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Volume 11, September

Societies, Volume 11, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 13 articles

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Concept Paper
Physical Education and Sport between Human Rights, Duties, and Obligations—Observations from Germany
Societies 2021, 11(4), 127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040127 (registering DOI) - 22 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The starting point entails the declarations of the International Olympic Committee, as well as UNESCO and the Council of Europe on sport as a human right. This article adopts a philosophical and historical perspective on the question of which duties, obligations, and constraints [...] Read more.
The starting point entails the declarations of the International Olympic Committee, as well as UNESCO and the Council of Europe on sport as a human right. This article adopts a philosophical and historical perspective on the question of which duties, obligations, and constraints stand in the way of realising this utopian perspective of fair and humane sport as a general human right. The work is based on central historical documents and writings. Two strands of argumentation are pursued. Firstly, the introduction of compulsory physical education, particularly in Germany and on the European continent, in the context of nation-building since the 19th century. Secondly, the idea of a world of sport of its own, which emerged from Olympism and was intended to assert itself against political and economic appropriations. Compulsory physical education is not a human right but a duty. The idea of a world of sports of its own has produced further regulations and obligations in certain fields of sports like professional and commercial sports. Doing sport for health and fitness may become a social obligation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Rights through Sport)
Article
Are Energy-Vulnerable Households More Prone to Informative, Market, and Behavioral Biases?
Societies 2021, 11(4), 126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040126 - 14 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The present paper focuses primarily on investigating whether energy-vulnerable households are more prone to informative, market, and behavioral biases. In this direction, a stated preference approach was used to elicit information about human behavior and cognitive barriers in the context of energy poverty [...] Read more.
The present paper focuses primarily on investigating whether energy-vulnerable households are more prone to informative, market, and behavioral biases. In this direction, a stated preference approach was used to elicit information about human behavior and cognitive barriers in the context of energy poverty based on both subjective and objective indicators. For the purposes of the survey, a questionnaire was developed that included around 40 questions about housing conditions and information, market, and behavioral barriers related to energy efficiency, energy vulnerability, etc., and specific survey hypotheses were tested employing non-parametric tests. The survey was carried out between November 2020 and January 2021 involving residents of Metsovo, a mountain settlement in Greece. In total, 303 participants took place in the survey through personal interviews, which were conducted remotely due to the COVID-19 pandemic-related distancing measures, using a video platform. The analysis shows that households that face thermal discomfort or are in arrears on energy bills seem to be more prone to certain behavioral and other biases. This conclusion is not confirmed for households that face condensation, mold and damp problems or are classified as energy-poor under the “ten percent rule”. The main conclusion drawn is that the income status of the household plays a greater role compared to its classification as energy vulnerable. Nevertheless, the findings of the study need to be confirmed by future research, because the research specifically on how energy poverty affects people’s decision making is extremely limited. In any case, the results are worrisome and illustrate the need for more effective energy poverty policies that will take into account the effects of scarcity on household decision making. Full article
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Article
From Tabletop to Screen: Playing Dungeons and Dragons during COVID-19
Societies 2021, 11(4), 125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040125 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Media reports suggest that the tabletop roleplaying game Dungeons & Dragons saw its biggest year to date in 2020, with many such reports touting the interactive and social benefits for people facing COVID-19 lockdowns. This paper explores the reported challenges and benefits of [...] Read more.
Media reports suggest that the tabletop roleplaying game Dungeons & Dragons saw its biggest year to date in 2020, with many such reports touting the interactive and social benefits for people facing COVID-19 lockdowns. This paper explores the reported challenges and benefits of playing D&D through teleconferencing hardware and software, and the experience of using virtual tabletops. A thematic analysis of a sample of Reddit threads discussing player experiences of transitioning D&D to remote play during COVID-19 social distancing was undertaken. The findings highlight a variety of player attitudes and preferences towards playing D&D remotely. The data suggest a mostly negative sentiment towards playing D&D online for groups that had transitioned from in-person to remote play. Loss of in-person socialisation was identified as an important contributor to a poor play experience, but groups would persevere with remote play to maintain social relationships, suggesting that, for many players, D&D serves an important social function beyond mere play. Some avenues for future research are identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Games during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Jogging during the Lockdown: Changes in the Regimes of Kinesthetic Morality and Urban Emotional Geography in NW Italy
Societies 2021, 11(4), 124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040124 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Jogging is the most practiced physical activity in the west. This form of light running appears a solution to the health problems caused by the sedentary of contemporary dwelling and affirmed the role of the extensive use of urban space as a key [...] Read more.
