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Soc. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 29 articles

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Open AccessArticle
A Qualitative Study of Black College Women’s Experiences of Misogynoir and Anti-Racism with High School Educators
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010029 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 866
Abstract
A growing body of literature highlights how teachers and administrators influence Black girls’ academic and social experiences in school. Yet, less of this work explores how Black undergraduate women understand their earlier school experiences, particularly in relation to whether teachers advocated for their [...] Read more.
A growing body of literature highlights how teachers and administrators influence Black girls’ academic and social experiences in school. Yet, less of this work explores how Black undergraduate women understand their earlier school experiences, particularly in relation to whether teachers advocated for their educational success or participated in discriminatory practices that hindered their potential. Using consensual qualitative research (CQR) methods, the present semi-structured interview study explored the narratives of 50 Black undergraduate women (mean age = 20 years) who reflected on their experiences with teachers and school administrators during high school. Five discriminatory themes emerged, including body and tone policing, exceptionalism, tokenization, cultural erasure in the curriculum, and gatekeeping grades and opportunities. Three anti-racist themes emerged, including communicating high expectations and recognizing potential, challenging discrimination in the moment, and instilling racial and cultural pride. Our findings highlight the higher prevalence of discriminatory events compared to anti-racist teacher practices, as well as how the women’s high school experiences occurred at the intersection of race and gender. The Authors discuss the need to incorporate gender and sexism into discussions of anti-racist teacher practices to address Black girls’ experiences of misogynoir. We hope our findings contribute to educational initiatives that transform the learning landscape for Black girls by demonstrating how educators can eliminate pedagogical practices that harm their development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racial Justice in Learning Contexts)
Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Regulation of Educational Requirements for Non-Bank Credit Providers in Czech Republic
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010028 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Educational challenges for companies are created by market regulation less frequently versus market dynamics. Yet when law-enforced educational challenges appear, they have a significant impact on companies and their employees. This empirical study focuses on a new professional qualification regulation on the market [...] Read more.
Educational challenges for companies are created by market regulation less frequently versus market dynamics. Yet when law-enforced educational challenges appear, they have a significant impact on companies and their employees. This empirical study focuses on a new professional qualification regulation on the market of consumer credit in the Czech Republic. We analyze how companies cope with the new law-enforced educational requirements and whether the regulation has been successful. We analyzed more than 1900 certification tests. The sample accounted for approximately 10% of all employees tested in the Czech Republic in the first year of the regulation. All test variants were found unique, the expected point score of each variant had skewed distributions with only a small number of difficult variants. A significant majority of the tests showed expected values in an interval of 60–75% with only several outliers; test difficulty was balanced. The professional qualification tests separated employees with the required knowledge from those without and excluded accidental success. We identified a successful education management system that resulted in success rates above the country average: decentralized regional managers supervision, employee financial participation, and effective e-learning. We found structural changes in the market supply structure. Companies with professionally skilled employees met the regulatory conditions. The regulation combining centrally-provided requirements and questions with the market-based method of preparing for the professional qualification test was successful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social, Legal and Educational Challenges of Contemporary Economics)
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Open AccessArticle
What about the “Social Aspect of COVID”? Exploring the Determinants of Social Isolation on the Greek Population during the COVID-19 Lockdown
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010027 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 777
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic, its duration, and its intensity are harbingers of demographic change. In the context of social demography, it is crucial to explore the social challenge emerging from the coronavirus disease. The main purpose of this study is (i) to explore the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic, its duration, and its intensity are harbingers of demographic change. In the context of social demography, it is crucial to explore the social challenge emerging from the coronavirus disease. The main purpose of this study is (i) to explore the determinants that affected the population in Greece in terms of social isolation during the lockdown period and (ii) to examine possible differences in the assessment of the social isolation factors depending on whether individuals live in urban or rural areas or regions with relative geographical isolation. Field research was conducted with 4216 questionnaires during the first wave of COVID-19 (March to April 2020). Multivariate analysis methods were applied to detect the main factors that impacted the feeling of social isolation, and nonparametric tests were performed to detect possible differences between population groups. Despite the resistance shown to the spread of the disease, the Greek population totally complied with the measures of social distancing and thus was socially and psychologically affected. The results indicate that psychosomatic disorders, employment situations, changes in sleep habits, socialization on the Internet, demographic status, health concerns, and trust in government and the media response determine the Greeks’ social isolation feeling. Pandemic and confinement measures have consequences for individuals and social groups and may prejudice social cohesion at multiple levels. By understanding how the pandemic affected the societies, interventions and public policies may be implemented to ensure both social cohesion and populations’ wellbeing by addressing the social isolation feeling. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Improvements in Evaluating Grids for Basic Living Infrastructure: The Case of Gwangjin District in Seoul, South Korea
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010026 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 671
