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Behav. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Korea’s suicide rate has increased in recent years, becoming the leading cause of death among youth. Nationally representative data of Korean middle school students were used to identify mental health profiles by examining suicidal ideation, depression, and social anxiety and the prediction effect of somatic symptoms within these profiles. Somatic complaints are reported more often than mental health concerns in Korea, where somatic complaints are likely indicative of mental health worries. Results showed that all studied somatic symptoms predicted each profile group, with sleep disturbance serving as the strongest predictor for suicide risk. It is encouraged for educators and mental health professionals to identify and recognize somatic complaints as potentially representative of mental health concerns and suicidality risk within youth. View this paper
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Article
Teachers’ Irrational Belief Scale: Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version and Measurement Invariance across Genders
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110160 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Irrationality refers to human thoughts and beliefs that signify lack of rationality and entail erroneous perceptions about situational, personal, or collective idiosyncrasies, while it is independent of one’s intellectual ability. Irrational beliefs are ubiquitous in all social and cultural groups and attract a [...] Read more.
Irrationality refers to human thoughts and beliefs that signify lack of rationality and entail erroneous perceptions about situational, personal, or collective idiosyncrasies, while it is independent of one’s intellectual ability. Irrational beliefs are ubiquitous in all social and cultural groups and attract a special interest in behavioral sciences, where the primary concern is the development of instruments for identifying and measuring them. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of Greek version of Teachers’ Irrational Belief Scale (TIBS-G), a 25-item self-reported instrument using data collected from 835 participants. The exploratory procedure, implementing scree plot with parallel analysis, demonstrated the dimensionality of four factors, namely: Self-downing (SD), Authoritarianism (A), Demands for Justice (DJ), and Low Frustration Tolerance (LT). The corresponding reliability measures using Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega were ranged between 0.70 and 0.80. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analysis showed an adequate fit of the measurement model [χ2 = 579.98, df = 183, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.960; TLI = 0.956; RMSEA = 0.051]. In addition, measurement invariance was performed, which demonstrated differences between genders. Finally, discussion on the importance of irrational beliefs and the possible implementation of the TIBS instrument in educational research is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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Article
Football as an Alternative to Work on the Development of Social Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder with Level 1
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110159 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Given the characteristics of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder, it is evident the difficulties they show in the development of social skills. The scarce participation of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder in group sports can be taken as a reference. The aim of [...] Read more.
Given the characteristics of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder, it is evident the difficulties they show in the development of social skills. The scarce participation of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder in group sports can be taken as a reference. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of football on the development of social skills in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. In order to measure the sporting impact, it was necessary to implement a football training programme with the intention of evaluating different social skills. Thirteen children participated in the programme, all of them with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and with a severity level of 1. The study was based on a pre-experimental, pre-test/post-test design. Non-parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, applying the Wilcoxon test. Two specific tools on social skills were used for data collection. The results showed a generalised improvement in the dimensions linked to the social skills assessed. This highlights the possibility of considering group sport as an alternative to be taken into account to work on and enhance social skills in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Full article
Article
The Nature of Anti-Asian American Xenophobia during the Coronavirus Pandemic: A Preliminary Exploration into Envy as a Key Motivator of Hate
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110158 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Background. The current Coronavirus pandemic has been linked to a dramatic increase in anti-Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) hate incidents in the United States. At the time of writing, there does not appear to be any published empirical research examining the [...] Read more.
Background. The current Coronavirus pandemic has been linked to a dramatic increase in anti-Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) hate incidents in the United States. At the time of writing, there does not appear to be any published empirical research examining the mechanisms underlying Asiaphobia during the current pandemic. Based on the stereotype content model, we investigated the idea that ambivalent attitudes toward AAPIs, marked primarily with envy, may be contributing to anti-AAPI xenophobia. Methods. Study 1 (N = 140) explored, through a survey, the link between envious stereotypes toward AAPIs and Asiaphobia. Study 2 (N = 167), utilizing autobiographical recall tasks, experimentally induced the affect of envy in order to establish causality between feelings of envy toward AAPIs and Asiaphobia. Results. In Study 1, envious stereotypes toward AAPIs were found to be predictive of Asiaphobia and, in Study 2, the inducement of envy led to heightened levels of Asiaphobia. Conclusions. The current research provides support for the proposition that, consistent with the stereotype content model, stereotypes and attitudes toward AAPIs marked with ambivalent and envious views, consisting of a mix of perceived competence and lack of “human warmth,” may be fueling Asiaphobia. Implications for potential applications and future research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
Technological Devices and Their Effect on Preschool Children’s Eating Habits in Communities of Mixed Socioeconomic Status in Istanbul; a Pilot Cross-Sectional Study
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110157 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
The use of technological devices is increasing in all age groups, especially in preschool-aged children. However, there is a limiting number of studies investigating the relationship between the use of technological devices, eating behavior, and weight status in preschool children. The aim of [...] Read more.