Jogging is the most practiced physical activity in the west. This form of light running appears a solution to the health problems caused by the sedentary of contemporary dwelling and affirmed the role of the extensive use of urban space as a key to individual well-being and health. The COVID-19 pandemic and the imposition of lockdowns imposed a new form of kinesthetic morality based on domestic confinement; a morality that is in open contrast to that of jogging. The article explores this conflict and its consequences in terms of perception of the urban environment and the society among joggers. Based on case study research conducted in 2020 in Alessandria, NW Italy, this study delves into this abrupt change and explores how the urban spatiality changed for the joggers. In so doing, it asks what this event teaches us about the development of new, more effective, urban policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges of Post-COVID-19 for a Sustainable Development Society)
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Concept Paper
The “Undeserving” Narrative in Child and Family Social Work and How It Is Perpetuated by “Progressive Neoliberalism”: Ideas for Social Work Education
Societies 2021, 11(4), 123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040123 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 281
Abstract
“Progressive neoliberalism” is the current hegemonic approach to understanding social justice in Western liberal democracies. “Progressive neoliberalism” also resurrects the “deserving” vs. “undeserving” narrative that can lead to punitive and pathologising approaches to poor and unemployed people—the demographic comprising the majority of child [...] Read more.
“Progressive neoliberalism” is the current hegemonic approach to understanding social justice in Western liberal democracies. “Progressive neoliberalism” also resurrects the “deserving” vs. “undeserving” narrative that can lead to punitive and pathologising approaches to poor and unemployed people—the demographic comprising the majority of child and family social work service users. Indeed, research suggests that social workers’ attitudes towards families in poverty are strikingly congruent with “progressive neoliberalism.” This article suggests that generational changes and the particular form of group-based identity, postmodern social justice ideology often taught in social work education have unwittingly conspired to create this concerning picture. This article suggests that the resurrection of radical social work, with attention to economic inequality, is one way to counteract this trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Child Welfare)
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Article
Protection of Immigrant Children and Youth at Risk: Experiences and Strategies of Social Integration in Portugal
Societies 2021, 11(4), 122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040122 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Over the years, social projects and programmes in Portugal have resulted in actions and outcomes to improve the integration and social inclusion of immigrant children and young people in socially vulnerable territories. This article aims to analyse the intervention experiences of teams with [...] Read more.
Over the years, social projects and programmes in Portugal have resulted in actions and outcomes to improve the integration and social inclusion of immigrant children and young people in socially vulnerable territories. This article aims to analyse the intervention experiences of teams with immigrant children and young people at risk. The developed study focused on a qualitative approach through the systematisation of measures to protect the rights of immigrant children and young people in Portugal. Semi-structured interviews were also carried out with professionals working in multidisciplinary teams intervening with immigrant children and young people. The results allow the identification of strategies and intervention methods with a positive impact on social integration supported by collaborative and participatory methodologies, but also highlight limitations such as cultural and linguistic barriers, and lack of children’s participation. Thus, it becomes fundamental to value the central role of children and young people in promoting and guaranteeing their rights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Child Welfare)
Article
Fake News and the “Wild Wide Web”: A Study of Elementary Students’ Reliability Reasoning
Societies 2021, 11(4), 121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040121 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Online research presents unique challenges for elementary students as they develop and extend fundamental literacy skills to various media. Some features of internet text differ from that of traditional print, contributing to the challenges of discerning “fake news.” Readers must understand how to [...] Read more.
Online research presents unique challenges for elementary students as they develop and extend fundamental literacy skills to various media. Some features of internet text differ from that of traditional print, contributing to the challenges of discerning “fake news.” Readers must understand how to navigate online texts to conduct research effectively, while applying critical thinking to determine the reliability of online information. Descriptive data from an ongoing study revealed that children in grades 1–5 lack some basic understanding of how to search the “wild wide web.” Just as children benefit from explicit instruction related to text features, children benefit from instruction related to the features of the internet. This article presents a study of website evaluation that occurs early in the search process prior to the selection of a particular website or article. The application of the web literacy skills required to conduct an internet search is addressed, and recommendations prompt teachers to consider searches beyond the “walled garden,” as well as ways to handle the “messiness” of internet exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fighting Fake News: A Generational Approach)
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Article
Child and Adolescent Multiple Victimization and/or Polyvictimization: A Portuguese Comparative Study
Societies 2021, 11(4), 120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040120 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Worldwide, children and adolescents are exposed to violence every day and in countless contexts, whether in the family, at school, or in the community. Child multiple victimization has been the subject of extensive international research because of the impact on child and youth [...] Read more.
