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Societies, Volume 11, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 48 articles

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Article
Social Representations of Children and Parents in Parliamentary-Committee Debates about the Inclusion of Child Psychological Maltreatment in the Quebec Youth Protection Act
Societies 2021, 11(3), 114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030114 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 160
Abstract
Child psychological maltreatment (CPM) was incorporated into the Quebec Youth Protection Act (YPA) in 2006. At that time, various civil-society actors were invited to present to Parliament their views on these legislative changes. The objective of this article is to document the social [...] Read more.
Child psychological maltreatment (CPM) was incorporated into the Quebec Youth Protection Act (YPA) in 2006. At that time, various civil-society actors were invited to present to Parliament their views on these legislative changes. The objective of this article is to document the social representations mobilized by the stakeholders in the parliamentary committee in relation to the inclusion of CPM in the Quebec YPA. After explaining our research objectives, questions, and methodology, we will discuss our results, in particular about the distinctive nature of children as a representational object. This specificity will be analyzed in order to better understand the type of communication it generates and the corresponding hegemonic representation of parents. Specifically, implications related to the representational dynamics identified are discussed in relation to our collective capacity (or incapacity) to debate sensitive issues such as child abuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Child Welfare)
Article
Seeking Evidence of The MAGA Cult and Trump Derangement Syndrome: An Examination of (A)symmetric Political Bias
Societies 2021, 11(3), 113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030113 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Three studies sought to explore the existence of (a)symmetric bias regarding Donald Trump. In Study 1, participants read one of three statements expressing different degrees of favorability toward electing the President of the United States via a National Popular Vote attributed to Trump [...] Read more.
Three studies sought to explore the existence of (a)symmetric bias regarding Donald Trump. In Study 1, participants read one of three statements expressing different degrees of favorability toward electing the President of the United States via a National Popular Vote attributed to Trump or an anonymous source. In Study 2, participants read one of two statements either favoring or disfavoring the name change of the Washington NFL franchise, and the statement was attributed to either Trump or an anonymous source. In Study 3, Trump and Biden voters were asked to rate their support or opposition to counting all the votes in battleground states when continued counting was expected to either help Trump or Biden. Results for all three studies supported the asymmetric bias hypothesis. Trump supporters consistently showed bias in favor of the interests and ostensible positions of Trump, whereas Trump’s detractors did not show an opposing bias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extremism and the Assault on Truth, Social Justice, and Democracy)
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Article
The Economic Consequences of Decriminalizing Sex Work in Washington, DC—A Conceptual Model
Societies 2021, 11(3), 112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030112 (registering DOI) - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
(1) Under repressive policies, sex workers are at disproportionate risk for violence and sexually transmitted infections. The decriminalization of sex work provides increased social and health benefits to both sex workers and society. This is the first research that complements human rights-based messages [...] Read more.
(1) Under repressive policies, sex workers are at disproportionate risk for violence and sexually transmitted infections. The decriminalization of sex work provides increased social and health benefits to both sex workers and society. This is the first research that complements human rights-based messages with a quantifiable economic impact of such a law and a model for future calculations. (2) This research assesses the potential economic consequences of decriminalizing sex work in the District of Columbia (DC) in three areas: (A) income tax revenue, (B) criminal justice system savings, and (C) health sector savings (due to averted cases of violence, HIV, gonorrhea, and herpes). (3) An economic model is developed and utilized based on data from a literature search and agency records. (4) Decriminalizing sex work in DC will generate USD5348.68 per sex worker and USD2.53 per client annually, plus USD20,118.48 in criminal justice system savings a year. Per sex worker, USD5058.08 will be gained from income tax revenue, and USD290.60 will be generated through health sector savings (USD274.65, 0.02, 15.64, and 0.29 from averted cases of violence, HIV, gonorrhea, and herpes, respectively). Per client, decriminalization will generate USD0.05, 2.32, and 0.16 from averted cases of HIV, gonorrhea, and herpes, respectively, or USD8462.35 annually, after considering the total number of clients. Estimates are reported in 2020 USD. (5) The potential economic impact of decriminalizing sex work is widespread. The presented model, in conjunction with a rights-based foundation, should urgently be used by advocates, sex workers, decision makers, and other researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Young People, Sexual Health and Sexual Rights)
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Article
The Role of Community in Black Identity Development and Occupational Choice
Societies 2021, 11(3), 111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030111 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Black Americans have historically been excluded from societal associations and faced wavering instability in their households, forcing them to work together for their individual and collective well-being. In past research, more than half of Black American students enrolled in school opted to pursue [...] Read more.