The use of technological devices is increasing in all age groups, especially in preschool-aged children. However, there is a limiting number of studies investigating the relationship between the use of technological devices, eating behavior, and weight status in preschool children. The aim of this study was (1) to describe total usage of technological devices, (2) to evaluate level of exclusive use of such devices by children, (3) to investigate children’s eating behaviors and diet in relation to screen time and type. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 104 children aged 2–5 years in Küçükçekmece and Bakırköy, Istanbul. Data collection consisted of a validated parental questionnaire on demographics and the child’s use of technology and eating behavior, while associations in children were examined using logistic regression analysis. The analysis of the obtained data uncovered a strong association between children’s TV and tablet/smart phone use and the foods consumed by children when using these devices (p = 0.0001; p = 0.012). Also, there was a significant association between children’s eating habits and TV, and tablet/smart phone durations of use (p = 0.015; p = 0.025), but not with computer duration of use (p > 0.05). Obesity and associated health problems can arise as results of suboptimal eating behavior, such as the ones observed in our study, which are also intensified with an increased duration of use of technological devices. The attitude of families towards prudent use of technological equipment is of great importance in impacting present and future health. Full article
Article
Emotional Rational Education Training Associated with Mindfulness for Managing Anxiety within Adolescents Affected by High-Functioning Autism: A Descriptive Study
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110156 - 11 Nov 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a chronic and persistent pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) whose characteristic deficit is represented by social difficulties, semantic–pragmatic alterations and a limited, unusual and repetitive pattern of interests and behaviors. Specifically, individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) frequently exhibit [...] Read more.
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a chronic and persistent pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) whose characteristic deficit is represented by social difficulties, semantic–pragmatic alterations and a limited, unusual and repetitive pattern of interests and behaviors. Specifically, individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) frequently exhibit associated internalizing symptoms that are not part of the diagnostic criteria but which, nonetheless, tend to impair daily functioning. In this study, we investigated how some forms of treatment could be useful in subjects with HFA who display internalizing symptoms. Theoretical background relates to standard cognitive therapy (SCT) and rational education training with mindfulness (M-ERE). Methods: In this study, we investigated how some forms of treatment could be useful in subjects with HFA and internalizing symptoms, focusing on standard cognitive therapy (SCT) and mindfulness associated with emotional rational education training (M-ERE). We selected two groups of HFA patients with significant internalizing symptoms and performed two different forms of treatment for six months: SCT and M-ERE. The aim of the study was to verify the effectiveness of an M-ERE protocol with respect to anxious and depressive symptoms in subjects with HFA. Furthermore, we wanted to compare the results obtained with this combined treatment with those obtained in HFA subjects treated with SCT. Results: Our analyses showed an improvement in the internalizing symptoms (especially those related to the anxiety dimension) of the group that followed a treatment based on mindfulness and rational emotional education for 6 months compared to the group that had instead performed a 6-month treatment based on the SCT. Conclusions: Our hypotheses were supported by the results, which highlighted the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of internalizing symptoms in adolescents with HFA, and specifically showed that an M-ERE intervention appears more effective in managing anxiety compared to treatment with SCT and appears to be equally effective in the management of depressive symptoms. Not only was the M-ERE treatment effective for the management of anxious and depressive symptoms in subjects with HFA, but the efficacy for the management of anxious symptoms was greater than the SCT treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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Article
Working towards Culturally Responsive Trauma-Informed Care in the Refugee Resettlement Process: Qualitative Inquiry with Refugee-Serving Professionals in the United States
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110155 - 07 Nov 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Trauma-informed care (TIC) approaches have gained popularity in various contexts of human services over the past decades. However, relatively little has been explored about how it is applicable and built into services for refugee populations in resettlement programs. This study explores the current [...] Read more.