Worldwide, children and adolescents are exposed to violence every day and in countless contexts, whether in the family, at school, or in the community. Child multiple victimization has been the subject of extensive international research because of the impact on child and youth development. A quantitative and comparative study aiming to understand child multiple victimization and/or polyvictimization from the perspective of children is presented. Two groups were studied, with and without psychological counselling, with 20 children each, aged 12–18 years old. All the participants answered to juvenile victimization questionnaire (JVQ). The study was approved by the University Ethics Committee responsible for the study in Portugal, and it was initiated after the obtained consent of the children’s legal guardians. The results indicated that young people frequently experience violent situations, with particular emphasis on conventional crimes, e.g., theft, robbery, vandalism, and assault with or without a weapon, with sexual victimization being less common. The results also show that there is a cumulative experience of violence, which evidences multiple victimization and polyvictimization of the child/adolescent throughout their life. These phenomena are not necessarily more common between populations with clinical follow-up. When the types of violence were compared, multiple victimization and polyvictimization, this study found no differences between the samples with and without psychological counselling. It can be concluded that the multiple victimization or polyvictimization problem is not unusual among the population in the studied age range. It is important to alert to the phenomenon of child/adolescent multiple victimization, aiming at a more effective assessment and intervention among these populations. Raising awareness of the phenomenon of multiple child and youth victimization or polyvictimization is of particular importance for preventing violence at all stages of development. Full article
Article
Source Information Affects Interpretations of the News across Multiple Age Groups in the United States
Societies 2021, 11(4), 119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040119 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 289
Abstract
People have access to more news from more sources than ever before. At the same time, they increasingly distrust traditional media and are exposed to more misinformation. To help people better distinguish real news from “fake news,” we must first understand how they [...] Read more.
People have access to more news from more sources than ever before. At the same time, they increasingly distrust traditional media and are exposed to more misinformation. To help people better distinguish real news from “fake news,” we must first understand how they judge whether news is real or fake. One possibility is that people adopt a relatively effortful, analytic approach, judging news based on its content. However, another possibility—consistent with psychological research—is that people adopt a relatively effortless, heuristic approach, drawing on cues outside of news content. One such cue is where the news comes from: its source. Beliefs about news sources depend on people’s political affiliation, with U.S. liberals tending to trust sources that conservatives distrust, and vice versa. Therefore, if people take this heuristic approach, then judgments of news from different sources should depend on political affiliation and lead to a confirmation bias of pre-existing beliefs. Similarly, political affiliation could affect the likelihood that people mistake real news for fake news. We tested these ideas in two sets of experiments. In the first set, we asked University of Louisiana at Lafayette undergraduates (Experiment 1a n = 376) and Mechanical Turk workers in the United States (Experiment 1a n = 205; Experiment 1b n = 201) to rate how “real” versus “fake” a series of unfamiliar news headlines were. We attributed each headline to one of several news sources of varying political slant. As predicted, we found that source information influenced people’s ratings in line with their own political affiliation, although this influence was relatively weak. In the second set, we asked Mechanical Turk workers in the United States (Experiment 2a n = 300; Experiment 2b n = 303) and University of Louisiana at Lafayette undergraduates (Experiment 2b n = 182) to watch a highly publicized “fake news” video involving doctored footage of a journalist. We found that people’s political affiliation influenced their beliefs about the event, but the doctored footage itself had only a trivial influence. Taken together, these results suggest that adults across a range of ages rely on information other than news content—such as how they feel about its source—when judging whether news is real or fake. Moreover, our findings help explain how people experiencing the same news content can arrive at vastly different conclusions. Finally, efforts aimed at educating the public in combatting fake news need to consider how political affiliation affects the psychological processes involved in forming beliefs about the news. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fighting Fake News: A Generational Approach)
Article
Male Sex Workers Selling Physical Sex during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Portugal: Motives, Safer Sex Practices, and Social Vulnerabilities
Societies 2021, 11(4), 118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040118 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to assess the motives, safer sex practices, and vulnerabilities of male sex workers who sold physical sex during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a mixed strategy, utilizing purposive sampling techniques to conduct 13 online surveys with [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to assess the motives, safer sex practices, and vulnerabilities of male sex workers who sold physical sex during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a mixed strategy, utilizing purposive sampling techniques to conduct 13 online surveys with male sex workers working in Portugal during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were aged between 23 and 47 years old and mostly provided their services to other men. Additionally, half of the participants were immigrants. Participants mentioned paying for essential expenses (rent, food, phone, etc.), having money for day-to-day expenses, wanting to, and enjoying it, as their main motives for engaging in sex work. Regarding sexual practices, 3 to 11 participants did not always or did not consistently use condoms during penetrative sex with their clients. Thematic analysis was used to identify the following repeated patterns of meaning regarding COVID-19-related vulnerabilities, encompassing a loss of clients and income, increased work availability, price reductions and negotiation difficulties, emotional functioning, health care access, safer sex negotiations, age, and immigration status. The findings serve as a basis for recommendations regarding social policies aimed at male sex workers who sell physical sex in Portugal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges of Post-COVID-19 for a Sustainable Development Society)
Article
Humble and Kind: Cultural Humility as a Buffer of the Association between Social Dominance Orientation and Prejudice
Societies 2021, 11(4), 117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040117 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
With the rise of prejudice and discrimination against ethnic and immigrant minorities, strategies to reduce prejudice and discrimination, and to counteract the impact of intolerant, anti-egalitarian ideologies, are needed. Here we focused on cultural humility, i.e., the ability to have a humble and [...] Read more.