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the current status and needs of infrastructure for basic life in Gwangjin district in Seoul, South Korea. In this study, we examined whether the national minimum standard was satisfied in terms of the infrastructure for [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the current status and needs of infrastructure for basic life in Gwangjin district in Seoul, South Korea. In this study, we examined whether the national minimum standard was satisfied in terms of the infrastructure for basic life in the district. Specifically, we employed and compared the empirical utilities of two types of geographic datasets, 100-square-meter grids and 500-square-meter grids. The study compares the prediction accuracy between two types of geographic datasets by employing multivariate linear estimation using influential factors. The evaluation methods for prediction accuracy were to compare the root mean of squared error (RMSE) and mean of absolute error (MAE) from each dataset. The results were as follows: (a) the dataset with 100-square-meter grids showed more significant associations among influential factors and the infrastructure than the dataset with 500-square-meter grids; (b) the 100-square-meter grids showed better prediction accuracy compared with the 500-square-meter grids; and (c) in terms of basic level local government, it was more powerful to use the datasets with 100-square-meter grids for finding blind sides of infrastructure than the datasets with 500-square-meter grids. The results imply that it is necessary to adjust urban policy by using appropriate datasets, such as 100-square-meter grids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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Open AccessArticle
Technology Makes the Heart Grow Fonder? A Test of Media Multiplexity Theory for Family Closeness
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010025 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Technology can be helpful for family relationships. Media multiplexity theory illustrates that the more technological connections (i.e., multimodality) an individual has with their family members, the stronger that relationship. Yet, this theory assumes that spending time face to face (FtF) is equitable to [...] Read more.
Technology can be helpful for family relationships. Media multiplexity theory illustrates that the more technological connections (i.e., multimodality) an individual has with their family members, the stronger that relationship. Yet, this theory assumes that spending time face to face (FtF) is equitable to multimodality for relationship quality. The goal of this study is to examine the impact of online and offline interactions for the quality of family relationships. Data are from undergraduate students completing an online survey (N = 154). Results reveal that spending time FtF is better for the quality of relationships for one parent, but not the other. Although FtF was not significantly different for grandparent and sibling relationships, participants felt closer to siblings when they texted. Correlational analyses revealed that individuals scoring high in collectivism report that spending time FtF is associated with higher relationship closeness and love, particularly with parents, but not other family members. These results provide some evidence for the importance of spending quality time with family members, particularly for those who identify as collectivistic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Intercultural Education and Sustainable Development. A Crucial Nexus for Contribution to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010024 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Over the last few years, research in the educational field has conducted specific and broad analysis of intercultural education, with a solid theoretical basis and an advanced body of empirical research. However, the link between an intercultural approach and the theme of sustainable [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, research in the educational field has conducted specific and broad analysis of intercultural education, with a solid theoretical basis and an advanced body of empirical research. However, the link between an intercultural approach and the theme of sustainable development, which has recently become an important aspect of international educational policies, remains less explored. The publication of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the definition of the goals for the millennium has made it necessary to deepen this link. The article aims to expand on the connection between intercultural education and sustainable development, highlighting the potential for the intercultural approach to contribute to reaching the objectives of the 2030 Agenda. An intercultural perspective is key to achieving the aims of ensuring quality education, combating exclusion and gaining a perspective of conscious and critical global citizenship. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Information and Communication Technologies in Commercial Sex Work: A Double-Edged Sword for Occupational Health and Safety
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010023 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 764
Abstract
Over the previous decade, there has been a notable shift within sex work marketplaces, with many aspects of the work now facilitated via the internet. Many providers and clients are also no longer engaging in in-person negotiations, opting instead for communications via technological [...] Read more.
Over the previous decade, there has been a notable shift within sex work marketplaces, with many aspects of the work now facilitated via the internet. Many providers and clients are also no longer engaging in in-person negotiations, opting instead for communications via technological means, such as through mobile phones, email, and the internet. By analysing the qualitative interviews of indoor-based providers, clients, and agency managers, this paper addresses the occupational health and safety concerns that indoor sex workers experience in the digital age, as well as how technology use can both support and hinder their capacity to promote their health and safety. Using thematic analysis, we arrived at three salient and nuanced themes that pertain to the intersection of sex work, technology use, and occupational health and safety: screening; confidentiality, privacy, and disclosure; and malice. As socio-political context can affect the occupational health and safety concerns that providers experience, as well as their capacity to prevent or mitigate these concerns, we highlight our findings in light of prevailing societal stigma and a lack of legal recognition and protections for sex work in Canada. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Gendered and Ethnic Captivity and Slavery in Safavid Persia: A Literature Review
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010022 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
The Safavid society’s approach to sexuality and gender has made it a reference for the “pre-modern” discourse, in which gender and sexuality manifest—in contemporary terminology—queerness and fluidity. While it is important not to romanticize the image of the Orient as a queer heaven, [...] Read more.