Trauma-informed care (TIC) approaches have gained popularity in various contexts of human services over the past decades. However, relatively little has been explored about how it is applicable and built into services for refugee populations in resettlement programs. This study explores the current status of the application of TIC in refugee-serving agencies and identifies perceived and experienced challenges and opportunities for culturally responsive TIC in the United States. As designed as part of the evaluation of state-wide refugee health promotion programs, this study conducted individual interviews with 78 refugee service providers from five resettlement sites. Despite the burgeoning interest and attempt to embrace TIC, our findings show that there is clear inconsistency and inexperience in TIC adaptation in resettlement programs. This study highlights that TIC that is culturally responsive and relevant to refugee trauma and acculturation experiences is a vital way to address the chasms between refugee-specific programs and mainstream services including mental health care systems. This study also discusses community resources and opportunities to bridge the deep divide and substantial gaps between mental health services and refugee resettlement services and to address comprehensive needs around mental health and wellness in the refugee community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Culturally Responsive Trauma-Informed Care)
Case Report
Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine Use and Suicide Risk: Hypotheses for Confluent Etiopathogenetic Mechanisms?
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110154 - 07 Nov 2021
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are classical anti-malarial and anti-inflammatory treatments, which were used as first-line therapy at the beginning of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Besides the emerging data on their lack of efficacy against COVID-19 infection, such treatments have been [...] Read more.
Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are classical anti-malarial and anti-inflammatory treatments, which were used as first-line therapy at the beginning of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Besides the emerging data on their lack of efficacy against COVID-19 infection, such treatments have been associated with some severe health concerns, including those of neuropsychiatric nature, such as a possible increase in suicide risk. Here we report a case of a patient with no history of psychiatric illnesses, who abruptly developed depression with melancholic features, severe suicidal ideation (SI), and attempted suicide (SA) shortly after receiving HCQ for his COVID-19 infection. The case was followed by a mini-review of the heterogeneous scientific literature on the hypothetical association between neuropsychiatric symptoms, with a focus on SI and suicidal behavior (SB, including SA and death by suicide), when CQ and HCQ are used in COVID-19, rheumatologic diseases, and malaria settings. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of CQ and HCQ and the implications for neuroinflammation in suicide pathogenesis, the possible increase in suicide risk caused by these medications appears paradoxical and suggests that other underlying pathological trajectories might account for this eventuality. In this regard, some of these latter mechanistic postulates were proposed. Certainly the role and contribution of psycho-social factors that a COVID-19 patient had to face can neither be minimized nor excluded in the attempt to understand his suffering until the development of SI/SB. However, while this case report represents a rare scenario in clinical practice and no consensus exists in the literature on this topic, a psychiatric screening for suicide risk in patients using of CQ and HCQ could be carefully considered. Full article
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Review
Behavioral Sciences in the Optimization of Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110153 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the main chronic diseases worldwide, with a significant impact on public health. Behavioral changes are an important step in disease prevention and management, so the way in which individuals adapt their lifestyle to new circumstances will [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the main chronic diseases worldwide, with a significant impact on public health. Behavioral changes are an important step in disease prevention and management, so the way in which individuals adapt their lifestyle to new circumstances will undoubtedly be a predictor of the success of the treatments instituted, contributing to a reduction in the morbidity and mortality that may be associated with them. It is essential to prepare and educate all diabetic patients on the importance of changing behavioral patterns in relation to the disease, with health professionals assuming an extremely important role in this area, both from a pharmacological and non-pharmacological point of view, and also ensuring the monitoring of the progress of these measures. Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires a high self-management capacity on the part of patients in order to achieve success in treating the disease, and non-adherence to therapy or non-compliance with the previously defined plan, together with an erratic lifestyle, will contribute to failure in controlling the disease. The lower adherence to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment in diabetes is mainly correlated to socio-economic aspects, lower health literacy, the side effects associated with the use of antidiabetic therapy or even the concomitant use of several drugs. This article consists of a narrative review that aims to synthesize the findings published in the literature, retrieved by searching databases, manuals, previously published scientific articles and official texts, following the methodology of the Scale for Assessment of Narrative Review Articles (SANRA). We aim to address the importance of behavioral sciences in the treatment of diabetes, in order to assess behavior factors and barriers for behavior changes that have an impact on the therapeutic and non-therapeutic optimization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus control. Full article
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Review
CyberGenomics: Application of Behavioral Genetics in Cybersecurity
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110152 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Cybersecurity (CS) is a contemporary field for research and applied study of a range of aspects from across multiple disciplines. A cybersecurity expert has an in-depth knowledge of technology but is often also recognized for the ability to view technology in a non-standard [...] Read more.