With the rise of prejudice and discrimination against ethnic and immigrant minorities, strategies to reduce prejudice and discrimination, and to counteract the impact of intolerant, anti-egalitarian ideologies, are needed. Here we focused on cultural humility, i.e., the ability to have a humble and other-oriented approach to others’ cultural backgrounds, resulting from self-examination and critical thinking about structural privileges and inequalities. In this research we proposed that cultural humility might attenuate the effects of intolerant, anti-egalitarian ideologies such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) on negative intergroup attitudes and perceptions. In a correlational study conducted in Italy, we found that cultural humility moderated the associations between SDO and prejudice toward immigrants, as well as between SDO and perceptions of threat posed by immigrants. Specifically, the associations of SDO with prejudice and threat were lower among respondents with high cultural humility compared to respondents with low cultural humility. Conversely, cultural humility did not moderate the effects of RWA on prejudice and threat. Findings are discussed considering the motivations underlying prejudice of high-SDO and high-RWA individuals, and proposing cultural humility training to foster positive intergroup relations. Full article
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Article
A Study of Social Integration through Sports Program among Migrant Women in Korea
Societies 2021, 11(4), 116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040116 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 430
Abstract
This study aimed to examine sports programs at multicultural family support centers located throughout the country and present the possibility of social integration through the sports programs. The multicultural sports program showed that it affected the ability of migrant women in international marriages [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine sports programs at multicultural family support centers located throughout the country and present the possibility of social integration through the sports programs. The multicultural sports program showed that it affected the ability of migrant women in international marriages to socially integrate with other women like themselves, their husbands, and the natives, and also affected themselves. In order to clarify the purpose of the research, in-depth interviews were carried out. The collected material was transcribed, encoded, and classified. The results were analyzed from the perspective of sports’ physical, psychological, and social functions. This social integration was shown to be more effective than any other program at the multicultural family support center. Regarding their relationship with their husbands, the program provided opportunities for deepening their mutual understanding. The sports program was also utilized as a place of leisure for the women as well, and it was discovered that sports activities were being used as a means of resolving stress. The migrant women’s life radius and interpersonal relations were small due to their limited linguistic abilities. They provided opportunities to form confidence in their Korean life. Full article
Article
Tourism Getting Back to Life after COVID-19: Can Artificial Intelligence Help?
Societies 2021, 11(4), 115; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc11040115 - 22 Sep 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Measures aimed at keeping physical and social distance during the COVID-19 pandemic have started to be a big challenge for service industries all over the world. The utilization of new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI robots) in hospitality and tourism can be [...] Read more.
Measures aimed at keeping physical and social distance during the COVID-19 pandemic have started to be a big challenge for service industries all over the world. The utilization of new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI robots) in hospitality and tourism can be imposed as a potential safety-related problem solver. This study explores consumers’ intentions to use hospitality services once all restrictions related to COVID-19 have been relaxed as well as their perception of how important they find some of the safety-related protective measures when visiting accommodation facilities. Respondents find that more rigorous cleaning techniques, additional disinfection, and hand sanitizer stations are the most important safety-related protective measures when staying at the accommodation facility. Although the respondents do not perceive AI robots as an important protective measure or beneficial in delivering a catering service, the results indicate some significant differences between more and less risk-averse travelers suggesting some potential strategic pathways during the crisis but also in the post-coronavirus future. Full article
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