The Safavid society’s approach to sexuality and gender has made it a reference for the “pre-modern” discourse, in which gender and sexuality manifest—in contemporary terminology—queerness and fluidity. While it is important not to romanticize the image of the Orient as a queer heaven, it is possible to consider Safavid society as an important site of inquiry that offers valuable insights on pre-colonial gender and sexuality. A less discussed topic in Safavid literature on gender and sexuality is gendered and sexual slavery. This study conducts a review of primary and secondary literature on the Safavid period, including Western travelogues. The paper aims to outline the relations between existing forms of captivity and factors such as gender and ethnic background. The research explores the prevalence of slavery reported in Safavid literature and how slaves’ positions were defined within social hierarchies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Stratification and Inequality)
Open AccessReview
Drivers of Human Migration: A Review of Scientific Evidence
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010021 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
While migration research is at the peak of its productivity, a substantial gap persists between scientific evidence and policy action. As societal complexity increases, migration theory loses track on the numerous factors of human migration; the information on the most relevant factors affecting [...] Read more.
While migration research is at the peak of its productivity, a substantial gap persists between scientific evidence and policy action. As societal complexity increases, migration theory loses track on the numerous factors of human migration; the information on the most relevant factors affecting human migration (i.e., migration drivers), essential for policy decision-making, are hidden and dispersed across the ever-growing literature. Introducing a novel approach to conducting a literature review, emphasizing an unbiased selection of literature and the approach to analysing literature by coding, we collect evidence on the most pertinent migration factors. The study establishes a methodology for a quick but rigorous, collaborative gathering of evidence, as well as an initial inventory and an interactive map of nearly 200 factors working at different migration corridors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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Open AccessArticle
The Visual Politics of the Alternative for Germany (AfD): Anti-Islam, Ethno-Nationalism, and Gendered Images
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010020 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
This article is an empirical investigation into the visual mobilization strategies by far-right political parties for election campaigns constructing Muslim immigrants as a “threat” to the nation. Drawing on an interdisciplinary theoretical approach of social movement studies and research on media and communication, [...] Read more.
This article is an empirical investigation into the visual mobilization strategies by far-right political parties for election campaigns constructing Muslim immigrants as a “threat” to the nation. Drawing on an interdisciplinary theoretical approach of social movement studies and research on media and communication, I focus on the far-right political party Alternative for Germany (AfD), which has produced several widespread inflammatory series of visual election posters featuring anti-Islam rhetoric, combined with provocative images of gender and sexuality. By approaching visual politics through a perspective on actors constructing visual forms of political mobilization, I show how far-right populist “movement parties” are supported by professional graphic designers commercializing extremist ideologies by creating ambivalent images and text messages. My findings on the AfD’s visual campaign politics document the instrumentalization and appropriation of the rhetoric of women’s empowerment and LGBT rights discourse, helping the AfD to rebrand its image as a liberal democratic opposition party, while at the same time, maintaining its illiberal political agenda on gender and sexuality. Visual representations of gender and sexuality in professionally created election posters served to ridicule and shame Muslim minorities and denounce their “Otherness”—while also promoting a heroic self-image of the party as a savior of white women and Western civilization from the threat of male Muslim migrants. By documenting the visual politics of the AfD, as embedded in transnational cooperation between different actors, including visual professional graphic designers and far-right party activists, my multimodal analysis shows how far-right movement parties marketize and commercialize their image as “progressive” in order to reach out to new voters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Rise of the Extreme Right)
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Open AccessArticle
The Sustainability of the Portuguese Prison System: A Criminal Justice System in Masculine Form?
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010019 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Society has undergone an entire evolution in the field of criminal penalties, as people want to avoid, or ideally to extinguish, crime and consequent victimization. However, the human nature would hardly allow such utopian society to prevail. Hence, as individuals, we do have [...] Read more.