Cybersecurity (CS) is a contemporary field for research and applied study of a range of aspects from across multiple disciplines. A cybersecurity expert has an in-depth knowledge of technology but is often also recognized for the ability to view technology in a non-standard way. This paper explores how CS specialists are both a combination of professional computing-based skills and genetically encoded traits. Almost every human behavioral trait is a result of many genome variants in action altogether with environmental factors. The review focuses on contextualizing the behavior genetics aspects in the application of cybersecurity. It reconsiders methods that help to identify aspects of human behavior from the genetic information. And stress is an illustrative factor to start the discussion within the community on what methodology should be used in an ethical way to approach those questions. CS positions are considered stressful due to the complexity of the domain and the social impact it can have in cases of failure. An individual risk profile could be created combining known genome variants linked to a trait of particular behavior using a special biostatistical approach such as a polygenic score. These revised advancements bring challenging possibilities in the applications of human behavior genetics and CS. Full article
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Article
Understanding Somatic Symptoms Associated with South Korean Adolescent Suicidal Ideation, Depression, and Social Anxiety
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110151 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Korea’s suicide rate has increased steadily in recent years and it has become the leading cause of death among Korean youth. This paper aims to propose suicide risk identification strategies for South Korean youth by identifying profiles of suicide risk alongside reported somatic [...] Read more.
Korea’s suicide rate has increased steadily in recent years and it has become the leading cause of death among Korean youth. This paper aims to propose suicide risk identification strategies for South Korean youth by identifying profiles of suicide risk alongside reported somatic complaints. For several reasons, somatic complaints are more commonly reported than mental health concerns in Korea, where somatic complaints are likely to be representative of larger mental health worries. Nationally representative data of Korean first-year middle school students were used to identify mental health profiles by examining reported suicidal ideation, depression, and social anxiety and the prediction effect of reported somatic symptoms within these profiles. Results indicated that female students reported a greater level of suicidal ideation, depression, and social anxiety compared to male students. Each gender (females and males) exhibited five different mental health profile groups, which ranged from low risk to high risk. Somatic symptoms (sleep, stomach ache, tiredness, breathing, appetite, headache, fever, nausea) significantly predicted each profile group, with sleep issues serving as the strongest predictor for risk across both genders and all groups. Therefore, for mental health professionals working with Korean youth, it is encouraged to identify and recognize somatic complaints as potentially representative of mental health concerns and suicidality risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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Review
The Impact of Reassurance on Musculoskeletal (MSK) Pain: A Qualitative Review
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110150 - 30 Oct 2021
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Background: The reassurance provided during patient-therapist interactions is significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes, including fear and increased confidence. Currently, there are no available reviews that discuss the impact of reassurance for patients with musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. The aim of the present review was [...] Read more.
Background: The reassurance provided during patient-therapist interactions is significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes, including fear and increased confidence. Currently, there are no available reviews that discuss the impact of reassurance for patients with musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. The aim of the present review was to qualitatively synthesize themes around reassurance mechanisms, and the impact during the interaction between patients with MSK pain and therapists. A systematic search strategy was undertaken. Studies were included if they were qualitative or mixed methods studies, examining the patient-therapist consultation, in any MSK clinical setting, with any health care professional, for adult patients with acute to chronic MSK pain. A thematic synthesis was conducted and supported by a particular assessment using CERQual. Results: Twenty-four studies were included (451 patients). Certain themes that related to both positive and negative outcomes of reassurance were identified as well as themes that illustrate the mechanisms causative of the outcomes. Using CerQual, we identified the most supported outcomes. Conclusions: Effective reassurance includes affectionate interactions such as therapeutic relationship building and interpersonal skills, an individualized patient-centered approach, education and the provision of self-management strategies. It should be noted that some interactions that use pathoanatomic models led patients to misinterpret the information provided, this created feelings of fear. Full article
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Article
The Integration of Stressful Life Experiences Scale and the Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief: The Italian Validation of Two Instruments for Meaning-Focused Assessments of Bereavement
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110149 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Background: Bereavement is an inevitable event that can cause pain, discomfort, and negative consequences in daily life. Spirituality and religiosity can help people cope with loss and bereavement. Sometimes, however, the death of a loved one can challenge core religious beliefs and faith, [...] Read more.