Black Americans have historically been excluded from societal associations and faced wavering instability in their households, forcing them to work together for their individual and collective well-being. In past research, more than half of Black American students enrolled in school opted to pursue social or educational careers. Findings suggest that Black Americans’ occupational development is influenced by their family and community ties. In this conceptual paper, the foundation of the development of identity in African American culture is presented, as it relates to occupational decision-making. First, we discuss the influences of general identity development on occupational decision-making. Second, we argue that Black cultural identity is multidimensional, with strong community and family factors that play a special role in occupational choice. Third, we suggest future research paradigms to link racial identity, culture, and occupational choice among Black American students. By exploring the fundamental beliefs of Black cultural identity, and how they buffer against each other, Black American students will be better able to make occupational decisions. Full article
Article
The Impact of Civic and Religious Social Capital on the Antisocial Attitudes of the Youth: A Multi-Level Cross-National Study
Societies 2021, 11(3), 110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030110 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 241
Abstract
The main goal of this paper is to investigate whether some dimensions of civic and religious social capital are connected to antisocial attitudes of the youth. Based on the social capital theory and previous research, the author assumed that membership of voluntary associations [...] Read more.
The main goal of this paper is to investigate whether some dimensions of civic and religious social capital are connected to antisocial attitudes of the youth. Based on the social capital theory and previous research, the author assumed that membership of voluntary associations as a dimension of civic social capital and attendance at religious services as a dimension of religious social capital, will be negatively correlated with antisocial attitudes of the youth. The integrated dataset of the last European Values Study and the World Values Survey waves were used as the sources of the research data. The dataset was comprised of 11,411 respondents who were younger than 25 years old from 79 countries. As hypothesized, at the individual level, attendance at religious services was negatively correlated with antisocial attitudes, whereas membership of voluntary associations was positively correlated with antisocial attitudes. At the country level, none of the hypothesized correlations were confirmed. A cross-level interaction between GDP and associational membership was found. The author explains the findings by evoking the special characteristics of religious social capital and its strength in building moral obligations and by suggesting possible differences in incentives for joining voluntary associations in the countries with different levels of economic wealth. Full article
Article
Asian Americans’ Ethnic Identity Exploration and the Role of Ethnic Community in a Southern City in the United States
Societies 2021, 11(3), 109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030109 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 214
Abstract
This qualitative study explores Asian Americans’ ethnic identity concerning their process of exploring their own identity belonging and the impact of an ethnic community in a southern city in the United States. The South has mainly consisted of European Americans and African Americans. [...] Read more.
This qualitative study explores Asian Americans’ ethnic identity concerning their process of exploring their own identity belonging and the impact of an ethnic community in a southern city in the United States. The South has mainly consisted of European Americans and African Americans. However, it has diversified to include an increasing number of Latinx and Asian Americans over the last several decades. Yet, the growing Asian American community remains disparate in its ethnic identity and nationality. Therefore, this study uses the phenomenological method to provide a more in-depth understanding of ethnic identity in an Asian American community within a southern region of the United States. Themes emerging from interviews included the need to bridge two worlds, the desire to be part of a community, and the existence of a two-layer community involving both ethnic and racial identity. This study contributes to a greater understanding of Asian Americans’ experiences in and adaptation to the Southern region within the United States. Implications for practice are provided for social workers when working alongside Asian American clients. Full article
Concept Paper
Parental Mental Health Problems and the Risk of Child Maltreatment: The Potential Role of Psychotherapy
Societies 2021, 11(3), 108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030108 - 05 Sep 2021
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Parental mental health is a risk factor for numerous issues affecting a child’s physical and psychological development, especially the perpetration of child maltreatment. This paper aims to contribute a theoretical review of the risks faced by some children living in families with parental [...] Read more.
Parental mental health is a risk factor for numerous issues affecting a child’s physical and psychological development, especially the perpetration of child maltreatment. This paper aims to contribute a theoretical review of the risks faced by some children living in families with parental mental health problems and argues that psychotherapy has an essential role in resolving emotional and interpersonal difficulties, based on the example of Emotion Focused Therapy (EFT). This model has revealed benefits in interventions with several types of patients and is consequently a promising model for preventing the risk of aggressive behaviors. The programs addressing both parents and children have been proven to contribute to more informed and effective interventions. Full article
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Article
The Revised Version of the Committing and Experiencing Cyber-Violence Scale and Its Relation to Psychosocial Functioning and Online Behavioral Problems
Societies 2021, 11(3), 107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030107 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Cyber-violence is the type of online risk behavior inclined to harm others. Development of new forms of cyber-violent behavior leads to the need to revise specific-item measures of cyber-violence periodically. The aim of this research was to explore the psychometric properties of the [...] Read more.