Society has undergone an entire evolution in the field of criminal penalties, as people want to avoid, or ideally to extinguish, crime and consequent victimization. However, the human nature would hardly allow such utopian society to prevail. Hence, as individuals, we do have codes and bylaws that govern our society. The number of male prisoners is considerably higher in comparison to female prisoners. The aim of the present research is to analyze the sex inequality in the Portuguese criminal justice system, as well as to discuss the following questions: (i) Are men suffering from unjustifiable discrimination by the criminal system? Or, (ii) are there any physical and psychological differences between both sexes? A quantitative and qualitative approach was used. A legal framework was created regarding penalty enforcement, followed by a review of the literature approaching themes of criminology, victimization, and sex inequality. To enrich and empirically support this research, the statistics provided by the Directorate-General for Justice Policy of the Ministry of Portuguese Justice are presented, and a descriptive analysis on the evolution of the number of inmates in Portuguese prisons and juveniles detained in educational centers, between 2010 and 2019 was performed. Implications of this study are is discussed to highlight mediation in criminal cases as a neutral future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Criminal Behavior and Young Adult)
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Open AccessArticle
Trustworthiness in Higher Education: The Role of Professor Benevolence and Competence
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010018 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Trust is a fundamental element of educational success. However, compared to what we know about teachers’ perceptions of trust, relatively less is known about students’ perceptions of trust. This paper describes two experimental investigations that tested the effects of authority competence and benevolence [...] Read more.
Trust is a fundamental element of educational success. However, compared to what we know about teachers’ perceptions of trust, relatively less is known about students’ perceptions of trust. This paper describes two experimental investigations that tested the effects of authority competence and benevolence on students’ perceptions of trust and their engagement. The investigations also explored whether university identification moderated the influence of authority competence and benevolence on assessments of authority trustworthiness and university engagement. As part of an online experiment administered in the Fall 2010 and the Spring 2011 academic terms, Italian (n = 211; Study 1) and U.S. (n = 226; Study 2) undergraduates were primed to identity or not identify with their university before they read one of four scenarios describing a professor’s behavior (i.e., competent and benevolent; competent but uncaring; incompetent but benevolent; incompetent and uncaring). Results showed that students from both Italy and the United States viewed a competent and caring professor as most trustworthy and an incompetent and uncaring professor as least trustworthy. Furthermore, in both countries, students trusted an incompetent and caring professor more compared to a competent and uncaring professor. University identification did not influence trustworthiness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Making Sense of Murder: The Reality versus the Realness of Gang Homicides in Two Contexts
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010017 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Despite the proliferation of research examining gang violence, little is known about how gang members experience, make sense of, and respond to peer fatalities. Drawing from two ethnographies in the Netherlands and Canada, this paper interrogates how gang members experience their affiliates’ murder [...] Read more.
Despite the proliferation of research examining gang violence, little is known about how gang members experience, make sense of, and respond to peer fatalities. Drawing from two ethnographies in the Netherlands and Canada, this paper interrogates how gang members experience their affiliates’ murder in different street milieus. We describe how gang members in both studies made sense of and navigated their affiliates’ murder(s) by conducting pseudo-homicide investigations, being hypervigilant, and attributing blameworthiness to the victim. We then demonstrate that while the Netherland’s milder street culture amplifies the significance of homicide, signals the authenticity of gang life, and reaffirms or tests group commitment, frequent and normalized gun violence in Canada has desensitized gang-involved men to murder, created a communal and perpetual state of insecurity, and eroded group cohesion. Lastly, we compare the ‘realness’ of gang homicide in The Hague with the ‘reality’ of lethal violence in Toronto, drawing attention to the importance of the ‘local’ in making sense of murder and contrasting participants’ narratives of interpretation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Gang-Related Violence in the 21st Century)
Open AccessArticle
Stonewalling in the Brick City: Perceptions of and Experiences with Seeking Police Assistance among LGBTQ Citizens
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010016 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Extant research has documented police interactions between racial and ethnic minority populations, including negative perceptions of and experiences with the police; police corruption and misconduct; and the deleterious effects of negative relationships with the police, such as reduced legitimacy and mistrust. Comparatively, exchanges [...] Read more.
Extant research has documented police interactions between racial and ethnic minority populations, including negative perceptions of and experiences with the police; police corruption and misconduct; and the deleterious effects of negative relationships with the police, such as reduced legitimacy and mistrust. Comparatively, exchanges between lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) populations and the police have received limited attention. This is despite work suggesting that LGBTQ citizens face an elevated risk of victimization, and a possible reticence in reporting their victimization, resulting from negative perceptions of police, fear of mistreatment, or even experiences of harassment and abuse by police. To extend the research in this area, I analyze 12 focus groups with LGBTQ participants (N = 98) in an urban setting to examine the circumstances in which LGBTQ people would seek assistance from the police, when they would avoid doing so, and their justifications for avoiding or contacting the police. I also considered intersectionality in shaping police–citizen interactions between sexual and/or gender minority citizens of color, as the sample was almost exclusively LGBTQ persons of color. I conclude by discussing implications for policing practices and policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policing Vulnerable People: Police Practice, Policy, and Engagement)
Open AccessArticle
The Sociology of Prayer: Dimensions and Mechanisms
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010015 - 10 Jan 2021
Viewed by 857
Abstract
The sociology of prayer has a long history and routinely stresses the centrality of prayer to religious belief and ritual solidarity. Still, we have struggled to clearly define the parameters of prayer and the various components of this ubiquitous practice. Drawing from a [...] Read more.