Background: Bereavement is an inevitable event that can cause pain, discomfort, and negative consequences in daily life. Spirituality and religiosity can help people cope with loss and bereavement. Sometimes, however, the death of a loved one can challenge core religious beliefs and faith, which has been found to be a risk factor for prolonged mourning. Objectives: (1) Determine whether the Italian versions of the Integration of Stressful Life Experiences Scale (ISLES) and Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief (ICSG) are valid in translation; (2) Evaluate the impact of socio-demographic variables on ISLES and ICSG dimensions; (3) Test whether Complicated Spiritual Grief mediates the relation between meaning reconstruction after loss and integration of the loss experience; (4) Test whether the representation of death as a form of passage or annihilation further moderated the relation between Complicated Spiritual Grief and integration of the loss. Methods: The sample is composed of 348 participants who had lost a loved person in the prior two years. Results: The ISLES and ICSG were validated in Italian and are more appropriately interpreted as having a unifactorial structure. A greater spiritual crisis was manifested in participants with less education, who did not actively participate in religious life, and who had lost a friend rather than a close relative. As hypothesised, spiritual struggle in grief mediated the role of continuing bonds, Emptiness and Meaninglessness, and Sense of Peace in predicting integration of the loss. Furthermore, death representation moderated the impact of spiritual grief on loss, such that those participants who viewed death as a form of annihilation rather than passage reported greater integration of the loss. Conclusion: The role of meaning making in integrating significant loss is partly accounted for by spiritual struggle in a way that can be analysed in Italian contexts through the use of these newly validated instruments. Full article
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Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Emerging Variants: Evidence from Six Countries
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110148 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
As the world tries to cope with the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and emerging variants of the virus, COVID-19 vaccination has become an even more critical tool toward normalcy. The effectiveness of the vaccination program and specifically vaccine uptake and coverage, [...] Read more.
As the world tries to cope with the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and emerging variants of the virus, COVID-19 vaccination has become an even more critical tool toward normalcy. The effectiveness of the vaccination program and specifically vaccine uptake and coverage, however, is a function of an individual’s knowledge and individual opinion about the disease and available vaccines. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and resulting community practice(s) associated with the new COVID-19 variants and vaccines in Bangladesh, Colombia, India, Malaysia, Zimbabwe, and the USA. A cross-sectional web-based Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) survey was administered to respondents living in six different countries using a structured and multi-item questionnaire. Survey questions were translated into English, Spanish, and Malay to accommodate the local language in each country. Associations between KAP and a range of explanatory variables were assessed using univariate and multiple logistic regression. A total of 781 responses were included in the final analysis. The Knowledge score mean was 24 (out of 46), Attitude score 28.9 (out of 55), and Practice score 7.3 (out of 11). Almost 65% of the respondents reported being knowledgeable about COVID-19 variants and vaccination, 55% reported a positive attitude toward available COVID-19 vaccines, and 85% reported engaging in practices that supported COVID-19 vaccination. From the multiple logistic models, we found post-graduate education (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.23–2.74) and an age range 45–54 years (AOR = 5.81, 95% CI: 2.30–14.69) to be significantly associated with reported COVID-19 knowledge. In addition, positive Attitude scores were associated with respondents living in Zimbabwe (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.04–9.90) and positive Practice scores were found to be associated with people from India (AOR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.15–11.74) and high school education (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.07–4.38). This study contributes to the identification of socio-demographic factors associated with poor knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to COVID-19 variants and vaccines. It presents an opportunity for collaboration with diverse communities to address COVID-19 misinformation and common sources of vaccine hesitancy (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, and practices). Full article
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Article
Women and Violence: Alexithymia, Relational Competence and Styles, and Satisfaction with Life: A Comparative Profile Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110147 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 390
Abstract
Background: This research investigates the two sides of violence by profiling female interpersonal violence offenders (IVO) and female interpersonal violence victims (IVV). These groups of women have been compared on three key variables within the context of violence: satisfaction [...] Read more.
