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Behav. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Carbohydrate-restrictive diets are becoming increasingly popular. Our study was the first inquiry into the dietary habits, beliefs, and experiences of people following a version of these diets, the zero-carb diet. Results revealed that a zero-carb diet involves consumption of foods that are predominately animal-sourced. Participants began the diet to improve their health and maintained it because of perceived health and wellbeing benefits attributed to the diet. A strong group identity based on adherence to the diet also emerged. Participants held strong intentions to continue the diet indefinitely, despite lack of published evidence on the diet, lack of support by health-care professionals and significant others, and stigmas attached to the diet. We recommend further research on zero-carb diets, with guidelines for healthcare professionals. View this paper
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Article
Innovative Behavior in the Workplace: An Empirical Study of Moderated Mediation Model of Self-Efficacy, Perceived Organizational Support, and Leader–Member Exchange
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120182 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Recently, most organizations, from for-profit organizations to nonprofit organizations, are facing a rapidly changing environment and increased uncertainty. Organizational performance now depends on quickly responding and overcoming change through employees’ innovative behavior. As the importance of innovative behavior has been highlighted, many organizations [...] Read more.
Recently, most organizations, from for-profit organizations to nonprofit organizations, are facing a rapidly changing environment and increased uncertainty. Organizational performance now depends on quickly responding and overcoming change through employees’ innovative behavior. As the importance of innovative behavior has been highlighted, many organizations are looking for effective ways to encourage employees to adopt innovative behavior. From the resource perspective, innovative behavior can be regarded as high-intensity job demand, and organizations should support innovative behavior by providing and managing employees’ resources. Based on the conservation of resource perspective, this study attempted to empirically explore how self-efficacy and perceived organizational support affect the relationship between leader–member exchange (LMX) and innovative behavior. Using two-wave, time-lagged survey data from 337 employees in South Korea, we found that leader–member exchange enhances innovative behavior via the mediation of self-efficacy. Additionally, perceived organizational support positively moderates the relationship between leader–member exchange and self-efficacy. Our findings demonstrate that self-efficacy is a mediating mechanism in the relationship between leader–member exchange and innovative behavior. Furthermore, this study suggests that the higher the level of perceived organizational support, the greater the effect of leader–member exchange on innovative behavior affected by self-efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Review
Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Pregnant Women: A Scoping Review
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120181 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 652
Abstract
During the gestation period, pregnant women experience physical and psychological changes, which represent vulnerability factors that can boost the development of mental health conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic is producing new changes in the routines of the whole society, especially on lifestyle habits. The [...] Read more.
During the gestation period, pregnant women experience physical and psychological changes, which represent vulnerability factors that can boost the development of mental health conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic is producing new changes in the routines of the whole society, especially on lifestyle habits. The psychological impact associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and pregnant women remains unclear. A scoping review regarding the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women was conducted. Searchers were conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science and CINAHL databases. Articles in Spanish, English and French were included. The search was conducted between November 2020 and September 2021. We identified 31 studies that evaluated 30,049 expectant mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pregnant women showed high levels of anxiety and depression symptomatology. Fear of contagion and concerns regarding the health of the fetus were identified as the main variables related to psychological distress. An increase of the levels of depression, anxiety and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic amongst pregnant women has been observed. Moreover, an increased vulnerability of the fetus due to placental metabolic alterations is discussed. This review suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with a negative psychological impact on pregnant women. Thus, high levels of anxiety and depression symptoms suggest the need for a systematic approach. Full article
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Review
Neurocognitive Performance Improvement after Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment: State of the Art
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11120180 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) syndrome is a respiratory sleep disorder characterized by partial or complete episodes of upper airway collapse with reduction or complete cessation of airflow. Although the connection remains debated, several mechanisms such as intermittent hypoxemia, sleep deprivation, hypercapnia disruption [...] Read more.
Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) syndrome is a respiratory sleep disorder characterized by partial or complete episodes of upper airway collapse with reduction or complete cessation of airflow. Although the connection remains debated, several mechanisms such as intermittent hypoxemia, sleep deprivation, hypercapnia disruption of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis have been associated with poor neurocognitive performance. Different treatments have been proposed to treat OSAS patients as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), mandibular advancement devices (MAD), surgery; however, the effect on neurocognitive functions is still debated. This article presents the effect of OSAS treatments on neurocognitive performance by reviewing the literature. Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of the English language over the past 20 years using the following keywords: neurocognitive performance and sleep apnea, neurocognitive improvement and CPAP, OSAS, and cognitive dysfunction. We included in the analysis papers that correlated OSA treatment with neurocognitive performance improvement. All validated tests used to measure different neurocognitive performance improvements were considered. Results: Seventy papers reported neurocognitive Performance improvement in OSA patients after CPAP therapy. Eighty percent of studies found improved executive functions such as verbal fluency or working memory, with partial neural recovery at long-term follow-up. One article compared the effect of MAD, CPAP treatment on cognitive disorders, reporting better improvement of CPAP and MAD than placebo in cognitive function. Conclusions: CPAP treatment seems to improve cognitive defects associated with OSA. Limited studies have evaluated the effects of the other therapies on cognitive function. Full article
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Article
Schizotypy, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Health Indicators in a Young Adult Sample
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 179; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120179 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Problematic lifestyle behaviors and high rates of physical illness are well documented in people with schizophrenia, contributing to premature mortality. Yet, there is a notable absence of research examining general lifestyle and health issues in participants at risk for psychosis. This form of [...] Read more.
Problematic lifestyle behaviors and high rates of physical illness are well documented in people with schizophrenia, contributing to premature mortality. Yet, there is a notable absence of research examining general lifestyle and health issues in participants at risk for psychosis. This form of research may help identify concerns that exist during prodromal periods related to future outcomes. Accordingly, the current study examined lifestyle and health in a nonclinical sample of 530 young adults with varying levels of schizotypy. Increasing symptom severity was associated with greater somatic symptoms and poorer sleep quality across positive, negative, and disorganized domains. Elevated negative and disorganized symptoms were associated with significantly reduced health-related quality of life, while evidence for reduced engagement in health behaviors was largely limited to those with elevated negative schizotypy. No relationships emerged between symptom presentation/severity and body mass index or substance use, although zero-order correlations suggested an association between disorganized schizotypy and nicotine use. The pattern of relationships in the current study was consistent with findings from the ultra-high risk and clinical literature suggesting that lifestyle and health concerns may exist on a continuum with psychosis. Future research should seek to clarify if these patterns are associated with long-term physical or mental health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behaviors and Outcomes across the Schizophrenia-Spectrum)
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Article
Relationships among Early Adversity, Positive Human and Animal Interactions, and Mental Health in Young Adults
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120178 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor mental health. Emerging research demonstrates the protective role of positive childhood experiences, including a positive sense of self and relationships with both humans and animals, in mitigating the impacts of early life adversity on mental [...] Read more.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor mental health. Emerging research demonstrates the protective role of positive childhood experiences, including a positive sense of self and relationships with both humans and animals, in mitigating the impacts of early life adversity on mental health outcomes. This study examined whether benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs) or relationships and interactions with pets during childhood moderated the link between ACEs and current mental health symptoms in a sample of young adults. Students (N = 214) recruited from a public university in the U.S. completed an online survey. The results showed that ACEs were significantly associated with worse mental health symptoms, including anxiety and depression. Neither emotional closeness to a childhood pet dog nor positive interactions with a childhood pet were significant moderators of the relationship between ACEs and mental health. In contrast, more BCEs were associated with better mental health, and their interaction with ACEs was significant such that adversity-exposed young adults with high BCEs reported fewer mental health symptoms than those with low BCEs. The results highlight the need for continued research on differential experiences that may be protective in the relationship between adversity exposures and mental health. Full article
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Article
Relationship between Objectively and Subjectively Measured Physical Activity in Adolescents during and after COVID-19 Restrictions
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 177; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120177 - 11 Dec 2021
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Background: Studying the relationship between subjectively and objectively measured physical activity (PA) can provide viable information on youths’ behaviors. However, the restrictions due to COVID-19 pandemic, which reduced children’s possibilities to be active, may negatively affect it. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Studying the relationship between subjectively and objectively measured physical activity (PA) can provide viable information on youths’ behaviors. However, the restrictions due to COVID-19 pandemic, which reduced children’s possibilities to be active, may negatively affect it. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between subjectively and objectively measured PA levels (light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous) during COVID-19-based restrictions and after they were lifted, and to determine whether such relationships changed in these two periods. Methods: A total of 26 adolescents (58% girls; mean age = 12.4 ± 0.5) wore accelerometers during public restrictions and after they were removed. Participants also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire during the same periods. Results: High significant correlations were found at all levels of PA (r = 0.767–0.968) in both time periods, except for moderate PA during restrictions. Comparing the two periods, significantly higher correlations were found for moderate PA (p < 0.001) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p = 0.003) after restrictions were lifted. Conclusions: In this highly active cohort of adolescents, results emphasize the potential threat of lockdown conditions for youths’ ability to accurately perceive their behaviors, with possible detrimental consequences on the short- and long-term health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
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Article
Empowering Women in Finance through Developing Girls’ Financial Literacy Skills in the United States
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120176 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 607
Abstract
This study examines the effectiveness of a financial literacy program, Invest in Girls (IIG), in promoting financial capability among high school girls. Using a quasi-experimental separate-samples pretest-posttest design and a longitudinal qualitative study, the study aims to assess the program efficacy and investigate [...] Read more.