Cyber-violence is the type of online risk behavior inclined to harm others. Development of new forms of cyber-violent behavior leads to the need to revise specific-item measures of cyber-violence periodically. The aim of this research was to explore the psychometric properties of the revised Committing and Experiencing Cyber-Violence Scale: its latent structure, reliability, and descriptive statistics of underlying dimensions, as well as the relation of some known correlates of cyber-violence, like indicators of psychosocial functioning and online behavioral problems, with cyber-violence. Online questionnaires (cyber-violence, depression, anxiety and stress, problematic Internet use, and problematic gaming) were filled out by 1725 adolescents from a convenient sample. Using exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical regression analysis, the questionnaire’s latent structure and contribution of relevant correlates for explaining cyber-violence variance was examined. Results: Exploratory factor analysis showed a five-factor solution with satisfactory reliability: shaming, information manipulation, hate speech, technology abuse, and information sharing. Participants commit and experience cyber-violence rarely, leading to a positive distribution of data in the factors. The Committing and Experiencing Cyber-violence subscales have a large positive correlation. Gender (male), grades, maternal education, depression, anxiety, stress, problematic Internet use, and problematic gaming are positive predictors of experiencing cyber-violence, whereas gender (male), grades, hours spent online on weekdays, depression, anxiety, stress, problematic Internet use, and problematic gaming are positive predictors of committing cyber-violence. Conclusions: Cyber-violence is connected with lower psychosocial functioning and more risky behavior online (problematic Internet use, problematic online gaming). Full article
Article
Slumming on Social Media? E-Mediated Tourist Gaze and Social Representations of Indian, South African, and Brazilian Slum Tourism Destinations
Societies 2021, 11(3), 106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030106 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Slum tourism is a hotly debated genre of travel. While it may foster intercultural encounters with marginalised “others”, it is also accused of reinforcing stereotypes and exploitation. Both aspects are amplified by the communication through social media of the slum tourism experience, that [...] Read more.
Slum tourism is a hotly debated genre of travel. While it may foster intercultural encounters with marginalised “others”, it is also accused of reinforcing stereotypes and exploitation. Both aspects are amplified by the communication through social media of the slum tourism experience, that contribute to challenge or confirm stigmatizing representations of slums and their inhabitants. Based on the theoretical constructs of the tourist gaze and of social representations, this article addresses this particular type of digital contact. A lexicometric approach was used to analyse an extensive corpus of reviews on TripAdvisor (N = 8126). The findings not only confirm common themes already identified by the literature: the eye-opening component of touring poverty and the gatekeeping function of guides; but also show the emergence of context-dependent specificities, such as a hedonistic feature in the Cape Town region; or the integration of favelas within the representations of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, the results show the tension between the “othering” and the “sameing” mechanisms, making this tourism practice a space in which shallow and deep tourist gazes interact and co-exist, and are crucially mediated by the gatekeeper of the tours: the guide. Full article
Concept Paper
Tourism and Livelihood Sovereignty: A Theoretical Introduction and Research Agenda for Arctic Contexts
Societies 2021, 11(3), 105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030105 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 255
Abstract
The need to understand how Arctic coastal communities can remain resilient in the wake of rapid anthropogenic change that is disproportionately affecting the region—including, but not limited to, climate instability and the increasing reach of the tourism sector—is more urgent than ever. With [...] Read more.
The need to understand how Arctic coastal communities can remain resilient in the wake of rapid anthropogenic change that is disproportionately affecting the region—including, but not limited to, climate instability and the increasing reach of the tourism sector—is more urgent than ever. With sovereignty discourse at the forefront of Arctic sustainability research, integrating existing sovereignty scholarship into the tourism literature yields new theory-building opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to conceptually analyze the implications of (1) applying both theoretical and social movement ideas about sovereignty to tourism research in Arctic coastal communities, (2) the extent to which these ideas revolve around livelihood sovereignty in particular, (3) the influence of existing tourism development on shifting livelihood sovereignty dynamics, and, ultimately, (4) the opportunities for further research that enables more sovereign sustainable tourism development across the Arctic region. Given the northward march of the tourism frontier across Arctic regions, an exploration of tourism’s influence on sovereignty presents a timely opportunity to advance theory and promote policy incentives for forms of tourism development that are more likely to yield sustainable and resilient outcomes for Arctic communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Tourism and Community Development)
Article
Moderating Effect of Demographic Variables by Analyzing the Motivation and Satisfaction of Visitors to the Former Presidential Vacation Villa: Case Study of Cheongnam-Dae, South Korea
Societies 2021, 11(3), 104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030104 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 260
Abstract
This study aims to verify whether there is a difference in groups vis-à-vis gender and age in the relationship between the motivation and satisfaction of visiting the former presidential villa, Cheongnam-dae. Using structural equation models, we examined that Relaxation has a positive effect [...] Read more.
This study aims to verify whether there is a difference in groups vis-à-vis gender and age in the relationship between the motivation and satisfaction of visiting the former presidential villa, Cheongnam-dae. Using structural equation models, we examined that Relaxation has a positive effect on satisfaction in all groups. However, the relationship between motivation and satisfaction, such as Convenience, Historicity, and Fellowship, reveals gender and age differences, while the relationship among three motivation factors differs by gender and age. Four motivational factors, i.e., Relaxation, Convenience, Historicity, and Satisfaction, significantly affected the youth (n = 171), while the three factors, i.e., Relaxation, Convenience, and Fellowship, significantly affected the elderly (n = 143). Our analysis encourages expanding ecotourism infrastructure to enhance the ecological value of Cheongnam-dae. It is also necessary to replenish related facilities and contents to enhance the effectiveness of ecological experiences and environmental education. Therefore, this work is significant as it contributes to the development of an analytic framework by discussing the difference between motivation and satisfaction. Full article
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Article
Gender, Education, and Attitudes toward Women’s Leadership in Three East Asian Countries: An Intersectional and Multilevel Approach
Societies 2021, 11(3), 103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030103 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Despite their achievements in the past few decades, women remain largely excluded from impactful leadership positions in many countries and fields. In this research, we focus on how gender and education shape public opinions that favor men over women for political and economic [...] Read more.