Background: This research investigates the two sides of violence by profiling female interpersonal violence offenders (IVO) and female interpersonal violence victims (IVV). These groups of women have been compared on three key variables within the context of violence: satisfaction with life (SWL), alexithymia, and relational styles—defined according to the Relational Competence Theory (RCT). Regarding the latter, the experience of functional or dysfunctional relational styles in childhood and adult relationships has been evaluated and compared with both groups of women. Methods: This study involved 131 women: IVO (n = 41; enrolled in a penitentiary), IVV (n = 41; enrolled in an anti-violence center), and a control group (CG; n = 49; enrolled from the general population). Profile analysis was performed. Results: Female IVO showed low SWL, high levels of alexithymia, and a pattern of mixed relational styles with both parents and the current partner. Female IVV revealed low SWL, low levels of alexithymia and dysfunctional relational styles with both parents and current partner. Women from the CG showed high SWL, absence of alexithymia and functional relational styles with both parents and current partner. Conclusions: The profiles outlined in this study are extremely informative regarding alexithymia, relational styles, and SWL in both female IVV and IVO. Clinical interventions for both groups of women should be developed relying on these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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Review
The Mental Health Outcomes of Food Insecurity and Insufficiency in West Africa: A Systematic Narrative Review
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110146 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 700
Abstract
(1) Background: Food insufficiency is a global pandemic affecting many people, especially those residing in developing countries. African countries have been affected by food insufficiency, which is mostly caused by drought or wars. Famine or food insufficiency has been reported to have an [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Food insufficiency is a global pandemic affecting many people, especially those residing in developing countries. African countries have been affected by food insufficiency, which is mostly caused by drought or wars. Famine or food insufficiency has been reported to have an impact on the psychological health and quality of life of people affected. This review assessed the mental health outcomes of famine and food insufficiency in West Africa. (2) Methods: A search of the published literature was conducted using PubMed, PsycExtra, Medline, and PsycINFO databases. The search was limited to papers published in English between the years 2010 and 2020. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts of the retrieved papers using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and a third reviewer resolved conflicts. Data were extracted and appraised using a data extraction form and an appraisal checklist. (3) Results: A total of 81 papers were identified through the journal databases search. Out of the seven papers that met the inclusion criteria, six papers used cross-sectional designs and one paper used an experimental design. The six papers used quantitative approach for data collection, while the one paper used a qualitative technique. The evidence synthesized from this review indicated that exposure to food insecurity or insufficiency is associated with increased psychological distress including anxiety, sleeplessness, intellectual disability, general mental, and emotional instability. (4) Conclusions: This review strongly highlights the need for further research across the sub-region. It further suggests that famine and food insufficiency are associated with significant mental health problems in adults and impacts the cognitive and intellectual development of children. Although there is paucity of literature about famine and its impact on mental health in West Africa, these findings are important for developing social policy initiatives for increasing food supply and mental health interventions for all ages. Full article
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Article
Communication Apprehension and Psychological Well-Being of Students in Online Learning
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110145 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 664
Abstract
The current pandemic has modified how education, learning, and technology interact with one another inside universities. The usage of technology for instructional purposes raises the question of whether learning that happens in an online environment is as effective as traditional classroom models. Within [...] Read more.
The current pandemic has modified how education, learning, and technology interact with one another inside universities. The usage of technology for instructional purposes raises the question of whether learning that happens in an online environment is as effective as traditional classroom models. Within this context, this study explores the psychological well-being of students during the COVID-19 pandemic, using an online cross-sectional survey. Data were collected from 246 university students currently studying at a private university in India. Hierarchical regression analysis and structural equation modelling were used to study the mediating effects between communication apprehension, perceived learning, and psychological well-being under the moderating effects of intention to use social media and psychological stress. Results show that higher intentions to use social media alleviated the negative effects of communication apprehension on perceived learning. Interestingly, it was also found that perceived learning had a significant positive relationship with psychological well-being when students experienced higher levels of psychological stress (eustress). Based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the transactional theory of stress and coping, we attempt to integrate the findings related to these theories, which can be considered distinct to previous studies. Implications, limitations, and future directions for research and practice have also been discussed. Full article
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Article
Fostering the Aesthetic Pleasure: The Effect of Verbal Description on Aesthetic Appreciation of Ambiguous and Unambiguous Artworks
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110144 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Background: Aesthetic experience begins through an intentional shift from automatic visual perceptual processing to an aesthetic state of mind that is evidently directed towards sensory experience. In the present study, we investigated whether portrait descriptions affect the aesthetic pleasure of both ambiguous (i.e., [...] Read more.
