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Volume 11, September

Behav. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this Swedish pilot study among beavered parents, the focus was on meaning-making coping from a cultural perspective. Two kinds of coping strategies were in focus: secular existential coping, and religious/spiritual coping. The sample size was 162. As the results show, religious coping methods were the lowest in the ranking of all reported coping methods. The most prevalent coping methods were clearly the secular existential ones. The most common method was talking to others about their feelings, followed by pondering the meaning of life alone and being in nature for greater emotional affiliation. The reason can be found in the strong dominance of secular culture in Swedish society and the fact that religion does not play an important role for the majority of Swedish people. View this paper
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Review
Dopamine, Serotonin, and Structure/Function Brain Defects as Biological Bases for Treatment Response in Delusional Disorder: A Systematic Review of Cases and Cohort Studies
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100141 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Although blockade of dopamine receptors D2 and D3 appears to be the main mechanism of antipsychotic action, treatment response variability calls for an examination of other biological systems. Our aim is to systematically review reports of treatment response in delusional disorder (DD) in [...] Read more.
Although blockade of dopamine receptors D2 and D3 appears to be the main mechanism of antipsychotic action, treatment response variability calls for an examination of other biological systems. Our aim is to systematically review reports of treatment response in delusional disorder (DD) in order to help determine its biological bases. Computerized searches of ClinicalTrials.gov, PubMed, and Scopus databases (from 1999 to September 2021) were systematically reviewed, in keeping with PRISMA directives. We used the search terms: (treat * OR therap * AND (delusional disorder)). We included all studies that explored the biological mechanisms of treatment response in DD, as diagnosed by ICD or DSM criteria. A total of 4344 records were initially retrieved, from which 14 papers were included: case reports, case series, and cohort studies. Findings point to (1) dopaminergic dysfunction (based on biochemical and genetic studies), (2) serotonergic dysfunction (based on partial agonism/antagonism of drugs), and (3) brain structure/function impairment, especially in the temporal and parietal lobes, as crucial factors in treatment response. Further studies with higher levels of evidence are needed to help clinicians determine treatment. Full article
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Review
Anxiety, Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Terrorist Attacks: A General Review of the Literature
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100140 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Terrorism, though not well-defined, is a violent act that has been shown to have longstanding effects on the mental health of those who witness it. The aim of this general literature review is to explore the effect that terrorism has on posttraumatic stress [...] Read more.
Terrorism, though not well-defined, is a violent act that has been shown to have longstanding effects on the mental health of those who witness it. The aim of this general literature review is to explore the effect that terrorism has on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders, as well as the bio-psycho-social determinants that mediate its impact. This paper describes the prevalence, risk factors, protective factors, common presentations and interventions identified for PTSD, depression and anxiety disorders occurring following terrorist attacks. We conducted a literature search in MEDLINE using a number of keywords detailed below. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, we kept 80 articles, which we summarized in tabular form. A majority of articles found detailed the impact of terrorism on PTSD, and took place in a Western, mainly American setting. The main factors that impacted the presentation of mental illness include gender, ethnicity, social supports, socioeconomic status, level of preparedness, level of exposure, pre-existing trauma and mental illness, and subsequent life stressors. The main intervention detailed in this article as showing evidence post-terrorism is trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy. This study highlights the importance of this topic, and in particular, its implications for public health policy and practice. Full article
Article
A Telephone-Adapted Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program: Preliminary Effects among Healthcare Employees
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100139 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Healthcare employees often experience high stress and may benefit from accessible psychosocial interventions. In this pilot study, we explored preliminary feasibility, acceptability, and psychological effects of a telephone-based adaption of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for healthcare employees. Eleven participants (M age = 49.9; [...] Read more.
