsides, such as transit-induced gentrification (TIG). Even if there were no displacement [...] Read more.
Transit-oriented development (TOD) is often considered a solution for automobile dependency in the pursuit of sustainability. Although TOD has shown various benefits as sustainable development and smart growth, there are potential downsides, such as transit-induced gentrification (TIG). Even if there were no displacement issues with TIG, existing residents could be disadvantaged by a TOD due to affordability problems. This study focuses on these potential affordability issues and aims to evaluate the effects of TOD using residents’ discretionary income (DI) as an indicator of affordability. The light rail transit-oriented development (LRTOD) in Phoenix, AZ, is selected because of the timing of the introduction of development and the simplicity of the light rail transit line. In order to counteract problems induced by a non-random location of TODS, propensity score matching is used. The results indicate that LRTOD can give benefit to all TOD residents. Moreover, the effects of LRTOD on discretionary income of various types of households are not statistically significantly different. We have identified the different magnitudes of the effects of TOD between propensity score matching (PSM)-controlled and uncontrolled models. These indicate the existence of the selection bias of TOD implementation, justifying the adoption of the PSM method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Ageing-Challenges, Spatialities and Gender Perspective)
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