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Buildings, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 41 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A smart campus is increasingly appealing to universities as a response to the challenges they are facing in their campus development and operation. However, the use of information delivered by smart campus tools, as well as their application in organisational processes, has received little attention. Therefore, this paper uses dashboard design to connect Internet of Things information to strategic decision-making in the management of university campuses. The results suggest that (1) users are able to use dashboards for assessing portfolio performance and determining interventions; (2) dashboard design improves the usability of the dashboard and refines the information requirements for the IoT. View this paper
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Article
A Biplot-Based PCA Approach to Study the Relations between Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollutants Using Case Study Buildings
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050218 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
The 24 h and 14-day relationship between indoor and outdoor PM2.5, PM10, NO2, relative humidity, and temperature were assessed for an elementary school (site 1), a laboratory (site 2), and a residential unit (site 3) in Gainesville [...] Read more.
The 24 h and 14-day relationship between indoor and outdoor PM2.5, PM10, NO2, relative humidity, and temperature were assessed for an elementary school (site 1), a laboratory (site 2), and a residential unit (site 3) in Gainesville city, Florida. The primary aim of this study was to introduce a biplot-based PCA approach to visualize and validate the correlation among indoor and outdoor air quality data. The Spearman coefficients showed a stronger correlation among these target environmental measurements on site 1 and site 2, while it showed a weaker correlation on site 3. The biplot-based PCA regression performed higher dependency for site 1 and site 2 (p < 0.001) when compared to the correlation values and showed a lower dependency for site 3. The results displayed a mismatch between the biplot-based PCA and correlation analysis for site 3. The method utilized in this paper can be implemented in studies and analyzes high volumes of multiple building environmental measurements along with optimized visualization. Full article
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Article
Investigation of a Base-Isolator System’s Effects on the Seismic Behavior of a Historical Structure
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050217 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The earthquake performance of structures with seismic isolation is much better than that of fixed-base structures, and the application of seismic insulation ensures both structural integrity and the protection of the items present in the structures. The base-isolation system is used to extend [...] Read more.
The earthquake performance of structures with seismic isolation is much better than that of fixed-base structures, and the application of seismic insulation ensures both structural integrity and the protection of the items present in the structures. The base-isolation system is used to extend the fundamental period of vibration of the structure and to obtain higher value from base-isolated structures relative to the fixed-base structure. Historical masonry mosques could be strengthened using a base-isolation technique. In this study, a historical masonry mosque was organized and modelled using SAP2000 software. Nonlinear Time History analyses were carried out for the historical masonry structure, firstly for the fixed-base mosque and secondly for the base-isolated mosque with lead rubber bearing (LRB). The use of a base-isolator system caused an increase in the historical mosque’s period, reducing the displacements, acceleration, and force applied on the mosque and the resulting structural deformation; the results of the analysis indicate a significant improvement in the seismic behavior. The modelling results show that such historical masonry buildings (especially those with high and delicate minarets) can be vulnerable to major earthquakes, and it may be useful to examine strengthening strategies for these buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Analysis for Earthquake-Resistant Design of Buildings)
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Article
Mean Operating Temperature (MOT) of Commercial Roof Assembly and Its Impact on the Energy Performance
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050216 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
In the thermal design of low sloped roofing assemblies, two parameters are overlooked, one is the surface temperature of the roof assemblies which provides the required temperature gradient for heat flow, and the other is the mean operating temperature of the roof assembly, [...] Read more.
In the thermal design of low sloped roofing assemblies, two parameters are overlooked, one is the surface temperature of the roof assemblies which provides the required temperature gradient for heat flow, and the other is the mean operating temperature of the roof assembly, which has direct implications on the thermal performance of the insulation. An in situ field study was conducted in collaboration with Alberta Roofing Contractors Association (ARCA) on their headquarters building located in Calgary, to generate data on the mean operating temperature of the roof assemblies and to determine whether the thermal design of roofing assemblies using conventional methods is an accurate portrayal of in-service thermal performance. For the present study, two roof assemblies insulated with polyisocyanurate insulation, one with a white reflective roof membrane and the other with the black membrane were selected and instrumented. During the monitoring period, the mean operating temperature (MOT) of the roof assembly whether it is calculated as the average of interior and exterior ambient (MOTAIR,) or the average of surface temperatures (MOTSurface), was found to be below 24 °C (75 °F), which opposes the current roof thermal designs that are being designed using label R-value (thermal resistance) of the insulation reported at the mean temperature of 24 °C (75 °F) rather than temperature-dependent thermal resistance. The comparison of two energy transfer theoretical models, QConvention and QMOT, with the measured data indicated that the conventional approach of roof thermal design underestimates the energy performance of the roof assembly on average by 30%. The use of roof surface temperatures and the corresponding temperature-dependent thermal resistance of the insulation as in QMOT has been demonstrated to improve predictions of the energy performance. In addition the loss in thermal resistance due to blowing agent diffusion in polyisocyanurate was evaluated after two years of in situ installation. Full article
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Article
Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Single-Family House in Sweden
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050215 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
The objective of this paper was to explore long-term costs for a single-family house in Sweden during its entire lifetime. In order to estimate the total costs, considering construction, replacement, operation, and end-of-life costs over the long term, the life cycle cost (LCC) [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper was to explore long-term costs for a single-family house in Sweden during its entire lifetime. In order to estimate the total costs, considering construction, replacement, operation, and end-of-life costs over the long term, the life cycle cost (LCC) method was applied. Different cost solutions were analysed including various economic parameters in a sensitivity analysis. Economic parameters used in the analysis include various nominal discount rates (7%, 5%, and 3%), an inflation rate of 2%, and energy escalation rates (2–6%). The study includes two lifespans (100 and 50 years). The discounting scheme was used in the calculations. Additionally, carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were considered and systematically analysed with costs. Findings show that when the discount rate is decreased from 7% to 3%, the total costs are increased significantly, by 44% for a 100-year lifespan, while for a 50 years lifespan the total costs show a minor increase by 18%. The construction costs represent a major part of total LCC, with labor costs making up half of them. Considering costs and emissions together, a full correlation was not found, while a partial relationship was investigated. Results can be useful for decision-makers in the building sector. Full article
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Article
Strategies for Effective Waste Reduction and Management of Building Construction Projects in Highly Urbanized Cities—A Case Study of Hong Kong
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050214 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Hong Kong is a densely populated city with high-rise developments, and as in other metropolitan cities, the amount of waste generated from construction projects in the city is increasing annually. The capacity of existing landfills is expected to be saturated by the 2020s. [...] Read more.