Healthcare employees often experience high stress and may benefit from accessible psychosocial interventions. In this pilot study, we explored preliminary feasibility, acceptability, and psychological effects of a telephone-based adaption of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for healthcare employees. Eleven participants (M age = 49.9; 27.3% ethnic/racial minority) were enrolled in an eight-session group-based MBSR program adapted for telephone delivery. Feasibility was assessed using rates of program attrition and session completion; acceptability was explored qualitatively via participants’ responses to an open-ended item about their program experience. Participants also completed pre-and post-program assessments on psychosocial outcomes (distress (overall distress, depression, anxiety, somatization), mindfulness, and self-compassion). We characterized mean change scores, 95% confidence intervals, and effect sizes to explore preliminary program effects. With regard to preliminary feasibility, one participant dropped out prior to the intervention; of the remaining 10 participants, 90% completed at least half (≥4) of the sessions; 70% completed at least three-quarters (≥6 sessions). Feedback reflected positive experiences and included suggestions for program delivery. Participants reported reductions in distress post-program (M difference range = −5.0 to −9.4), showing medium to large effect sizes (d range = 0.68 to 1.11). Mindfulness scores increased from pre- to post-intervention (M difference range = 1.0 to 10.4), with small-to-medium effects (d range = 0.18 to 0.55). Almost all aspects of self-compassion remained stable over time, with the exception of common humanity, which increased post-program (M difference = 2.9, CI 95% 0.5 to 5.4, d = 0.91). Preliminary findings from our small pilot trial suggest that telephone-based adaptations of MBSR may be a useful mode of delivery for healthcare employees; however, larger studies are needed to provide further evidence of feasibility, acceptability, and program effects. Full article
Review
Psychiatric Disorders among the Military in West Africa: A Systematic Narrative Review
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100138 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 864
Abstract
(1) Background: Military combat impacts the mental health of veterans and active military personnel. Although various studies, the majority of which are from Westernized countries, have provided insight into how combat causes psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Military combat impacts the mental health of veterans and active military personnel. Although various studies, the majority of which are from Westernized countries, have provided insight into how combat causes psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety among veterans, there appears to be scant published literature on psychiatric disorders among military personnel in the West African region. It is important to contextually understand the psychiatric disorders among military personnel in this region who may be faced with similar vulnerabilities to their counterparts from Western cultures. (2) Methods: This study follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were included if they were published in English between January 2010 and January 2021 and assessed mental health problems or psychiatric disorders among soldiers in West Africa. (3) Results: All three included studies were from Nigeria. High prevalence rates of substance and alcohol use were reported. (4) Conclusions: This review highlights the need for more research in this population as well as identifying the intervention needs of the soldiers and their implications. Full article
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Article
Cross-Cultural Comparison of Relationships between Empathy and Implicit Theories of Emotions (in Chinese and Russians)
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100137 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
The current manuscript presents the results of a cross-cultural comparison of the relationships between empathy and implicit theories of emotion in individuals from China and Russia. We hypothesized that the members of the Chinese culture would differ from the more Western Russian participants [...] Read more.
The current manuscript presents the results of a cross-cultural comparison of the relationships between empathy and implicit theories of emotion in individuals from China and Russia. We hypothesized that the members of the Chinese culture would differ from the more Western Russian participants in terms of relationships between the various components of the emotional domain. Thus, we aimed to identify latent personality profiles while hypothesizing that the Chinese sample would demonstrate more prominent links between empathy and implicit theories regarding the possibility of controlling emotions. We also assumed that immediate social context could affect the results, and therefore, we compare two groups of Chinese participants—those living in China and those living in Russia, predominantly studying in Russian universities. The initial sample included Russians (N = 523), Chinese living in Russia (N = 376), and Chinese living in China (N = 423). However, following matching procedures to enable the sociodemographic comparability of samples, the final comparison was reduced to a final sample of Russians (N = 400), a sample of Chinese living in Russia (N = 363), and a sample of Chinese living in China (N = 421). We used latent class analysis and correlation analyses to test the study hypotheses. The study found that, unlike Russians, the Chinese participants demonstrated a positive correlation between incremental implicit theories of emotions and empathy. We also established significant group and gender differences. Russian women reported higher affective empathy than men, whereas Chinese women demonstrated higher affective empathy and cognitive empathy, as well as incremental implicit theories of emotion. Full article
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Article
The Association of Job and Family Resources and Demands with Life Satisfaction through Work–Family Balance: A Longitudinal Study among Italian Schoolteachers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100136 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Successfully balancing between work and family domains represents a major issue to both employees and employers, especially during COVID-19 pandemic times during which employees are often forced to work from a distance and turn to home-schooling. An occupational group particularly affected by work [...] Read more.