Despite their achievements in the past few decades, women remain largely excluded from impactful leadership positions in many countries and fields. In this research, we focus on how gender and education shape public opinions that favor men over women for political and economic leadership in three East Asian countries. Utilizing an intersectional theoretical framework and multilevel methodological approach to analyze the World Value Survey data, we investigate the heterogeneous effects of education on gender attitudes between men and women and how such heterogeneity is conditioned by national contexts. We found that the negative association between higher levels of education and traditional gender attitudes is much stronger among women than among men, especially in Japan. National contexts not only directly shape gender attitudes but also modify the main and interactive effects of gender and education on attitudes toward women leadership. This research contributes to the emergent literature on the contingency of intersectionality and highlights the utility of multilevel analysis in intersectional and/or comparative studies. Full article
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Review
Social Role Narrative of Disabled Artists and Both Their Work in General and in Relation to Science and Technology
Societies 2021, 11(3), 102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030102 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Artists and the arts have many different roles in society. Artists also have various roles in relation to science and technology, ranging from being users of science and technology products to being educators for science and technologies, such as in museums. Artists are [...] Read more.
Artists and the arts have many different roles in society. Artists also have various roles in relation to science and technology, ranging from being users of science and technology products to being educators for science and technologies, such as in museums. Artists are also involved in science and technology governance and ethics discussions. Disabled people are also artists and produce art, and disabled people in general and disabled artists are impacted by science and technology advancements. As such, disabled artists should also engage with science and technology, as well as contribute and influence science and technology governance, ethics discussions, and science and technology education with their work. We performed a scoping study of academic literature using the 70 databases of EBSCO-HOST and the database SCOPUS (includes Medline) to investigate the social role narrative of disabled artists and both their work in general and in relation to science and technology. Our findings suggest that disabled artists are mostly engaged in the context of becoming and being a disabled artist. Beyond the work itself, the identity issue of ‘being disabled’ was a focus of the coverage of being a disabled artist. The literature covered did not provide in-depth engagement with the social role of disabled artists, their work, and the barriers encountered, and best practices needed to fulfil the social roles found in the literature for non-disabled artists and the arts. Finally, the literature covered contained little content on the relationship of disabled artists and advancements of science and technology, such as in their role of using advancements of science and technologies for making art. No content at all was found that would link disabled artists and their work to the science and technology governance and ethics discussions, and no content linking disabled artists to being educators on science and technology issues, for example, in museums was found. Full article
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Article
Recent Automation Trends in Portugal: Implications on Industrial Productivity and Employment in Automotive Sector
Societies 2021, 11(3), 101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030101 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Recent developments in automation and artificial intelligence (AI) are leading to a wave of innovation in organizational design and changes in the workplace. Techno-optimists even named it the “second machine age,” arguing that it now involves the substitution of the human brain. Other [...] Read more.
Recent developments in automation and artificial intelligence (AI) are leading to a wave of innovation in organizational design and changes in the workplace. Techno-optimists even named it the “second machine age,” arguing that it now involves the substitution of the human brain. Other authors see this as just a continuation of previous ICT developments. Potentially, automation and AI can have significant technical, economic, and social implications in firms. This paper will answer the following question: What are the implications on industrial productivity and employment in the automotive sector with the recent automation trends, including AI, in Portugal? Our approach used mixed methods to conduct statistical analyses of relevant databases and interviews with experts on R&D projects related to automation and AI implementation. Results suggest that automation can have widespread adoption in the short term in the automotive sector, but AI technologies will take more time to be adopted. The findings show that adoption of automation and AI increases productivity in firms and is dephased in time with employment implications. Investments in automation are not substituting operators but rather changing work organization. Thus, negative effects of technology and unemployment were not substantiated by our results. Full article
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Article
Mimetic Isomorphism in Non-Profit Organisations (NPO): Sports Associations in the Nord Pas-De-Calais Departments
Societies 2021, 11(3), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030100 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The purpose of our study is to give an account of the process of institutional isomorphism, which, in France, leads non-profit organisations (NPO) to follow the management and professional model used by organisations in the same field because they are larger, better equipped, [...] Read more.