Hong Kong is a densely populated city with high-rise developments, and as in other metropolitan cities, the amount of waste generated from construction projects in the city is increasing annually. The capacity of existing landfills is expected to be saturated by the 2020s. Construction waste management has been implemented for years but the performance is still not satisfactory. The aim of this research paper is to explore and formulate strategies and measures for effective construction waste management and reduction in highly urbanized cities such as Hong Kong. A desktop study on construction waste management practices was carried out for a preliminary understanding of the current situation in Hong Kong. Semistructured interviews and focus group meetings were further conducted to shed light on how to improve construction waste reduction and management in Hong Kong. The main contributions of this research study are the potential short-term, medium-term, and long-term strategies, which are related to the design stage, tender stage, construction stage, and government support. The five major strategies recommended are financial benefits to stakeholders, public policies in facilitating waste sorting, government supports for the green building industry, development of a mature recycling market, and education and research in construction waste minimization and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilization of Waste Materials in Building Engineering)
Article
Economic Evaluation of the Indoor Environmental Quality of Buildings: The Noise Pollution Effects on Housing Prices in the City of Bari (Italy)
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050213 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 566
Abstract
Among environmental factors, noise represents one of the most relevant determinants on human health and on the urban quality level and, consequently, on real estate values. Thus, the noise pollution issue plays a significant role in public urban policies aimed at increasing the [...] Read more.
Among environmental factors, noise represents one of the most relevant determinants on human health and on the urban quality level and, consequently, on real estate values. Thus, the noise pollution issue plays a significant role in public urban policies aimed at increasing the acoustic comfort level and creating more sustainable and comfortable cities. The real estate market is highly sensitive to noise factor and the residential prices can be strongly influenced by a high acoustic pollution rate. The present research aims to analyze the functional relationships between noise pollution and selling prices in four municipal areas of the city of Bari (Southern Italy). For each area, a study sample constituted by two hundred residential properties sold in 2017–2019 was detected for the identification of the main influential factors on prices and the investigation of the contribution of noise on them. The implementation of an econometric technique was used to obtain four different models (one for each municipal area of the city of Bari) able to explain the specific impact of noise pollution level on selling prices. From the comparison of the results obtained for each area, the outputs confirm the expected phenomena in terms of a decrease of noise component influence on residential prices from the central area to the peripheral. For the suburban area of the city of Bari, the model obtained does not include the noise pollution factor, showing a lower (scarce) importance of the environmental factor among the buyer and seller bargaining phases. Full article
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Article
The Acoustics of the Benevento Roman Theatre
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050212 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
During the Imperial Roman period, thousands of theatres were built. The theatres have three principal elements: the scene building (actor position), the orchestra and the cavea (spectator seating). The theatres were built without a roof, so they were open-air spaces. The theatres were [...] Read more.
During the Imperial Roman period, thousands of theatres were built. The theatres have three principal elements: the scene building (actor position), the orchestra and the cavea (spectator seating). The theatres were built without a roof, so they were open-air spaces. The theatres were abandoned afterward the barbarian invasions, and during the Middle Ages, homes were built inside the cavea. The theatres were rediscovered during the Renaissance period. Today, ancient theatres are the center of cultural events and are used for various kinds of shows. This work discussed the acoustics of the Roman theatre of Benevento, which was built during the Imperial Age. The theatre was destroyed after the barbaric invasion and it was rebuilt in the first half of the 1900s. The theatre was opened in 1957, and today it is the center of social and cultural activities. Acoustic measurements were carried out according to ISO 3382 standard, placing an omnidirectional sound source on the scene building and in the orchestra, with the measurement microphones along three directions in the cavea. The acoustic characteristics in various seating areas of the cavea were evaluated. Therefore, it possible to understand in which sectors of the theatre the acoustic characteristics are optimal for different types of theatrical performances. Full article
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Review
An Abridged Review of Buckling Analysis of Compression Members in Construction
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 211; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050211 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
The column buckling problem was first investigated by Leonhard Euler in 1757. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to enhance the buckling capacity of slender columns, because of their importance in structural, mechanical, aeronautical, biomedical, and several other engineering fields. Buckling analysis [...] Read more.
