2. Overview of Natural Hazards in Western Saudi Arabia
2.1. Flash Floods
2.2. Earthquake Hazard
2.3. Volcanic Hazards
2.4. Tsunami Hazards in the Red Sea Area
3. Goals of this Study
- The detection of areas susceptible to the different natural hazards, due to their specific properties and local settings.
- The demonstration of adapted, standardized remote sensing and GIS tools for a regularly, continuously monitoring, allowing not only the documentation of single hazard events in Saudi Arabia, but also of seasonal changes and long-term developments, such as climate change. Operational working, earth observation satellites, such as Landsat, Sentinel 1 and 2 provide the necessary, regularly updated database free of charge. Commercial satellites as RapidEye (5 m spatial resolution) and PlanetScope (3 m spatial resolution) with high temporal coverage, in case of emergency available in only up to several hours, can be used for damage assessment in short time after a geohazard.An inventory of past geohazards is one of the main prerequisites for an objective hazard assessment, which includes both the spatial and the temporal aspects of the probability of natural hazard occurrence. Such an objective hazard assessment requires a multi-source, systematic record, including regular documentation of temporal information on an occurrence that cannot be derived from a historical inventory alone. The ability to undertake the assessment, monitoring and modeling can be improved to a considerable extent through the current advances in remote sensing and GIS technology.
- How these tools could serve as input into a standardized natural hazard database is demonstrated in the scope of this study by the following examples:
- Flash floods: Detection of areas prone to flash flood inundation, due to their geomorphologic disposition and monitoring of areas after flash flood events;
- Seismic hazards: Mapping of fault and fracture zones and of structural features (that might be of influence on seismic hazards) based on remote sensing data;
- Volcanism: Regular inventory of volcanic features and fault zones related to volcanic activity and change detection;
- Flooding hazards in coastal areas: Detection of areas prone to tsunami flooding, meteo-tsunamis, seiche waves and storm surge. Merging the knowledge of areas prone to natural hazard with infrastructural and socio-economic data and population information provides important input for mitigation measurements and disaster preparedness.
4. Materials and Methods
- Lineaments (as a neutral term for linear features without knowing precisely their origin);
- Probable fault zones; and
- Structural features.
5. Evaluation Results
5.1. Combined Evaluations of Optical Satellite Images and Satellite Radar Data for the Detection of Areas Prone to Flash Floods
5.2. Evaluation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Data
5.3. Structural, Tectonic Analysis of Satellite Images as Contribution to Seismic Research
5.4. Contribution of the GIS Integrated Evaluation of Satellite Data to the Monitoring of Volcanic Features
- The mapping of volcanic cinder cones;
- The mapping of visible fault zones and dikes in the area of cinder cone fields;
- The mapping of the most recent lava flow;
- The detection of traces of age differences and types of volcanic features based on erosional and weathering conditions and on the lithologic composition.
- Cinder cones with latest lava outbreak, intact lava sheets,
- dissolved and intersected lava sheets and lava inselbergs,
- lava fields with developed drainage system, and
- isolated volcanic features intersecting eolian and fluvial sediments,
5.5. Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS to the Detection of Factors Influencing Tsunami Hazard
Conflicts of Interest
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