The purpose of our study is to give an account of the process of institutional isomorphism, which, in France, leads non-profit organisations (NPO) to follow the management and professional model used by organisations in the same field because they are larger, better equipped, and have higher-performance tools and better skilled executive managers. In order to investigate this subject, we have built a rigorous methodology. We carried out an investigation by interviewing volunteer leaders running sports NPOs in the Nord and Pas-de-Calais departments (now part of the Hauts-de-France region). In total, we interviewed nearly 80 volunteer members of sports associations employing at least one employee and engaged in a process of professionalization. In the introduction, we highlight the managerial surge that leads associations to move closer to the managerial forms of organizations. To illustrate this phenomenon, we used the concepts of neo-institutional theory and tried to show that institutional isomorphism is collectively accepted by institutional volunteer leaders. In this process of professionalisation that affects sports organisations, our results demonstrate that this isomorphism operates on several levels. At a structural level, our study shows that the organisation imports the management and operating tools from the entrepreneurial model and develops strategies for diversifying its services and innovating its products. At a skills-based level, it appears the skills acquired by volunteers during their professional career are increasingly put to use in work with non-profits. Our study concludes that the isomorphism of sports NPOs is characterised by the need for independent funding, the diversification of activities, the search for innovation and the increased need for skills derived from professional experience. These results have led us to discuss the impact of the mimetic form of this isomorphic process on the non-profit project. The implications of this isomorphism are significant: while this process is very often the result of external pressure on the organisational field, it is also, in certain circumstances, the result of a collective strategy defined by the volunteer leaders running NPOs. Organisations must create the conditions for financial empowerment by increasing their financial resources. This isomorphism in NPOs with the business world is also made possible by hiring volunteers who are better trained and better adapted to new requirements. Finally, we highlight the limitations of our study and the possibilities for future development. Full article
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Article
Memorial Ambivalences in Postcommunist Romania: Generational Attitudes towards the Symbolic Legacy of Communism
Societies 2021, 11(3), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030099 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 853
Abstract
After the demise of state socialism, public space became an issue of contention that occupied an important place within societies’ efforts to come to terms with the recent past. Extant scholarship documented extensively how postcommunist societies in Central and Eastern Europe have reconfigured [...] Read more.
After the demise of state socialism, public space became an issue of contention that occupied an important place within societies’ efforts to come to terms with the recent past. Extant scholarship documented extensively how postcommunist societies in Central and Eastern Europe have reconfigured the public space by removing the symbolic presence of the former regime (e.g., monuments and statues, but also place- and street names). However, there is a scarcity of research done on exploring the reception of these broad changes brought to the public statuary and urban nomenclature. In this study, we aim to contribute to this nascent strand of literature by investigating the generational differences in social attitudes towards the symbolic transformation of public space in postcommunist Romania. Data collected through a national web-survey conducted in February 2021 (n = 1156) revealed significant intergenerational differences regarding the removal of monuments and the renaming of streets. In particular, higher approval of such memory work was found among the generations born during communism in comparison to the postcommunist generation. Taking stock of these generational differences, as well as the factors underpinning them, contributes to a better understanding of how ordinary people relate to the politics of memory enacted in transforming societies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communism and Post-memory among Young People in East-Central Europe)
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Concept Paper
Social Dimensions in CPS & IoT Based Automated Production Systems
Societies 2021, 11(3), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030098 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Since the 1970s, the application of microprocessor in industrial machinery and the development of computer systems have transformed the manufacturing landscape. The rapid integration and automation of production systems have outpaced the development of suitable human design criteria, creating a deepening gap between [...] Read more.
Since the 1970s, the application of microprocessor in industrial machinery and the development of computer systems have transformed the manufacturing landscape. The rapid integration and automation of production systems have outpaced the development of suitable human design criteria, creating a deepening gap between humans and systems in which human was seen as an important source of errors and disruptions. Today, the situation seems different: the scientific and public debate about the concept of Industry 4.0 has raised awareness about the central role humans have to play in manufacturing systems, the design of which must be considered from the very beginning. The future of industrial systems, as represented by Industry 4.0, will rely on the convergence of several research fields such as Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IoT), but also socio-technical fields such as social approaches within technical systems. This article deals with different human social dimensions associated with CPS and IoT and focuses on their conceptual evolution regarding automated production systems’ sociability, notably by bringing humans back in the loop. Hereby, this paper aims to take stock of current research trends to show the importance of integrating human operators as a part of a socio-technical system based autonomous and intelligent products or resources. Consequently, different models of sociability as a way to integrate humans in the broad sense and/or the develop future automated production systems have been identified from the literature and analysed. Full article
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Article
Because You’re Worth It! The Medicalization and Moralization of Aesthetics in Aging Women
Societies 2021, 11(3), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030097 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 292
Abstract
In this article—based on the fieldwork I conducted in Lisbon (Portugal) between 2018 and 2021, employing in-depth ethnography and self-ethnography—I describe the experience of the medicalization and moralization of beauty in Portuguese women aged 45–65 years. I examine the ways in which practitioners [...] Read more.
In this article—based on the fieldwork I conducted in Lisbon (Portugal) between 2018 and 2021, employing in-depth ethnography and self-ethnography—I describe the experience of the medicalization and moralization of beauty in Portuguese women aged 45–65 years. I examine the ways in which practitioners inscribe their expert knowledge on their patients’ bodies, stigmatizing the marks of time and proposing medical treatments and surgeries to “repair” and “correct” them. Beauty and youth are symbolically constructed in medical discourse as visual markers of health, an adequate lifestyle, a strong character and good personal choices (such as not smoking, and a healthy diet and exercise habits). What beauty means within the discourse of anti-aging and therapeutic rejuvenation is increasingly connected to an ideal gender performance of normative, white, middle-class, heterosexual femininity that dismisses structural determinants. The fantasy of eternal youth, linked to a neoliberal ideology of limitless enhancement and individual responsibility, is firmly entrenched in moralizing definitions of aesthetics and gender norms. Finally, my article highlights the ways in which the women I interviewed do not always passively accept the discourse of the devaluation of the ageing body, defining femininity and ageing in their own terms by creating personal variants of the hegemonic normative discourses on beauty and successful ageing. Full article
Concept Paper
Good Lives Model: Importance of Interagency Collaboration in Preventing Violent Recidivism
Societies 2021, 11(3), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030096 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Violence is a complex and multifaceted problem requiring a holistic and individualized response. The Good Lives Model (GLM) suggests violence occurs when an individual experiences internal and external obstacles in the pursuit of universal human needs (termed primary goods). With a twin focus, [...] Read more.