The column buckling problem was first investigated by Leonhard Euler in 1757. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to enhance the buckling capacity of slender columns, because of their importance in structural, mechanical, aeronautical, biomedical, and several other engineering fields. Buckling analysis has become a critical aspect, especially in the safety engineering design since, at the time of failure, the actual stress at the point of failure is significantly lower than the material capability to withstand the imposed loads. With the recent advancement in materials and composites, the load-carrying capacity of columns has been remarkably increased, without any significant increase in their size, thus resulting in even more slender compressive members that can be susceptible to buckling collapse. Thus, nonuniformity in columns can be achieved in two ways—either by varying the material properties or by varying the cross section (i.e., shape and size). Both these methods are preferred because they actually inherited the advantage of the reduction in the dead load of the column. Hence, an attempt is made herein to present an abridged review on the buckling analysis of the columns with major emphasis on the buckling of nonuniform and functionally graded columns. Moreover, the paper provides a concise discussion on references that could be helpful for researchers and designers to understand and address the relevant buckling parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Editorial
Announcement for “Buildings Outstanding Reviewer Award 2020” Winners
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 210; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050210 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part of the publication process, ensuring that Buildings maintains high-quality standards for its published papers [...] Full article
Article
FRP Cables to Prestress RC Beams: State of the Art vs. a Split Wedge Anchorage System
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050209 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Versatility and high performance in terms of specific stiffness and strength, as well as non-corrosive sensitivity, make FRP (Fiber-Reinforced Polymer) cables a viable alternative to steel ones in the development of prestressing systems. On the other hand, the orthotropic and brittle nature of [...] Read more.
Versatility and high performance in terms of specific stiffness and strength, as well as non-corrosive sensitivity, make FRP (Fiber-Reinforced Polymer) cables a viable alternative to steel ones in the development of prestressing systems. On the other hand, the orthotropic and brittle nature of FRPs could trigger a premature failure of the cable in the anchorage system, for which several solutions have been proposed so far in civil structural applications. In this context, after a preliminary state of the art, the work introduces a split wedge anchorage for FRP (ϕ = 12 mm) cables proposing two different solutions for steel wedges having the external surface: either (1) a constant (3 degrees) slope or (2) a double slope obtained by shaping it with an angle of 3.0 degrees before and then of 3.1 degrees along the most tapered part. The goal was to exploit the nominal cable capacity (257 kN), avoiding stress peaks that cause its premature failure. The proposed solutions have been experimentally tested and, as far as the double angle solution is concerned, the failure loads were equal to 222 and 257 kN, denoting that the proposed solution can reach the cable capacity. Clearly, further investigations are needed to check the variability of the results and eventually improve the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods for Structural Rehabilitation)
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Article
Advanced Structural Analysis of Innovative Steel–Glass Structures with Respect to the Architectural Design
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050208 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 992
Abstract
This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of a steel–glass spindle torus structure based on the prototype of the Jewel Changi Airport, Singapore. Instead of studying a common cuboid building, the research in this paper focuses on a spindle torus shape structure which incorporates [...] Read more.
This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of a steel–glass spindle torus structure based on the prototype of the Jewel Changi Airport, Singapore. Instead of studying a common cuboid building, the research in this paper focuses on a spindle torus shape structure which incorporates tremendous, curved members. Hence, the advanced modeling and structural analysis of this structure provides valuable information about an irregularly shaped building. Meanwhile, the modeling and analysis process of this innovative structure also gives rise to some practical design recommendations for both architects and engineers. In this paper, both global structure stability and local member buckling behavior were studied. With the use of commercial finite element software, Strand7 (R2.4.6) and ABAQUS (6.14), a series of numerical simulations were conducted. In terms of the behavior of the global structure, both numerical spindle torus models incorporating straight and curved steel members were tested under different load combinations specified in Australian building standards. A significant difference was observed between the results of the two models; therefore, research on the individual curved members was undertaken. Regarding the local member buckling behavior, the effective length factor for curved members with braced and sway boundaries conditions was investigated in Strand7. Moreover, the interaction curves of curved beams with different L/R ratios were compared with perfectly straight members in Australian building standards. ABAQUS can provide more precise predictions of local buckling behavior; therefore, the elastic local buckling behavior of the perimeter beams on different levels was investigated using ABAQUS. Additionally, the impacts of boundary conditions and L/R ratios on the beam buckling behavior are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Structures and Materials: Analysis, Design and Application)
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Article
Bond Behavior of Carbon Fabric-Reinforced Matrix Composites: Geopolymeric Matrix versus Cementitious Mortar
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050207 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 699
Abstract
This study aims to examine the potential use of a geopolymeric matrix as a sustainable alternative to commercial mortars in carbon fabric-reinforced matrix composites. Single-lap shear tests were conducted to examine the bond behavior at the fabric-matrix interface. Test parameters included the type [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the potential use of a geopolymeric matrix as a sustainable alternative to commercial mortars in carbon fabric-reinforced matrix composites. Single-lap shear tests were conducted to examine the bond behavior at the fabric-matrix interface. Test parameters included the type of matrix (geopolymeric and cementitious matrices) and the bonded length (50 to 300 mm). The geopolymeric matrix was a blend of fly ash/ground granulated blast furnace slag activated by an alkaline solution of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. The bond behavior of the geopolymeric-matrix specimens was characterized and compared to that of similar specimens with a cementitious matrix. The specimens failed due to fabric slippage/debonding at the fabric-matrix interface or fabric rupture. The effective bond lengths of the geopolymeric- and cementitious-matrix specimens were 150 and 170 mm, respectively. The geopolymeric-matrix specimens exhibited higher fabric strains, higher ultimate loads, and a steeper strain profile along the bonded length than those of their cementitious-matrix counterparts. New bond-slip models that characterize the bond behavior at the fabric-matrix interface for geopolymeric- and cementitious-matrix specimens were developed. Both models exhibited equal maximum shear stress of 1.2 MPa. The geopolymeric-matrix model had, however, higher fracture energy and higher slip at maximum shear stress than those of the cementitious matrix model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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Article