Successfully balancing between work and family domains represents a major issue to both employees and employers, especially during COVID-19 pandemic times during which employees are often forced to work from a distance and turn to home-schooling. An occupational group particularly affected by work changes due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions is represented by schoolteachers. We aimed at examining the associations between some job-related and family-related antecedents on the one hand and, on the other, life satisfaction as an outcome, including work–family balance as a mediator. A total of 357 Italian teachers completed a questionnaire at two different times: job control, coworkers support, supervisor support, workload, family support, and family workload were assessed at Time 1; and work–family balance and life satisfaction were assessed at Time 2. Both data collections were performed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The hypothesized direct and indirect relationships were tested by utilizing structural equation modeling. Significant and positive indirect effects of focal predictors towards life satisfaction through work–family balance were found for job control, supervisor support, and family support. The paper contributed to the literature by testing Grzywacz and Carlson’s theoretical conceptualization of work–family balance and by attempting to delineate its repertoire of potential antecedents among schoolteachers. From a practical point of view, the present study emphasizes the crucial role that certain job antecedents and family antecedents play in promoting teachers’ work–family balance and life satisfaction. Full article
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Article
Experiences of Female Breast Cancer Survivors Concerning Their Return to Work in Spain
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100135 - 02 Oct 2021
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the experiences of returning to work of women who had overcome breast cancer, identifying its physical and psychological consequences, the process they underwent, their motivations, and difficulties. A total of 19 female breast cancer survivors, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze the experiences of returning to work of women who had overcome breast cancer, identifying its physical and psychological consequences, the process they underwent, their motivations, and difficulties. A total of 19 female breast cancer survivors, with an age range of 30 to 57 years, participated in two focus groups. A semi-structured script was prepared about their experiences of returning to work. The results indicated that survivors’ self-perception was weakened by the physical and psychological consequences of the treatment of the disease; economic difficulties were one of the main reasons for going back to work; lastly, returning to work was a difficult process, mainly because of their physical/psychological limitations, the scarcity of job adaptation measures, and the limited support of the various public administrations. In addition, most of the women had to cope with seeking a new job without any guidance or job training. Significant difficulties related to the maintenance and return to work of female breast cancer survivors have been revealed. Findings highlighted the need to provide more and better information and guidance to cancer patients concerning their return to work or the search for a new job. Full article
Article
Bullying Prevalence among Secondary School Children in Khamis Mushait City, Southwestern Saudi Arabia
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100134 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Bullying is a type of behavior that involves frequent, hostile activities expected to harm another person physically, mentally, or emotionally. Bullying behavior uses force, pressure, or threats to maltreat, forcefully dominate, or terrify another individual. The aim of this study was to assess [...] Read more.
Bullying is a type of behavior that involves frequent, hostile activities expected to harm another person physically, mentally, or emotionally. Bullying behavior uses force, pressure, or threats to maltreat, forcefully dominate, or terrify another individual. The aim of this study was to assess the bullying prevalence and related features among secondary school pupils in Khamis Mushait city, southwestern Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional investigation was performed among governmental and private secondary schools in Khamis Mushait city. Data were gathered from the study pupils using a pre-structured questionnaire. Bullying was assessed using the school climate bullying survey. The study included 300 secondary school students (163 females and 137 males). The overall rate of bullying was 64.7% (95% CI 59.1–69.9). The most prevalent type of bullying was verbal (41.7%, 95% CI 36.0–47.5) followed by physical (17.0%, 95% CI 12.9–21.7), and social (6.0%, 95% CI 3.6–9.3). Males had more than two times greater probability of having been bullied than females (aOR = 2.522, 95% CI 1.408–4.518). Similarly, students in first-level grade classes had more than three times greater probability of being bullied victims than those in the higher classes, i.e., second- and third-level grade classes (aOR = 3.417, 95% CI 1.159–10.07). More than half of the students tell teachers when other students are being bullied (53.7%) and tell a teacher or staff member at the school if they are being harassed (53.6%); teachers are doing anything they can to help if they are told that a student is being bothered (58.7%), and teachers are making clear to students that bullying is not tolerated (52.3%). In conclusion, in the present study, we reported a high prevalence rate of bullying among secondary school pupils in Khamis Mushait city, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Concerted efforts among teachers and health care providers in the region should be mandatory to deal with the problem. Full article
Review
Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention in Individuals with Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100133 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Objectives: This systematic review aimed to understand the current state of the art about the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) on individuals with substance use disorders (SUD), taking into account not only SUD variables (e.g., cravings, frequency of use) but also other [...] Read more.
Objectives: This systematic review aimed to understand the current state of the art about the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) on individuals with substance use disorders (SUD), taking into account not only SUD variables (e.g., cravings, frequency of use) but also other relevant clinical variables (e.g., anxiety and depressive symptoms, quality of life). Methods: A comprehensive search of electronic databases was conducted to identify studies that investigate MBRP interventions on individuals with SUD. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed using systematic review methods. Results: Thirteen studies were included in the present review. The methodological quality of the included studies was moderately strong. Nine studies (69.2%) used the traditional 16 h MBRP program. Six studies (46.1%) chose to use a co-intervention treatment ranging from the treatment as usual (TAU) to cognitive behavioral therapy. All but one study indicated that their interventions produced positive effects on at least one addiction outcome measure. None of the interventions were evaluated across different settings or populations. Conclusions: Despite some heterogeneity regarding the type of MBRP program used, results support the effectiveness of these interventions in the SUD population, especially in reducing cravings, decreasing the frequency of use, and improving depressive symptoms. Full article
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Article
Saudi Women and Vision 2030: Bridging the Gap?