Violence is a complex and multifaceted problem requiring a holistic and individualized response. The Good Lives Model (GLM) suggests violence occurs when an individual experiences internal and external obstacles in the pursuit of universal human needs (termed primary goods). With a twin focus, GLM-consistent interventions aim to promote attainment of primary goods, whilst simultaneously reducing risk of reoffending. This is achieved by improving an individuals’ internal (i.e., skills and abilities) and external capacities (i.e., opportunities, environments, and resources). This paper proposes that collaborations between different agencies (e.g., psychological services, criminal justice systems, social services, education, community organizations, and healthcare) can support the attainment of primary goods through the provision of specialized skills and resources. Recommendations for ensuring interagency collaborations are effective are outlined, including embedding a project lead, regular interagency meetings and training, establishing information sharing procedures, and defining the role each agency plays in client care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Community Approaches to Addressing Serious Violence)
Article
‘Mind Your Business and Leave My Rolls Alone’: A Case Study of Fat Black Women Runners’ Decolonial Resistance
Societies 2021, 11(3), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030095 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The Black female body has been vilified, surveilled, and viewed as ‘obese’ and irresponsible for centuries in Western societies. For just as long, some Black women have resisted their mischaracterizations. Instead they have embraced a ‘fat’ identity. But little research has demonstrated how [...] Read more.
The Black female body has been vilified, surveilled, and viewed as ‘obese’ and irresponsible for centuries in Western societies. For just as long, some Black women have resisted their mischaracterizations. Instead they have embraced a ‘fat’ identity. But little research has demonstrated how Black fat women participate in sport. The purpose of this study is to show how Black fat women who run use social media to unapologetically celebrate Blackness and fatness. This research uses a case-study approach to illuminate a broader phenomenon of decolonial resistance through running. In addition to analysis of websites, blogs, and news articles devoted to Black women’s running, we discuss the (social) media content of two specific runners: Mirna Valerio and Latoya Shauntay Snell. We performed a critical discourse analysis on 14 media offerings from the two runners, including websites, Twitter pages, and blogs collected over a five-month period from September 2020–January 2021. The analysis examined how they represent themselves and their communities and how they comment on issues of anti-fat bias, neoliberal capitalism, ableist sexism, and white supremacy, some of the pillars of colonialism. Whereas running is often positioned as a weight-loss-focused and white-dominated colonial project, through their very presence and use of strategic communication to amplify their experiences and build community, these runners show how being a Black fat female athlete is an act of decolonial resistance. This study offers a unique sporting example of how fat women challenge obesity discourses and cultural invisibility and how Black athletes communicate anti-racist, decolonial principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Ability Expectation and Ableism Studies (Short Ability Studies))
Article
Emic Views of Community Resilience and Coastal Tourism Development
Societies 2021, 11(3), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030094 - 10 Aug 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Coastal communities are among the most rapidly changing, institutionally complex, and culturally diverse in the world, and they are among the most vulnerable to anthropogenic change. While being a driver of anthropogenic change, tourism can also provide socio-economic alternatives to declining natural resource-based [...] Read more.
Coastal communities are among the most rapidly changing, institutionally complex, and culturally diverse in the world, and they are among the most vulnerable to anthropogenic change. While being a driver of anthropogenic change, tourism can also provide socio-economic alternatives to declining natural resource-based livelihoods for coastal residents. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of small-scale cruise tourism on coastal community resiliency in Petersburg, Alaska. Exploring these impacts through resiliency theory’s lens of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity, we employed ethnographic research methods that emphasize emic viewpoints to determine how residents see this form of tourism affecting the resiliency of valued community culture, institutions, and traditional livelihoods. Findings indicate that with purposeful engagement in niche cruise tourism involving boats with 250 passengers or less, and an active rejection of the large cruise ship industry, Petersburg exhibits increased adaptive capacity to promote the resilience of valued community institutions and heritage. This work draws needed recognition to the diversity of activities that fall under the label of cruise tourism, including the distinct implications of smaller-scale, niche cruise tourism for the resilience of coastal communities. It also highlights the need to capture emic perspectives to understand the politics of community resiliency. Full article
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Article
Technological Development and the Labour Market: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Automation in Hungary in the International Comparison?
Societies 2021, 11(3), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030093 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
In our study, we analyse data from the Hungarian Microcensus (2016) in order to map the proportion of Hungarian jobs threatened by the spread of automation. In doing so, we use the internationally well-known methodology of Carl Benedict Frey and Michael A. Osborne [...] Read more.