Digital Modelling and Accuracy Verification of a Complex Architectural Object Based on Photogrammetric Reconstruction
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050206 - 15 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
Data concerning heritage buildings are necessary for all kinds of building surveying and design. This paper presents a method for creating a precise model of a historical architectural and landscape object with complex geometry. Photogrammetric techniques were used, combining terrestrial imaging and photographs [...] Read more.
Data concerning heritage buildings are necessary for all kinds of building surveying and design. This paper presents a method for creating a precise model of a historical architectural and landscape object with complex geometry. Photogrammetric techniques were used, combining terrestrial imaging and photographs taken using UAVs. In large-scale objects, it is necessary to divide the reconstruction into smaller parts and adopt an iterative approach based on the gradual completion of missing fragments, especially those resulting from occlusions. The model developed via the reconstruction was compared with geometrically reliable data (LAS point clouds) available in the public domain. The degree of accuracy it achieved can be used in conservation, for example, in construction cost estimates. Despite extensive research on photogrammetric techniques and their applicability in reconstructing cultural heritage sites, the results obtained have not yet been compared by other researchers with LAS point clouds from the information system for land cover (ISOK). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Aided Architectural Design)
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Article
Numerical Simulation of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings with Timber Diaphragms
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050205 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 524
Abstract
Though flexible diaphragms play a role in the seismic behaviour of unreinforced masonry buildings, the effect of the connections between floors and walls is rarely discussed or explicitly modelled when simulating the response of such buildings. These flexible diaphragms are most commonly timber [...] Read more.
Though flexible diaphragms play a role in the seismic behaviour of unreinforced masonry buildings, the effect of the connections between floors and walls is rarely discussed or explicitly modelled when simulating the response of such buildings. These flexible diaphragms are most commonly timber floors made of planks and beams, which are supported on recesses in the masonry walls and can slide when the friction resistance is reached. Using equivalent frame models, we capture the effects of both the diaphragm stiffness and the finite strength of wall-to-diaphragm connections on the seismic behaviour of unreinforced masonry buildings. To do this, we use a newly developed macro-element able to simulate both in-plane and out-of-plane behaviour of the masonry walls and non-linear springs to simulate wall-to-wall and wall-to-diaphragm connections. As an unretrofitted case study, we model a building on a shake table, which developed large in-plane and out-of-plane displacements. We then simulate three retrofit interventions: Retrofitted diaphragms, connections, and diaphragms and connections. We show that strengthening the diaphragm alone is ineffective when the friction capacity of the wall-to-diaphragm connection is exceeded. This also means that modelling an unstrengthened wall-to-diaphragm connection as having infinite stiffness and strength leads to unrealistic box-type behaviour. This is particularly important if the equivalent frame model should capture both global in-plane and local out-of-plane failure modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings)
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Article
Facial Expression-Based Experimental Analysis of Human Reactions and Psychological Comfort on Glass Structures in Buildings
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050204 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
For engineering applications, human comfort in the built environment depends on several objective aspects that can be mathematically controlled and limited to reference performance indicators. Typical examples include structural, energy and thermal issues, and others. Human reactions, however, are also sensitive to a [...] Read more.
For engineering applications, human comfort in the built environment depends on several objective aspects that can be mathematically controlled and limited to reference performance indicators. Typical examples include structural, energy and thermal issues, and others. Human reactions, however, are also sensitive to a multitude of aspects that can be associated with design concepts of the so-called “emotional architecture”, through which subjective feelings, nervous states and emotions of end-users are evoked by constructional details. The interactions of several objective and subjective parameters can make the “optimal” building design challenging, and this is especially the case for new technical concepts, constructional materials and techniques. In this paper, a remote experimental methodology is proposed to explore and quantify the prevailing human reactions and psychological comfort trends for building occupants, with a focus on end-users exposed to structural glass environments. Major advantages were taken from the use of virtual visual stimuli and facial expression automatic recognition analysis, and from the active support of 30 volunteers. As shown, while glass is often used in constructions, several intrinsic features (transparency, brittleness, etc.) are responsible for subjective feelings that can affect the overall psychological comfort of users. In this regard, the use of virtual built environments and facial expression analysis to quantify human reactions can represent an efficient system to support the building design process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
Design of Robot-Inclusive Vertical Green Landscape
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050203 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Vertical gardens have emerged alongside the increase in urban density and land scarcity to reintegrate greenery in the built environment. Existing maintenance for vertical gardens is labour-intensive, time-consuming and is being increasingly complemented by robotic applications. While research has been focused on enhancing [...] Read more.