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100132 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 759
Abstract
(1) Background, Travel characteristics of Saudi women contrast significantly from those in the west. This is not only because they have different culture, attitudes and preferences but also until recently, Saudi women were not allowed to drive. In 2018, they were granted the [...] Read more.
(1) Background, Travel characteristics of Saudi women contrast significantly from those in the west. This is not only because they have different culture, attitudes and preferences but also until recently, Saudi women were not allowed to drive. In 2018, they were granted the right to drive. It has been anticipated that enabling women to drive will improve their mobility and employability. (2) Methods: This study presents a qualitative study into factors affecting Saudi women’s travel decisions “before” and “after” enabling women to drive in the Kingdom. Two six “before” and “after” focus groups have been carried out to investigate the decision-making process associated with Saudi women’s travel, available options of travel and perception of Saudi women towards private car driving. (3) Results: The results reveal that main travelling options for professional and high-income women is a private driver in the “before” scenario and a ride-share option with a family member. In the “after” scenario, high income professional women prefer “drive own car” option. Moreover, many of the participants indicated that it is likely that they might keep private drivers as well. (4) Conclusion. The results from this research indicate that there has been significant change in travel characteristics, attitudes and behaviour of Saudi women since they were granted the right to drive. This is likely to have significant implications for decision and policy makers. Further research into potential impacts of the current situation on car ownership and use, impacts on public transport system, environmental impacts and sustainability is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Crash Injury and Driver Behavior)
Article
Meaning-Making Coping Methods among Bereaved Parents: A Pilot Survey Study in Sweden
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100131 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 805
Abstract
The death of a child may result in traumatizing forms of grief, and meaning-making coping with loss seems to be important in prevention of intense psychosocial problems among bereaved parents. The aim of this quantitative pilot study was to discover the divergent meaning-making [...] Read more.
The death of a child may result in traumatizing forms of grief, and meaning-making coping with loss seems to be important in prevention of intense psychosocial problems among bereaved parents. The aim of this quantitative pilot study was to discover the divergent meaning-making coping methods used by bereaved parents in Sweden. In doing so, 162 respondents were selected using a convenience sampling method, and they responded to the modified version of RCOPE. The study revealed that the strategies talking to others about their feelings, pondering the meaning of life alone, and being in nature for greater emotional affiliation, i.e., what we call secular existential coping methods, have been the most used meaning-making coping methods among Swedish mourning parents. While explaining the results, we considered the respondents’ cultural background and speculated about the potential influence of cultural teachings and elements in the selection of ways of coping with bereavement. Further, we compared the results obtained with those of the two other Swedish studies conducted among people coping with cancer and COVID-19 to further discuss the impact of culture on coping with illness, loss, grief, and crisis. The study supports the idea that culture plays an essential role in the choice of coping methods. Full article
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Review
What Do We Know about Theory of Mind Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease?
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100130 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Theory of mind (ToM) is a social cognitive skill that involves the ability to attribute mental states to self and others (what they think (cognitive ToM) and feel (affective ToM)). We aim to provide an overview of previous knowledge of ToM in Parkinson’s [...] Read more.
Theory of mind (ToM) is a social cognitive skill that involves the ability to attribute mental states to self and others (what they think (cognitive ToM) and feel (affective ToM)). We aim to provide an overview of previous knowledge of ToM in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the last few years more attention has been paid to the study of this construct as a non-motor manifestation of PD. In advanced stages, both components of ToM (cognitive and affective) are commonly impaired, although in early PD results remain controversial. Executive dysfunction correlates with ToM deficits and other cognitive domains such as language and visuospatial function have also been related to ToM. Recent studies have demonstrated that PD patients with mild cognitive impairment show ToM deficits more frequently in comparison with cognitively normal PD patients. In addition to the heterogeneity of ToM tests administered in different studies, depression and dopaminergic medication may also be acting as confounding factors, but there are still insufficient data to support this. Neuroimaging studies conducted to understand the underlying networks of cognitive and affective ToM deficits in PD are lacking. The study of ToM deficit in PD continues to be important, as this may worsen quality of life and favor social stigma. Future studies should be considered, including assessment of the patients’ cognitive state, associated mood disorders, and the role of dopaminergic deficit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parkinson’s Disease and Cognition)
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Article
Physiological and Behavioral Benefits for People and Horses during Guided Interactions at an Assisted Living Residence
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100129 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Assisted living is a fast-growing living option for seniors who require residence-based activities for maintaining mental and physical health. Guided equine interactions may benefit seniors, so an on-site equine program was started at Hacienda at the River senior living community. For research purposes, [...] Read more.