In our study, we analyse data from the Hungarian Microcensus (2016) in order to map the proportion of Hungarian jobs threatened by the spread of automation. In doing so, we use the internationally well-known methodology of Carl Benedict Frey and Michael A. Osborne who estimated the probability of computerization for 702 occupations. The analysis was then repeated by Panarinen and Rouvinen for the Finnish labour market by converting the probabilities defined for the US occupational statistics to the European International Standard Classification of Occupations. Similar calculations were conducted for the Swedish and Norwegian labour markets. According to our results, almost every second Hungarian employee (44%) works in a job that is threatened by the development of digital technologies. The same ratio is 47% in the US and 53% in Sweden, while it is much lower in Finland (35%) and Norway (33%). It is especially alarming that 13% of the Hungarian workforce (i.e., almost 600,000 employees) works in an occupation where the probability of computerization is above 95%, while the number of those working in occupations where the same ratio is above 90% exceeds one million (i.e., 25% of the total Hungarian labour force). Diving deeper into the analysis, we can state that those with higher educational qualifications are more likely to work in an occupation that is more protected against computerization. Overall, there are no significant differences in the probability of computerization by gender; however, women are over-represented in the most endangered occupations. Full article
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Article
Analysis on Tourists’ Preferences for Rural Tourism Destinations in Romania
Societies 2021, 11(3), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030092 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Consumer behavior plays an important role in establishing the marketing strategies of a tourism destination. Analysis of traveling motivation offers valuable information regarding the characteristics and trends of tourism demand. In this context, the aim of this paper is to determine tourists’ preferences [...] Read more.
Consumer behavior plays an important role in establishing the marketing strategies of a tourism destination. Analysis of traveling motivation offers valuable information regarding the characteristics and trends of tourism demand. In this context, the aim of this paper is to determine tourists’ preferences regarding rural tourism destinations. To achieve the purpose of the paper, a survey was conducted among tourists from rural areas of Cluj County. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical tests were applied to determine if there were any significant differences among different groups. The results revealed that the respondents prefer to travel in small groups, especially during summer. They are concerned about the security and safety of the destination, and the price also plays an important role in choosing a tourism destination. Cultural attractions and adventure tourism possibilities are more appreciated by younger respondents. Future research should focus on post-pandemic tourist behavior and new tourist products should be developed to fulfill tourists’ expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Tourism and Community Development)
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Article
Representing Women’s Interests in Japan’s Civil Society
Societies 2021, 11(3), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030091 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Japan has witnessed marginalization and underrepresentation of women in its civil society. This study examines its extent. It also explores who in Japan’s civil society represent women’s interests by using survey data from civil society organizations. This study reveals that civil society organizations [...] Read more.
Japan has witnessed marginalization and underrepresentation of women in its civil society. This study examines its extent. It also explores who in Japan’s civil society represent women’s interests by using survey data from civil society organizations. This study reveals that civil society organizations are generally led by male leaders, and around half of their staff are male. It also indicates that the number of organizations representing women’s interests is limited, with only 2.2% representing women’s interests. Interestingly, the central actors representing women’s interests include economic and business groups, political groups, labor groups, and civic groups including women’s groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Ageing-Challenges, Spatialities and Gender Perspective)
Article
Exploring the Diverse Family Structures in South Korea: Experiences and Perspectives of Nonmartial Cohabitants
Societies 2021, 11(3), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030090 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Historically, South Korean society has been deeply influenced by Confucianism, which has an emphasis on the traditional family structure. If a given family does not belong in the “traditional” norm, which is composed of husband, wife, and children, they are often discriminated against [...] Read more.
Historically, South Korean society has been deeply influenced by Confucianism, which has an emphasis on the traditional family structure. If a given family does not belong in the “traditional” norm, which is composed of husband, wife, and children, they are often discriminated against and ostracized. Despite the increasing number of nonmarital cohabiters in South Korea, research is still insufficient to understand the phenomenon. This study explores the prevalence of nonmarital cohabitation in South Korea, which is still met with discrimination. Online surveys and in-depth interviews were conducted with cohabiters to gain an understanding of the phenomenon and to explore their marriage and family values. The findings of this study indicate that cohabiters who chose cohabitation as an alternative to marriage had more progressive values. Findings from the study provide implications for practice and policy. Full article
Concept Paper
Consequences and Remedies of Indigenous Language Loss in Canada
Societies 2021, 11(3), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030089 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Many Indigenous languages in Canada are facing the threat of extinction. While some languages remain in good health, others have already been lost completely. Immediate action must be taken to prevent further language loss. Throughout Canada’s unacceptable history of expunging First Nations’ ways [...] Read more.