Vertical gardens have emerged alongside the increase in urban density and land scarcity to reintegrate greenery in the built environment. Existing maintenance for vertical gardens is labour-intensive, time-consuming and is being increasingly complemented by robotic applications. While research has been focused on enhancing robot design to improve productivity, minimal effort has been done on ‘design for robots’ in creating suitable environments for optimal robot deployments. This paper proposed a multi-disciplinary approach that brings together architects, designers, and roboticians to adapt the design of the vertical garden infrastructure to counteract the limitations of the maintenance robot. A case study on an existing plant maintenance robot ‘Urodela’ was conducted to determine the limitations encountered by robotic aid during operation. A robot-inclusive modular design for vertical gardens is proposed based on robot-inclusive principles, namely manipulability and safety, along with architectural design considerations. Design explorations for different configurations of track layouts of the proposed robot-inclusive modular design for vertical gardens is further analysed to validate its applicability and scalability. Full article
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Article
A Framework for Developing Green Building Rating Tools Based on Pakistan’s Local Context
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 202; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050202 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Most countries have developed green building rating tools that are based on social, environmental, and economic dimensions. Pakistan followed a similar approach and has developed a rating tool known as Sustainability in Energy and Environmental Development (SEED). However, SEED is built on developed [...] Read more.
Most countries have developed green building rating tools that are based on social, environmental, and economic dimensions. Pakistan followed a similar approach and has developed a rating tool known as Sustainability in Energy and Environmental Development (SEED). However, SEED is built on developed western countries’ rating tool standards which do not address Pakistan’s unique local context, especially from the cultural and governmental perspectives. This research aims to fill this research gap by developing a holistic framework of building rating tools that incorporates cultural and governmental dimensions. Based on an extensive literature review, a hypothetical framework, incorporating Pakistan’s unique local contexts and adding cultural and governmental dimensions to the widely adopted social, environmental, and economic dimensions of sustainability, was proposed in this paper. This framework was further validated by in-depth interviews with multiple stakeholders in Pakistan. A qualitative analysis of the interview results was carried out, and the final framework was proposed with key indicators, reflecting all five dimensions of sustainability. The verified sustainability framework can be used to improve or develop green building rating tools for Pakistan, and it can also inform other developing countries’ rating tool development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy in Buildings)
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Article
Towards Smart Campus Management: Defining Information Requirements for Decision Making through Dashboard Design
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050201 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
At universities worldwide, the notion of a ‘smart campus’ is becoming increasingly appealing as a response to the multitude of challenges that impact campus development and operation. Smart campus tools are widely used to support students and employees, optimise space use and save [...] Read more.
At universities worldwide, the notion of a ‘smart campus’ is becoming increasingly appealing as a response to the multitude of challenges that impact campus development and operation. Smart campus tools are widely used to support students and employees, optimise space use and save energy. Although smart campus tools are supposed to support campus managers in their decision-making processes, the use of the information delivered by smart campus tools and their application in organisational processes has received little attention. In this paper, we focus on the use of dashboards in the connection of IoT information to strategic decision-making processes in the management of university campuses. To this end, we developed a briefing approach for dashboards that expresses the needs of campus management and matches the structure of decision-making processes. In two cases, dashboards based on this approach were use-tested by stakeholders for defining information requirements for IoT applications. The results suggest that users are able to use dashboards for assessing portfolio performance and determining interventions. Through iteration the usability of the dashboard is improved and information requirements are refined, resulting in a brief for a campus management dashboard. The results suggest that the briefing approach can be used to determine IoT information requirements, though further research is required to study indications and contra-indications of the proposed method. Full article
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Article
Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Portuguese Adobe Buildings
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 200; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050200 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Adobe construction represents 5.3% of the total Portuguese building stock according to the latest National Housing Census. The distribution of these adobe buildings is scattered across the country, with higher density in the central region and in Algarve in the south, where the [...] Read more.