Assisted living is a fast-growing living option for seniors who require residence-based activities for maintaining mental and physical health. Guided equine interactions may benefit seniors, so an on-site equine program was started at Hacienda at the River senior living community. For research purposes, twenty-four residents and associates, aged fifty-five or over, consented to physiological measurements before, during and after four guided sessions of stroking one of three horses for 10 min over 4–6 weeks. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured simultaneously in humans and horses during interactions. We hypothesized that human heart rate (HR) and HRV would increase during stroking and HRV power would shift toward the very low frequency (VLF) range common in horses, indicative of healthy function. During stroking, human HR increased (p < 0.05) but HRV (SDRR) and %VLF of HRV power did not change. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), an exploratory measure, significantly increased after stroking, consistent with arousal. Two horses showed no significant changes in HR or HRV, but one relaxed. Sixteen horse–human pairs demonstrated synchronized HRV peak frequencies during sessions, suggestive of social connection. Participants used more positive than negative words describing their experience during exit interviews (p < 0.05). These data show that horses animate seniors without causing emotional stress and provide opportunities for social bonding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
Inhibitory Performance in Smokers Relative to Nonsmokers When Exposed to Neutral, Smoking- and Money-Related Pictures
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100128 - 22 Sep 2021
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Introduction: Smoking is associated with significant negative health consequences. It has been suggested that deficient inhibitory control may be implicated in (nicotine) addiction, but its exact role has not yet been elucidated. In the current study, our aim was to investigate the role [...] Read more.
Introduction: Smoking is associated with significant negative health consequences. It has been suggested that deficient inhibitory control may be implicated in (nicotine) addiction, but its exact role has not yet been elucidated. In the current study, our aim was to investigate the role of inhibitory control in relation to nicotine addiction in contexts that differ in terms of reward. Methods: Participants filled out questionnaires and performed a go/no-go task with three conditions. In one condition, the stimuli were neutral color squares, and in the reward conditions, these were smoking-related pictures and money-related pictures, respectively. In total, 43 non-abstinent individuals that smoke and 35 individuals that do not smoke were included in the sample. Results: The main results showed that individuals that smoke, relative to individuals that do not smoke, had reduced inhibitory control in both reward contexts, relative to a neutral context. The reductions in inhibitory control were mirrored by speeded responses. Conclusions: Individuals that smoke seem to present with reduced inhibitory control, which is most pronounced in contexts of reward. Consistent with incentive sensitization theory, the reduced inhibitory control may be (at least partly) due to the heightened approach bias to reward-related stimuli as indicated by the speeded responses. Full article
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Article
Three Needs and Information Anxiety on Knowledge Purchase Intentions across Online Knowledge Platforms
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11100127 - 22 Sep 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Given the recent advances in technology, knowledge-based products have become increasingly prevalent. Many companies offer interdisciplinary resources for incumbent learners to break through chronological and geographical constraints. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors that motivate learners to pay for knowledge-based products. [...] Read more.
Given the recent advances in technology, knowledge-based products have become increasingly prevalent. Many companies offer interdisciplinary resources for incumbent learners to break through chronological and geographical constraints. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors that motivate learners to pay for knowledge-based products. The purpose of this research was to identify the relevant factors that contribute to purchasing intentions and to clarify the reasons why people purchase knowledge-based products. This study involved 406 valid participants over 20 years of age with knowledge purchase experience. The results demonstrated that incumbent learners’ need for affiliation has a positive effect on involvement, and that involvement has a significant positive impact on knowledge purchase intentions. The key factor influencing learners to pay for knowledge-based products is their involvement in learning. Information anxiety interferes with the relationship between involvement and knowledge purchase intentions. However, no linear relationship was found between cognitive styles and involvement. Field-dependent learners show greater involvement and also information anxiety than field-independent learners. The research offers suggestions for practical use and future research from the perspective of knowledge-product marketing. Full article
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