Many Indigenous languages in Canada are facing the threat of extinction. While some languages remain in good health, others have already been lost completely. Immediate action must be taken to prevent further language loss. Throughout Canada’s unacceptable history of expunging First Nations’ ways of life, systemic methods such as residential schools attempted to eradicate Indigenous cultures and languages. These efforts were not entirely successful but Indigenous language and culture suffered greatly. For Indigenous communities, language loss impaired intergenerational knowledge transfer and compromised their personal identity. Additionally, the cumulative effects of assimilation have contributed to poor mental and physical health outcomes amongst Indigenous people. However, language reclamation has been found to improve well-being and sense of community. To this objective, this paper explores the historical context of this dilemma, the lasting effects of assimilation, and how this damage can be remediated. Additionally, we examine existing Indigenous language programs in Canada and the barriers that inhibit the programs’ widespread success. Through careful analysis, such barriers may be overcome to improve the efficacy of the programs. Institutions must quickly implement positive changes to preserve Indigenous languages as fluent populations are rapidly disappearing. Full article
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Article
Examining the Idea of the ‘Vulnerable Student’ to Assess the Implications for Academic Freedom
Societies 2021, 11(3), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030088 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
This paper analyses the concept of vulnerability as it is applied to university students, and also staff, to assess the extent to which it has become a new norm that transforms the understanding of the individual—from being more robust, towards a more fragile [...] Read more.
This paper analyses the concept of vulnerability as it is applied to university students, and also staff, to assess the extent to which it has become a new norm that transforms the understanding of the individual—from being more robust, towards a more fragile sense of personhood. We examine the changing use of the term ‘vulnerable’ over time and with reference to the institutionalisation of the ‘vulnerable subject’. The paper relates this to the theoretical discussion about postmodernism and the ‘end of truth’ within academia, with the subsequent emergence of safe spaces as a mechanism for protecting the vulnerable student. Using snowball sampling, a pilot ethnographic study of academics who have experienced, or claim to have experienced, limits on their academic freedom is developed. One conclusion is that limits to academic freedom stem from within the academy itself. This conclusion is related to the growing understanding that student ‘wellbeing’ necessitates the regulation and ‘policing’ of knowledge and ideas that are deemed to be offensive to the vulnerable student. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Ability Expectation and Ableism Studies (Short Ability Studies))
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Article
The Dark Side of School Culture
Societies 2021, 11(3), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030087 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The extant literature evidences the link between incivility and workplace culture. Both have a symbiotic relationship whereby a change in one influences the other. When workplace cultures develop dysfunctional values and beliefs, negative traditions, and caustic ways of interacting, they have become “toxic [...] Read more.
The extant literature evidences the link between incivility and workplace culture. Both have a symbiotic relationship whereby a change in one influences the other. When workplace cultures develop dysfunctional values and beliefs, negative traditions, and caustic ways of interacting, they have become “toxic cultures.” This study examined Irish post-primary school teachers’ experiences of incivility and toxic culture in the workplace through in-depth interviews with forty-two participants. Results show that toxic work culture had a negative impact on both the personal and professional lives of the participants. We conclude that antecedents in toxic school culture are linked to epistemological assumptions, group dynamics, and deficiencies in leadership, and we suggest that they act as causes and/or facilitators of workplace bullying. Full article
Article
Constitutional Values in the Gig-Economy? Why Labor Law Fails at Platform Work, and What Can We Do about It?
Societies 2021, 11(3), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030086 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Gig-work, or platform work, has been in the crosshairs of regulators since roughly the mid-2010s. The employment of an increasing number of platform workers raises a number of problems, however, there is no longer a consensus as to whether these problems are only [...] Read more.
Gig-work, or platform work, has been in the crosshairs of regulators since roughly the mid-2010s. The employment of an increasing number of platform workers raises a number of problems, however, there is no longer a consensus as to whether these problems are only the emergence of certain well-established labor law issues in a new guise, or completely new ones. To date, only one possible solution seems to have emerged, that of bringing platform work under the umbrella of labor law. This study argues, on the one hand, that platform work has a characteristic that was previously unknown in the world of labor relations (algorithmic and data-based work organization) and, on the other hand, that it has two other characteristics (tripartite structure and network effect) that create an entirely new quality that requires innovative legal approaches. The study selects some of the recent European Union standards regulating various kinds of online platforms which may also provide useful solutions for the regulation of platform work. Full article
Concept Paper
Responsible Leadership in Sport: An Ethical Dilemma
Societies 2021, 11(3), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11030085 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Sports, apart from providing entertainment, can provide an escape from everyday troubles, a community to belong to, and an opportunity to connect to the wider world. As such, sports have contributed to the unification of people, the development of peace and tolerance, and [...] Read more.
Sports, apart from providing entertainment, can provide an escape from everyday troubles, a community to belong to, and an opportunity to connect to the wider world. As such, sports have contributed to the unification of people, the development of peace and tolerance, and the empowerment of women and young people globally. However, sports’ widespread popularity has also contributed to “big money” opportunities for sports organizations, sporting venues, athletes, and sponsors that have created an environment riddled with ethical dilemmas that make headlines, resulting in protests and violence, and often leave society more divided. A current ethical dilemma faced by agents associated with the Olympic games serves to demonstrate the magnitude and challenges related to resolving ethical dilemmas in the sport industry. A decision-making framework is applied to this current sport’s ethical dilemma, as an example of how better ethical decision making might be achieved. Full article
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