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Article

Winning the War against Multi-Drug Resistant Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria

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Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Agulu, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka 420108, Nigeria
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Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Agulu, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka 420108, Nigeria
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Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu 400102, Nigeria
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Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin-City 300271 Edo State, Nigeria
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Department of Pediatrics, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Awka 420108, Anambra State, Nigeria
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Winston Salem State University, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA
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Department of Biology and Clinical Laboratory Science, Division of Arts and Sciences, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, PA 19014-1298, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Natural Antimicrobials)
Drug-resistant-diarrhoeagenic bacteria are currently emerging healthcare challenge. This study investigated the effects of Vernonia amygdalina, Garcinia kola, tetracycline and metronidazole combinations on such bacteria. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the inhibitory effects of the herbal extracts on diarrhoeagenic bacteria while Time-Kill Assay was used to determine bactericidal effects of the extracts against test isolates. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were investigated using Checkerboard assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against the bacterial isolates ranged between 3.125–50 mg/mL, while those of tetracycline and metronidazole ranged from 30–50 μg/mL. Synergism was observed against B. cereus and S. aureus for metronidazole + aqueous G. kola at all ratios. Generally, the combinations aqueous G. kola + ethanolic G. kola and aqueous G. kola + ethanolic V. amygdalina showed more pronounced synergism against the Staphylococcus aureus than B. cereus isolates with the fractional inhibition concentration (FIC) indices ranging from 0.32–0.95. Synergism of tetracycline + crude extracts and metronidazole combinations were more pronounced on the test isolates and especially on the Gram-negative organisms with FIC indices ranging from 0.41–0.91. Conclusion: The herbal extracts combinations and extracts–antibiotics combinations are synergistic on diarrhoeagenic bacteria at defined combination ratios. View Full-Text
Keywords: Diarrhoeagenic bacteria; bitter leaf; Vernonia amygdalina; bitter kola; Garcinia kola; E. coli; B. cereus; S. aureus Diarrhoeagenic bacteria; bitter leaf; Vernonia amygdalina; bitter kola; Garcinia kola; E. coli; B. cereus; S. aureus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Enemchukwu, C.M.; Oli, A.N.; Okoye, E.I.; Ujam, N.T.; Osazuwa, E.O.; Emechebe, G.O.; Okeke, K.N.; Ifezulike, C.C.; Ejiofor, O.S.; Okoyeh, J.N. Winning the War against Multi-Drug Resistant Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 197. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms7070197

AMA Style

Enemchukwu CM, Oli AN, Okoye EI, Ujam NT, Osazuwa EO, Emechebe GO, Okeke KN, Ifezulike CC, Ejiofor OS, Okoyeh JN. Winning the War against Multi-Drug Resistant Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria. Microorganisms. 2019; 7(7):197. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms7070197

Chicago/Turabian Style

Enemchukwu, Chizoba M., Angus N. Oli, Ebere I. Okoye, Nonye T. Ujam, Emmanuel O. Osazuwa, George O. Emechebe, Kenneth N. Okeke, Christian C. Ifezulike, Obiora S. Ejiofor, and Jude N. Okoyeh 2019. "Winning the War against Multi-Drug Resistant Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria" Microorganisms 7, no. 7: 197. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms7070197

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