Adobe construction represents 5.3% of the total Portuguese building stock according to the latest National Housing Census. The distribution of these adobe buildings is scattered across the country, with higher density in the central region and in Algarve in the south, where the seismic hazard is highest. A large proportion of these buildings are still in use for residential and commercial purposes and are of historical significance, contributing to the cultural heritage of the country. Adobe buildings are known to exhibit low seismic resistance due to their brittle behavior, thus making them vulnerable to ground shaking and more prone to structural damage that can potentially cause human fatalities. Three buildings with one-story, two-stories, and two-stories plus an attic were numerically modeled using solid and contact elements. Calibration and validation of material properties were carried out following experimental results. A set of 30 ground motion records with bi-directional components were selected, and non-linear time-history analyses were performed until complete collapse occurred. Two novel engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were used, and damage thresholds were proposed. Finally, fragility and fatality vulnerability functions were derived. These functions can be used directly in seismic risk assessment studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings)
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Article
Determining Critical Success Factors for Public–Private Partnership Asset-Backed Securitization: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050199 - 09 May 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Public–private partnership (PPP) has been widely applied in China and many developing countries in the recent decade. As new PPP projects gradually enter the operational phase, the issue of refinancing becomes increasingly important. PPP–ABS plays an indispensable role in PPP project refinancing. The [...] Read more.
Public–private partnership (PPP) has been widely applied in China and many developing countries in the recent decade. As new PPP projects gradually enter the operational phase, the issue of refinancing becomes increasingly important. PPP–ABS plays an indispensable role in PPP project refinancing. The factors that promote the success of the emerging PPP–ABS in the China financial market need to be determined. To accomplish two objectives, namely, to identify critical success factors (CSFs) and to explore the relationship between these factors and the success of the PPP asset-backed securitization (PPP–ABS) of this research, methods such as a questionnaire survey and structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted successively. Four success factors, including underlying asset quality (UAQ), original equity holder credit (OEHC), rationality of security design (RoSD) and maturity of relative institutions (MoRI), were identified in this study. Consequently, nineteen theoretical hypotheses were developed and tested. It is shown in the SEM approach that UAQ and OEHC positively influence the success of PPP–ABS, alongside issuance characteristics (IC) that mediate the relationship between the success of PPP–ABS and UAQ, RoSD and MoRI, respectively. This finding increased knowledge of PPP–ABS and how investors and government can benefit from it. Full article
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Case Report
Implications of ‘Lock-in’ on Public Sector Project Management in a Small Island Development State
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050198 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
The concept of ‘Lock-In’, or the escalating cost of overcommitment on a project to a failing course of action, has unforeseeable implications in project management. This paper presents a case study on the occurrence and consequences of lock-in within the context of public [...] Read more.
The concept of ‘Lock-In’, or the escalating cost of overcommitment on a project to a failing course of action, has unforeseeable implications in project management. This paper presents a case study on the occurrence and consequences of lock-in within the context of public sector housing projects in a small island developing state (SIDS). It demonstrates that cost overruns continue beyond the commissioning phase and throughout the project’s lifecycle, even though technical contingencies were implemented to deliver the intended project benefits. The findings unpack the implications of political expediency as a strategic tool mobilised to supersede proper technical decision-making prior to project execution. It concludes that project practitioners’ commitment to select and continue with a sub-optimal project can lead to the implementation of ineffective solutions to justify their actions, resulting in failed outcomes with negative social consequences. This research helps to advance project management knowledge in the us-er/operation phase, because previous scholarly work was limited to investigating lock-in from project conceptualisation to the commissioning phase. Full article
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Article
Study on the Corroded Hollow Section RC Columns Strengthened by ICCP-SS System
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050197 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
In this paper, the behavior of corroded hollow section RC (reinforced concrete) columns strengthened by an Impressed Current Cathodic Protection and Structural Strengthening (ICCP-SS) system was investigated. The Carbon Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (C-FRCM) composite serves dual functions in the intervention method. The axial [...] Read more.
In this paper, the behavior of corroded hollow section RC (reinforced concrete) columns strengthened by an Impressed Current Cathodic Protection and Structural Strengthening (ICCP-SS) system was investigated. The Carbon Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (C-FRCM) composite serves dual functions in the intervention method. The axial compression behavior of strengthened columns was firstly investigated through axial compression tests. The influence of corrosion ratio and C-FRCM strengthening on the test results, such as failure mode, load–displacement curve, ultimate load, and ultimate strain, were analyzed. Test results showed that the ultimate load of the corroded specimens could be enhanced significantly by C-FRCM, and the ductility of the strengthened specimens was larger than the specimens without strengthening, especially for the specimens with higher corrosion ratios. Secondly, the effects of the ICCP-SS system on the migration and distribution laws of chloride ions (Cl) in hollow section RC columns were analyzed by the potentiometric titration method. The main parameters include charging time, current density, and salt addition. Results showed that the rebar would have a certain blocking effect on the migration of Cl, which resulted in that the content of Cl in the inner side of the rebar was always larger than that of the outer side; and research results also showed that the increase of impressed current density and charge time would reduce the Cl content on both sides of the rebar, while the impressed current would cause the Cl near the rebars to constantly move toward the vicinity of CFRP. Full article
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Review
Toward BIM and LPS Data Integration for Lean Site Project Management: A State-of-the-Art Review and Recommendations
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050196 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
Over recent years, the independent adoption of lean construction and building information modeling (BIM) has shown improvements in construction industry efficiency. Because these approaches have overlapping concepts, it is thought that their synergistic adoption can bring many more benefits. Today, implementing the lean–BIM [...] Read more.