The sociology of prayer has a long history and routinely stresses the centrality of prayer to religious belief and ritual solidarity. Still, we have struggled to clearly define the parameters of prayer and the various components of this ubiquitous practice. Drawing from a comprehensive literature review of prayer research, we propose that there are four conceptually distinct dimensions of the private prayer experience which vary across religious cultures and traditions; they are (1) the quantity of prayer, (2) the style of prayer, (3) the purpose of prayer, and (4) prayer targets. Our proposed measures of these dimensions offer researchers a framework to better theorize and investigate the social mechanisms which produce variation in prayer as well as the individual and social outcomes of prayer. In particular, we discuss how each prayer dimension fits within specific theoretical framings to better test the extent to which the emotional, rational, and behavioral elements matter to prayer outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Maintaining Social Distancing during the COVID-19 Outbreak
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010014 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 2840
Abstract
The analyses of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and an increasing amount of scientific research show that the spread of SARS-CoV-2 may be limited by maintaining social distancing, appropriate hand hygiene, and following the basic principles of prophylaxis. While simulating [...] Read more.
The analyses of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and an increasing amount of scientific research show that the spread of SARS-CoV-2 may be limited by maintaining social distancing, appropriate hand hygiene, and following the basic principles of prophylaxis. While simulating models applied to social distancing have all been tested and evaluated, the implementation of its guidelines in different traditions and cultures has not been discussed sufficiently. Consequently, applying social distancing guidelines alone may not be enough to contain the spread of the coronavirus. This brief report aims to clarify the role of cultural and behavioral differences in the diverse outcomes of COVID-19 management. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sex Workers’ Access to Police Assistance in Safety Emergencies and Means of Escape from Situations of Violence and Confinement under an “End Demand” Criminalization Model: A Five City Study in Canada
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010013 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
There is limited available evidence on sex workers (SW) ability to access police protection or means of escaping situations of violence and confinement under an “end demand” criminalization model. Of 200 SW in five cities in Canada, 62 (31.0%) reported being unable to [...] Read more.
There is limited available evidence on sex workers (SW) ability to access police protection or means of escaping situations of violence and confinement under an “end demand” criminalization model. Of 200 SW in five cities in Canada, 62 (31.0%) reported being unable to call 911 if they or another SW were in a safety emergency due to fear of police detection (of themselves, their colleagues or their management). In multivariate logistic regression, police harassment–linked to social and racial profiling in the past 12 months (being carded or asked for ID documents, followed by police or detained without arrest) (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR): 5.225, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.199–12.417), being Indigenous (AOR: 2.078, 95% CI: 0.849–5.084) or being in Ottawa (AOR: 2.317, 95% CI: 0.865–6.209) were associated with higher odds of being unable to call 911, while older age was associated with lower odds (AOR: 0.941 per year older, 95% CI: 0.901–0.982). In descriptive statistics, of 115 SW who had experienced violence or confinement at work in the past 12 months, 19 (16.52%) reported the incident to police. Other sex workers with shared expenses were the most commonly reported group to have assisted sex workers to escape situations of violence or confinement in the past 12 months (n = 13, 35.14%). One of the least commonly reported groups to have assisted sex workers to escape situations of violence or confinement in the past 12 months were police (n = 2, 5.41%). The findings of this study illustrate how the current “end demand” criminalization framework compromises sex workers’ access to assistance in safety emergencies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Can Digital Technology Bridge the Classroom Engagement Gap? Findings from a Qualitative Study of K-8 Classrooms in 10 Ontario School Boards
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010012 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 928
Abstract
This study examined impacts of digital technology on a key component of the socioeconomic gap in education—gaps in student classroom engagement. Whereas print literacy has long been a source of such gaps, newer “digital divide” theories claim classrooms that use digital technology are [...] Read more.