Background: Aesthetic experience begins through an intentional shift from automatic visual perceptual processing to an aesthetic state of mind that is evidently directed towards sensory experience. In the present study, we investigated whether portrait descriptions affect the aesthetic pleasure of both ambiguous (i.e., Arcimboldo’s portraits) and unambiguous portraits (i.e., Renaissance portraits). Method: A total sample of 86 participants were recruited and completed both a baseline and a retest session. In the retest session, we implemented a sample audio description for each portrait. The portraits were described by three types of treatment, namely global, local, and historical descriptions. Results: During the retest session, aesthetic pleasure was higher than the baseline. Both the local and the historical treatments improved the aesthetic appreciation of ambiguous portraits; instead, the global and the historical treatment improved aesthetic appreciation of Renaissance portraits during the retest session. Additionally, we found that the response times were slower in the retest session. Conclusion: taken together, these findings suggest that aesthetic preference was affected by the description of an artwork, likely due to a better knowledge of the painting, which prompts a more accurate (and slower) reading of the artwork. Full article
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Article
A Study on the Causes and Effects of Stressful Situations in Tourism for Japanese People
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110143 - 22 Oct 2021
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Abstract
(1) Numerous studies have been undertaken to investigate the perceived impacts of tourism, particularly from the perspective of local residents. Only a handful have dealt with the coping strategies of this group. In addition, they have largely neglected the successes or failures of [...] Read more.
(1) Numerous studies have been undertaken to investigate the perceived impacts of tourism, particularly from the perspective of local residents. Only a handful have dealt with the coping strategies of this group. In addition, they have largely neglected the successes or failures of the coping strategies and the related consequences. In order to address these gaps, this study aims to investigate the psychological impacts of tourism, focusing on the causes and effects of the negative feelings felt by local residents. (2) Methods: Several qualitative methods, including web archive research, netnography, user-generated content analysis, literature review, and ethnography were employed to gather the necessary data. Japan was selected as the context of this study. (3) Results: This study identified a set of negative feelings and a group of four coping strategies. It also found that the causes of the negative feelings, the bad impacts of tourism, were similar to those in other countries. In addition, the study verified that the effects of the coping strategies were only situational and temporal. (4) Conclusions: Tourism is not stress-free. In order for tourism to sustain, the causes and consequences of its negative impacts must be properly addressed. Full article
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Review
Prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder and Correlates of Thoughts of Death, Suicidal Behaviour, and Death by Suicide in the Geriatric Population—A General Review of Literature
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11110142 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Background: There has been an increase in deaths by suicide in old age in the last decade. Depression and suicide in the elderly, 60 years and above, is a major global public health concern. Determining the prevalence of depression, and correlates of death [...] Read more.
Background: There has been an increase in deaths by suicide in old age in the last decade. Depression and suicide in the elderly, 60 years and above, is a major global public health concern. Determining the prevalence of depression, and correlates of death by suicide in the geriatric population, is an important first step toward addressing this public health concern. This literature review aims to determine the prevalence of major depressive disorders and the correlates of death by suicide in the geriatric population. Methods: This general review of the literature was performed using relevant search terms to determine both the prevalence of depression and the correlates of death by suicide among the geriatric population. Databases such as MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and PubMed were searched. Relevant and current articles were extracted, reviewed, and analyzed. The elderly population was defined as individuals 60 years and above. Only full texts articles in English were reviewed. Findings: The prevalence estimates of major depressive disorder in the elderly ranged from 5.37 to 56%. Adults aged 60 years and older have a high risk of depression that exposes them to suicide. Moreover, elderly women are more likely to experience depression than elderly men, but successful suicide is more common in men. Depression and other mental health conditions (schizophrenia, anxiety disorders) and perceived stress were found to be predictors of suicide in the elderly. Other predictors included physical illnesses such as malignancies, financial constraints, cuckoldry, and sexual dysfunction, and also social factors like living alone triggers depressive symptoms and increases suicidal risk in the elderly. Hanging was found to be the most common method of death by suicide for both sexes. While elderly women preferred poisoning, elderly men in Western countries preferred firearms. Differences in gender, the aging process and social issues were also contributing factors to methods used for suicide. Conclusions: Depression and debilitating physical illnesses were identified as significant contributors to suicide risk in the elderly population, and emphasis should be placed on identifying these factors early and treating them. Recognizing and addressing factors that predict suicide in the elderly will help to improve the mental wellbeing of the elderly. Full article
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