Over recent years, the independent adoption of lean construction and building information modeling (BIM) has shown improvements in construction industry efficiency. Because these approaches have overlapping concepts, it is thought that their synergistic adoption can bring many more benefits. Today, implementing the lean–BIM theoretical framework is still challenging for many companies. This paper conducts a comprehensive review with the intent to identify prevailing interconnected lean and BIM areas. To this end, 77 papers published in AEC journals and conferences over the last decade were reviewed. The proposed weighting matrix showed the most promising interactions, namely those related to 4D BIM-based visualization of construction schedules produced and updated by last planners. The authors also show evidence of the lack of a sufficiently integrated BIM–Last Planner System® framework and technologies. Thus, we propose a new theoretical framework considering all BIM and LPS interactions. In our model, we suggest automating the generation of phase schedule using joint BIM data and a work breakdown structure database. Thereafter, the lookahead planning and weekly work plan is supported by a field application that must be able to exchange data with the enterprise resource planning system, document management systems, and report progress to the BIM model. Full article
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Article
Inelastic Dynamic Eccentricities in Pushover Analysis Procedure of Multi-Story RC Buildings
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050195 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
A documented pushover procedure on asymmetric, single-story, reinforced concrete (RC) buildings using inelastic dynamic eccentricities is extending in this paper on asymmetric multi-story RC buildings, aiming at the Near Collapse state. The floor lateral static forces of the pushover procedure are applied eccentric [...] Read more.
A documented pushover procedure on asymmetric, single-story, reinforced concrete (RC) buildings using inelastic dynamic eccentricities is extending in this paper on asymmetric multi-story RC buildings, aiming at the Near Collapse state. The floor lateral static forces of the pushover procedure are applied eccentric to the Mass Centers using appropriate inelastic dynamic or design eccentricities (dynamic plus accidental ones) to safely estimate the ductility demands of both the flexible and stiff sides of the building due to the coupled torsional/translational response. All eccentricities are applied with respect to the “Capable Near Collapse Principal System” of multi-story buildings, which is defined appropriately using the well-known methodology of the torsional optimum axis. Moreover, two patterns of lateral forces are used for performing the analysis, where in the second one an additional top-force is applied to consider the higher-mode effects. A six-story, asymmetric, torsionally-sensitive RC building is examined to verify the proposed pushover procedure relative to the results of non-linear dynamic analysis. The outcomes indicate that the proposed pushover procedure can safely predict the seismic ductility demands at the flexible and stiff sides, providing reliable estimates for the peak inter-story drift-ratios throughout the building as well as a good prediction of the plastic mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance-Based Design of Buildings)
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Article
Deep Learning Optimal Control for a Complex Hybrid Energy Storage System
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050194 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) proved to be successful for solving complex control problems and has become a hot topic in the field of energy systems control, but for the particular case of thermal energy storage (TES) systems, only a few studies have been [...] Read more.
Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) proved to be successful for solving complex control problems and has become a hot topic in the field of energy systems control, but for the particular case of thermal energy storage (TES) systems, only a few studies have been reported, all of them with a complexity degree of the TES system far below the one of this study. In this paper, we step forward through a DRL architecture able to deal with the complexity of an innovative hybrid energy storage system, devising appropriate high-level control operations (or policies) over its subsystems that result optimal from an energy or monetary point of view. The results show that a DRL policy in the system control can reduce the system operating costs by more than 50%, as compared to a rule-based control (RBC) policy, for cooling supply to a reference residential building in Mediterranean climate during a period of 18 days. Moreover, a robustness analysis was carried out, which showed that, even for large errors in the parameters of the system simulation models corresponding to an error multiplying factors up to 2, the average cost obtained with the original model deviates from the optimum value by less than 3%, demonstrating the robustness of the solution over a wide range of model errors. Full article
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Article
An Evaluation of Annual Luminous Exposure from Daylight in a Museum Room with a Translucent Ceiling
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050193 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
The current study investigates the issue of computer-aided daylight evaluation in a museum room with a dropped translucent ceiling. In this type of room, daylight is admitted through classic windows located in the facade and then distributed in the plenum, which is located [...] Read more.
The current study investigates the issue of computer-aided daylight evaluation in a museum room with a dropped translucent ceiling. In this type of room, daylight is admitted through classic windows located in the facade and then distributed in the plenum, which is located above the exhibition space and transmitted through the translucent ceiling into the museum room. This illumination method enables guiding daylight deep into the room, excluding the impact of direct solar radiation. The presented study is based on data obtained through computer-aided daylight simulation by DeLuminæ (DL-Light, ver. 11.0.9) software using the Radiance software for all calculations and real weather data for Wroclaw, Poland. A museum room of 12 × 12 m with three different heights of the plenums was simulated to establish an optimal relation of the width to height plenum ratio. Next, the annual exposure in K lx·h/year was calculated, as sensitive works of art may be subjected to damage caused by light exposure. To further reduce illumination, the simulation of an automatic shading system in the form of horizontal louvers was performed. The system was activated when certain illumination values were detected by the sensor on the building’s roof. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Comfort in Buildings: Lighting Solutions)
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Article
Design Optimization of a Passive Building with Green Roof through Machine Learning and Group Intelligent Algorithm
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050192 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
This paper proposed an optimization method to minimize the building energy consumption and visual discomfort for a passive building in Shanghai, China. A total of 35 design parameters relating to building form, envelope properties, thermostat settings, and green roof configurations were considered. First, [...] Read more.