This study examined impacts of digital technology on a key component of the socioeconomic gap in education—gaps in student classroom engagement. Whereas print literacy has long been a source of such gaps, newer “digital divide” theories claim classrooms that use digital technology are perpetuating them further. However, these claims are not grounded in close empirical observation and may now already be dated. We aimed to advance understandings of the impact of digital technology on student engagement by examining robotics, tablets, and smart board usage across a range of classrooms, using a conceptual framework that blends theories of interaction ritual chains (IRC) and cultural capital (CC). Data came from observations and interviews with teachers and students in K-8 classrooms across 10 Ontario school boards. We report three major findings. First, almost all students across socioeconomic strata engaged easily and enthusiastically with digital technology. Second, technology spawned new classroom rituals and cultural valuations. Third, digital technology provided connections between school dictates and students’ peer-based and home lives. We argue that digital technology has the potential to narrow classroom engagement gaps that are generated by conventional print media. We end by discussing avenues for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Schooling)
Open AccessArticle
Subject-Specific Self-Concept and Global Self-Esteem Mediate Risk Factors for Lower Competency in Mathematics and Reading
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010011 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Self-concept and self-esteem are strongly tied to both academic achievement and risk factors for lower academic achievement. The German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) provides large-scale representative longitudinal data for mathematics, reasoning as well as risk factors, self-concept and self-esteem. Based on measurements [...] Read more.
Self-concept and self-esteem are strongly tied to both academic achievement and risk factors for lower academic achievement. The German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) provides large-scale representative longitudinal data for mathematics, reasoning as well as risk factors, self-concept and self-esteem. Based on measurements in grades five to nine, this paper produces theory-based partially mediated latent growth models with multiple indicators and mediators. This includes the predictors of special education needs (SEN) status, socioeconomic status (SES), reasoning ability, gender, and school track, with both global self-esteem and subject-specific self-concept as mediators. Significant mediatory relationships are found for SEN, gender, reasoning ability, and school track on grade 5 math and reading competence, but neither direct nor mediated effects on rate of change were found. Implications for researchers and educators are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Politics, Power, and Influence: Defense Industries in the Post-Cold War
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010010 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 786
Abstract
The post-Cold War era is placing the defense industry at a crossroads. If, on the one hand, it is under great pressure to guarantee warlike efforts around the world, with tight budgets and uncertain lead-times, on the other hand, it is seen as [...] Read more.
The post-Cold War era is placing the defense industry at a crossroads. If, on the one hand, it is under great pressure to guarantee warlike efforts around the world, with tight budgets and uncertain lead-times, on the other hand, it is seen as a central instrument for national sovereignty and foreign policy. The purpose of this research is to report the state-of-the-art of the existing literature and explore the most relevant research areas in order to provide the conceptual basis for further empirical research. To do so, this study uses a preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA), which is an adequate technique as it allows one to discover concepts, ideas, and debates about the defense industry. The results evidenced three different approaches to the defense industry—integration, autarky, and domination. In that regard, we present several case studies in which the defense industry is used as an instrument of foreign policy or national sovereignty. Future studies may focus on empirical research to validate the theoretical findings or to identify variables that lead some defense industries to seek synergies, resorting to mergers and acquisitions, while other defense companies prefer to obtain State funds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Do Work–Life Measures Really Matter? The Impact of Flexible Working Hours and Home-Based Teleworking in Preventing Voluntary Employee Exits
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010009 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of work–life measures, which are designed to contribute to job quality and help reconcile employees’ work and personal lives. In our study, we asked whether such measures can also work as inducements to prevent employees from voluntarily [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of work–life measures, which are designed to contribute to job quality and help reconcile employees’ work and personal lives. In our study, we asked whether such measures can also work as inducements to prevent employees from voluntarily leaving a firm. We considered flexible working hours and home-based teleworking as flexibility measures that are potentially attractive to all employees. To address the possible bias caused by sketchy implementation and their actual selective use, we chose to examine employees’ perceptions of the offer of these measures. We investigated the moderation of the effect by organizational culture and supervisor and coworker support. We controlled for several indicators of job quality, such as job satisfaction and perceived fairness, to isolate specific ways in which work–life measures contributed to voluntary employee exit, and checked for a selective attractiveness of work–life measures to parents and women as the main caregivers. Using a three-wave panel employer–employee survey, we estimated multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models for 5452 employees at 127 large German establishments. Our results confirmed that both types of flexibility measures were associated with a lower probability of voluntarily exit. This applied more to men than to women, and the probability was reduced by a demanding organizational culture. Both measures seemed not to be specifically designed to accommodate main caregivers but were attractive to the whole workforce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender, Work-Family Interface and Organizational Action)
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Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurial Behavior of SMEs and Characteristics of the Managers of Northwest Mexico
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010008 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 823
Abstract
The objective of this study is to determine the difference in the entrepreneurial behavior of companies based on the demographic characteristics of their manager or leader. To comply with the above, a quantitative, transversal, and non-experimental research study was carried out, which consisted [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to determine the difference in the entrepreneurial behavior of companies based on the demographic characteristics of their manager or leader. To comply with the above, a quantitative, transversal, and non-experimental research study was carried out, which consisted in applying an instrument to 262 managers of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in a northern city in Mexico. The collected information was analyzed in the software SPSS, version 26, with statistical testing by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The main findings show that these companies have differences in their entrepreneurial behavior based on the age and educational level of their managers, while gender and seniority at work are not differentiating elements in relation to the above. This research generates different possibilities of studies to be carried out in large companies from other sectors, and suggests the inclusion of behavioral characteristics as study variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender, Work-Family Interface and Organizational Action)
Open AccessArticle
Simulation in Social Work: Creativity of Students and Faculty during COVID-19
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010007 - 03 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Simulation learning plays an important role in social work education, allowing students to explore how theory and practice parameters can be integrated into actual situations they are likely to experience in the field. The arrival of COVID-19 and the sudden cessation of in-field [...] Read more.