This paper proposed an optimization method to minimize the building energy consumption and visual discomfort for a passive building in Shanghai, China. A total of 35 design parameters relating to building form, envelope properties, thermostat settings, and green roof configurations were considered. First, the Latin hypercube sampling method (LHSM) was used to generate a set of design samples, and the energy consumption and visual discomfort of the samples were obtained through computer simulation and calculation. Second, four machine learning prediction models, including stepwise linear regression (SLR), back-propagation neural networks (BPNN), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) models, were developed. It was found that the BPNN model performed the best, with average absolute relative errors of 3.27% and 1.25% for energy consumption and visual comfort, respectively. Third, six optimization algorithms were selected to couple with the BPNN models to find the optimal design solutions. The multi-objective ant lion optimization (MOALO) algorithm was found to be the best algorithm. Finally, optimization with different groups of design variables was conducted by using the MOALO algorithm with the associated outcomes being analyzed. Compared with the reference building, the optimal solutions helped reduce energy consumption up to 34.8% and improved visual discomfort up to 100%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Building Performance Analysis)
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Article
Constitutive Model of Uniaxial Compressive Behavior for Roller-Compacted Concrete Using Coal Bottom Ash Entirely as Fine Aggregate
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 191; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050191 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Coal bottom ash (CBA) is one of the by-products that can be employed as fine aggregate to replace natural sand in concrete. Owing to the very low water demand, roller-compacted concrete (RCC) has the potential to use CBA as fine aggregate at a [...] Read more.
Coal bottom ash (CBA) is one of the by-products that can be employed as fine aggregate to replace natural sand in concrete. Owing to the very low water demand, roller-compacted concrete (RCC) has the potential to use CBA as fine aggregate at a high proportion. However, little research about RCC using CBA entirely as fine aggregate has been conducted. In this study, the uniaxial compressive strength, deformation, stress–strain curves, and splitting tensile strength of CBA-containing RCC (CBA RCC) were studied to bridge this gap. The compressive strength, elasticity modulus, and splitting tensile strength of all mixtures decreased with increasing CBA content. The relationship between compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of CBA RCC was proposed, which is very close to that recommended by the CEB-FIP code. The uniaxial compressive constitutive model based on the continuum damage theory can well illustrate the stress–strain relationship of CBA RCC. The growth process of damage variable demonstrates the hybrid effect of coarse aggregate, cement, and compacting load on delaying damage under uniaxial compression. The theoretical formula can also accurately illustrate the stress–strain curves of RCC presented in the literature studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cementitious Composites for Sustainable Buildings)
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Article
The Use of Crushed Cable Waste as a Substitute of Natural Aggregate in Cement Screed
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 190; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050190 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
This research is focused on the utilization of cable waste originating during the recycling of wires as a partial substitution of natural aggregate in cement screed. The main goal of the work performed was to find an optimal level of substitution in terms [...] Read more.
This research is focused on the utilization of cable waste originating during the recycling of wires as a partial substitution of natural aggregate in cement screed. The main goal of the work performed was to find an optimal level of substitution in terms of freezing–thawing resistance, which is a significant aspect for such type of concrete mixtures. The studied artificial aggregate was gradually dosed in cement screed by 5% in a volume of up to 30% of substitution. The influence of the substitution was also evaluated in terms of compressive strength, flexural strength, bulk density determination, and the ultrasonic pulse method. Gradual substitution led to the reduction of the bulk density and studied mechanical properties due to the considerable air-entraining effect. The utilization of cable waste reduced the value of modulus of elasticity and modified deformation behavior of studied mixtures, which exhibited significant softening during the flexural test. Studied screed mixtures incorporating waste material exhibited slightly lower values of the coefficient of freeze-thaw resistance in comparison with the control mixture, however, the attained values comply with technical requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Concrete Materials in Construction)
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Article
Co-Housing to Ease and Share Household Chores? Spatial Visibility and Collective Deliberation as Levers for Gender Equality
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/buildings11050189 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Dwelling is very much related to time. A home shields the dweller from outsiders yet, provides an opportunity to engage with the outside world. However, the time required for household chores tends to hinder this engagement, especially for women. Interestingly, co-housing projects tend [...] Read more.
Dwelling is very much related to time. A home shields the dweller from outsiders yet, provides an opportunity to engage with the outside world. However, the time required for household chores tends to hinder this engagement, especially for women. Interestingly, co-housing projects tend to rationalise housing and mutualise time-consuming tasks, freeing up time to and thus emancipating and empowering inhabitants. This argument was put to the test in a field study in Brussels. Through a gendered perspective, the research questions and tries to identify which levers ease domestic drudgery in co-housing projects. Spatial analyses coupled with qualitative observations and interviews were carried out in two co-housing projects. The issue of freeing up time through co-housing seems particularly relevant to various categories of people. First, it addresses gender inequalities regarding an egalitarian sharing of household chores. Second, individual (divorced, elderly, or single) households could also benefit from these time savings. Understanding co-housing within this emancipating perspective could be a lever to influence future policy making and incentives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Architecture of Collective Housing)
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