Simulation learning plays an important role in social work education, allowing students to explore how theory and practice parameters can be integrated into actual situations they are likely to experience in the field. The arrival of COVID-19 and the sudden cessation of in-field practicum opportunities raised challenges for students to gain needed practice experience. Simulation offers an opportunity to enhance learning in place of some direct experience when that is not available. This paper reports on a simulation development practicum, where students, not able to be in an agency, sought out ways to achieve learning through the development and implementation of simulation learning. This was combined with a literature review. Results showed that student-generated simulation could be used to support direct practice learning. This project also illustrated that social work simulation can be used to help students safely explore areas of practice that they may not be exposed to in practicum through scenarios that cause them to examine how to work with clients where cross-cultural needs exist, and challenge ethical dilemmas in a ‘real-world’ situation while being required to face their biases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Money, Agency, and Self-Care among Cisgender and Trans People in Sex Work
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010006 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Many qualitative studies about the exchange of sex for money, drugs, and less tangible outcomes (i.e., social status) contend that this activity contributes to high levels of internalized stigma among people in sex work. The cis (n = 33) and trans people (n [...] Read more.
Many qualitative studies about the exchange of sex for money, drugs, and less tangible outcomes (i.e., social status) contend that this activity contributes to high levels of internalized stigma among people in sex work. The cis (n = 33) and trans people (n = 5) who participated in our project about health, violence, and social services acknowledged the stigma associated with sex work but were not governed by the dominant discourse about its moral stain. They shared nuanced insights about the relationship between sex work and self-respect as people who use their earnings to mitigate the struggles of poverty and ongoing drug use, and care for themselves more broadly. This study sheds new light on the ways that cis and trans people negotiate issues of money, agency, and self-care, contributing to the literature on consensual sex work that examines different aspects of stigma, safety, and health with a nuanced, non-binary gender analysis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sports under Quarantine: A Case Study of Major League Baseball in 2020
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010005 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
This case study entailed a Twitter content analysis to address the pandemic-delayed start to Major League Baseball (MLB) in the shortened 2020 season. This case study helps address the overarching objective to investigate how the sports world, especially fans, responded to MLB played [...] Read more.
This case study entailed a Twitter content analysis to address the pandemic-delayed start to Major League Baseball (MLB) in the shortened 2020 season. This case study helps address the overarching objective to investigate how the sports world, especially fans, responded to MLB played during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. The methods investigated the common themes and determined who used predetermined Twitter hashtags. We recorded how many times external links, photos, emojis, and the 30 MLB teams were mentioned in the 779 tweets obtained during 39 days of data retrieval. Results showed that the most common category of tweeted content concerned news reports. Comparable numbers of positive and negative responses to the start of the MLB season were recognized, with a fraction of tweets highlighting COVID-19 impacts on health and modification of play (e.g., cardboard fans). The majority of Twitter users were from media and layperson categories. More inferred males tweeted using the selected hashtags. In exploratory analyses, results indicated that 50.2% of the sample included a link or a photo, and 2.2% of the sample used an emoji. The three most mentioned teams were the Cardinals (N = 51), Marlins (N = 49), and the Yankees (N = 48). The results confirmed the value of social media analysis as a research approach and revealed patterns emerging during a unique pandemic sports and media era. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Applied Machine Learning in Social Sciences: Neural Networks and Crime Prediction
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010004 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 936
Abstract
This study proposes a crime prediction model according to communes (areas or districts in which the city of Buenos Aires is divided). For this, the Python programming language is used, due to its versatility and wide availability of libraries oriented to Machine Learning. [...] Read more.
This study proposes a crime prediction model according to communes (areas or districts in which the city of Buenos Aires is divided). For this, the Python programming language is used, due to its versatility and wide availability of libraries oriented to Machine Learning. The crimes reported (period 2016–2019) that occurred in the city of Buenos Aires selected to test the model are: homicides, theft, injuries, and robberies. With this, it is possible to generate a crime prediction model according to the city area based on the SEMMA (Sample, Explore, Modify, Model, and Assess) model and after data manipulation, standardization and cleaning; clustering is performed using K-means and subsequently the neural network is generated. For prediction, it is necessary to provide the model with the information corresponding to the predictive characteristics (predict); these characteristics being according to the developed neural network model: year, month, day, time zone, commune, and type of crime. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Brothels as Sites of Third-Party Exploitation? Decriminalisation and Sex Workers’ Employment Rights
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010003 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 962
Abstract
Decriminalisation is arguably essential to protecting the human rights of sex workers. Nonetheless, there are suggestions that decriminalisation has less influence on sex workers’ experiences of working than many assume. This paper explores management practices in brothels in the context of decriminalisation in [...] Read more.
Decriminalisation is arguably essential to protecting the human rights of sex workers. Nonetheless, there are suggestions that decriminalisation has less influence on sex workers’ experiences of working than many assume. This paper explores management practices in brothels in the context of decriminalisation in New Zealand, focusing on sex workers’ employment status, managerial control and agency. We interviewed 14 brothel operators and 17 brothel-based sex workers in this study. The findings suggest that there remain challenges for sex workers in that brothel operators treated them as employees rather than independent contractors. Brothel operators retained control over shift times and pricing of services, and working conditions were unclear. Most sex workers understood their rights, but when operators impinged on their rights, it was often more expedient to move place of work than make an official complaint. However, decriminalisation did have a meaningful impact on the way sex workers negotiated potentially exploitative dimensions of brothel-based work. Decriminalisation has provided the context where it is possible for sex workers to experience safer and more supportive work environments than they otherwise might, where they can (and sometimes do) contest managerial control. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sex Work, Essential Work: A Historical and (Necro)Political Analysis of Sex Work in Times of COVID-19 in Brazil
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010002 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Brazil has made international headlines for the government’s inept and irresponsible response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, sex worker activists have once again taken on an essential role in responding to the pandemic amidst State absences and abuses. Drawing on the [...] Read more.
Brazil has made international headlines for the government’s inept and irresponsible response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, sex worker activists have once again taken on an essential role in responding to the pandemic amidst State absences and abuses. Drawing on the theoretical framework of necropolitics, we trace the gendered, sexualized, and racialized dimensions of how prostitution and work have been (un)governed in Brazil and how this has framed sex worker activists’ responses to COVID-19. As a group of scholars and sex worker activists based in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, we specifically explore the idea of sex workers as “essential workers”, but also of sex work as, essentially, work, demonstrating complicities, differences, and congruencies in how sex workers see what they do and who their allies in the context of the 21st century’s greatest health crisis to date. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reactions of Prison Staff to the Needs of Culturally Different Convicts
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 914
Abstract
This article presents trends in penitentiary work with convicts of different cultures and focuses on their activation, individualization of work, and organizational difficulties. The purpose of this research was to discover the ways in which prison staff react to situations requiring flexibility justified [...] Read more.
This article presents trends in penitentiary work with convicts of different cultures and focuses on their activation, individualization of work, and organizational difficulties. The purpose of this research was to discover the ways in which prison staff react to situations requiring flexibility justified by cultural differences of some inmates. The research questions included the following: How do prison staff respond to the needs of culturally different inmates? How do the respondents’ reactions correlate with professional experience? Based on the literature, a hypothesis was established that prison staff avoid individualized treatment of convicted foreigners. Despite the perceived differences in culture and religion, and their different mentality, prison procedures aim for uniformity. Tendencies towards resistance and stiffness to the needs of culturally different people become prevailing. The research method used included a diagnostic survey (n = 232, F: 40, M: 192) conducted with prison officers in Poland. A written interview technique was used, where the respondents reacted to 3 situations involving convicts, reflecting their national, religious, and cultural distinctiveness. In their responses, the respondents decided on their method of action in the situation as well as their motivation. Operationalization of the source material was performed in two ways. The content analysis method was applied according to the grounded theory (B.G. Glaser, A.L. Strauss), resulting in the creation of categories marking actions and motives. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) of the built categories using the Statistica program as well as a correlation analysis of variables with Cramer’s V coefficient were carried out. The results of the analysis show statistically created, indicated manners of reacting that occurred in the studied sample. Additionally, they point out an independent variable—seniority—which correlated with the quality of the response. Full article
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