This study examines the effectiveness of a financial literacy program, Invest in Girls (IIG), in promoting financial capability among high school girls. Using a quasi-experimental separate-samples pretest-posttest design and a longitudinal qualitative study, the study aims to assess the program efficacy and investigate the perspectives of the female students on its impact on their knowledge, behavior, and future goals and aspirations. The results indicated that the participants had significantly higher confidence for engaging in financial literacy after the program. The findings from the longitudinal study also suggested that that the program was influencing the students in positive ways, increasing their financial capability and leading them to consider wide occupational pathways available in finance. Given the lack of female leaders in the world of finance, the IIG program aims to address gender disparity in financial knowledge and highlight the importance of building financial literacy skills among girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
Article
Individual Differences in Belief in Fake News about Election Fraud after the 2020 U.S. Election
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120175 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Fake news is a serious problem because it misinforms people about important issues. The present study examined belief in false headlines about election fraud after the 2020 U.S. presidential election. Belief in election fraud had dangerous consequences, including the deadly insurrection at the [...] Read more.
Fake news is a serious problem because it misinforms people about important issues. The present study examined belief in false headlines about election fraud after the 2020 U.S. presidential election. Belief in election fraud had dangerous consequences, including the deadly insurrection at the U.S. Capitol in January 2021. In the present study, participants rated the truthfulness of true and false headlines about the election, and then completed individual difference measures eight days after the election. Participants with more conservative ideology, greater presidential approval of the outgoing president, greater endorsement of general conspiracy narratives and poorer cognitive reflection demonstrated greater belief in false headlines about election fraud. Additionally, consuming more politically conservative election news was associated with greater belief in false headlines. Identifying the factors related to susceptibility to false claims of election fraud offers a path toward countering the influence of these claims by tailoring interventions aimed at decreasing belief in misinformation and decreasing conspiracy beliefs to those most susceptible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychology of Fake News)
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Article
Repetitive and Inflexible Active Coping and Addiction-like Neuroplasticity in Stressed Mice of a Helplessness–Resistant Inbred Strain
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120174 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Dysfunctional coping styles are involved in the development, persistence, and relapse of psychiatric diseases. Passive coping with stress challenges (helplessness) is most commonly used in animal models of dysfunctional coping, although active coping strategies are associated with generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, [...] Read more.
Dysfunctional coping styles are involved in the development, persistence, and relapse of psychiatric diseases. Passive coping with stress challenges (helplessness) is most commonly used in animal models of dysfunctional coping, although active coping strategies are associated with generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic, and phobias as well as obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. This paper analyzes the development of dysfunctional active coping strategies of mice of the helplessness–resistant DBA/2J (D2) inbred strain, submitted to temporary reduction in food availability in an uncontrollable and unavoidable condition. The results indicate that food-restricted D2 mice developed a stereotyped form of food anticipatory activity and dysfunctional reactive coping in novel aversive contexts and acquired inflexible and perseverant escape strategies in novel stressful situations. The evaluation of FosB/DeltaFosB immunostaining in different brain areas of food-restricted D2 mice revealed a pattern of expression typically associated with behavioral sensitization to addictive drugs and compulsivity. These results support the conclusion that an active coping style represents an endophenotype of mental disturbances characterized by perseverant and inflexible behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biological Psychiatry)
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Article
Adjunctive Clotiapine for the Management of Delusions in Two Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120173 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for the management of a series of acute psychotic disorders. The current literature lacks evidence concerning the tolerability and clinical use of this drug in the management of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). In this study, we [...] Read more.
Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for the management of a series of acute psychotic disorders. The current literature lacks evidence concerning the tolerability and clinical use of this drug in the management of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). In this study, we report two cases of adolescents with AN, treated with clotiapine. The reason for the administration of clotiapine was, for both patients, the manifestation of bizarre delusions concerning food and calories. Patient 1 presented a presyncope after the first dose of clotiapine, and treatment was rapidly discontinued. Patient 2 was treated with clotiapine for 9 months; doses were titrated from 20 mg/day to 70 mg/day, with an improvement in the reported delusions, which also enhanced compliance with psychological and nutritional interventions. EKG, QTc, white blood count, and red blood count were not relevantly influenced by the introduction of clotiapine in either patient. No extrapyramidal effect was documented. These reports stress the need for further studies assessing the tolerability and potential effect of clotiapine in treating adolescents with AN and delusional symptomatology. Full article
Article
Communication Styles and Attention Performance in Primary School Children
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120172 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Communication styles are the three communication patterns that result from merging the verbal elements of communication, the non-verbal elements and the paraverbal elements. The objective of this study was to test what effect different communication styles have on attention performance in primary school [...] Read more.
Communication styles are the three communication patterns that result from merging the verbal elements of communication, the non-verbal elements and the paraverbal elements. The objective of this study was to test what effect different communication styles have on attention performance in primary school children. We administered the assertive behavior scale for children (CABS), the symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) and the d2 attention test to a sample of 77 participants of primary school. A statistically significant and proportional correlation was found between the assertive communication style and the total number of correct answers of the SDMT. We also found positive correlations between the assertive communication style and d2 attention test performance. Children with an assertive communication style have better attention performance than children with passive or aggressive communication styles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
Review
Recent Advances in Consumer Behavior Theory: Shocks from the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120171 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic has had an enormous impact on people’s lives, particularly aspects of life such as consumption, and has therefore brought new elements to the expansion of Consumer behavior theory. Methods: This paper searches the literature on consumption research conducted [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic has had an enormous impact on people’s lives, particularly aspects of life such as consumption, and has therefore brought new elements to the expansion of Consumer behavior theory. Methods: This paper searches the literature on consumption research conducted from 1981 to 2021, including sources such as CNKI, Wanfang, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. Through the exploration of the existing relevant literature, this article found that the COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic has had a profound impact on consumption willingness, consumption patterns, and consumption objects, and, as such, has newly expanded the theoretical model of consumer behavior. Results: Through reviewing the literature, this paper found some results. For example with regard to consumption patterns, early studies and the impact of COVID-19 was focused on online consumption, however in the context of COVID-19, scholars proposed paying attention to the combination of online and offline development. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic has had a profound effect on consumer behavior worldwide. Under the current economic depression, the government should take adequate measures in order to respond to the new changes in consumer behavior and therefore promote economic growth. For example, the government should encourage the combination of online and offline business operation modes to break the boundaries of customer groups and supply chains, so that consumers can buy anytime and anywhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Neurosciences)
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Article
A Dual-Process Model Applied to Two Health-Promoting Nutrition Behaviours
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120170 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
We tested a dual process model incorporating constructs that reflect both performing the target behaviour (behaviour directed habit) and habits that run counter to the target behaviour (opposing behaviour habit) in accounting for variance in two health behaviours: eating the recommended serves of [...] Read more.
We tested a dual process model incorporating constructs that reflect both performing the target behaviour (behaviour directed habit) and habits that run counter to the target behaviour (opposing behaviour habit) in accounting for variance in two health behaviours: eating the recommended serves of fruits and vegetables a day and restricting sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. A prospective correlational design with two waves of data collection separated by one week was adopted. Participants (N = 606) comprising middle school students (n = 266) and university students (n = 340) completed an initial survey comprising self-report measures of past behaviour, intention, and habit to perform the target behaviour and habits that run counter to the target behaviour. One week later, participants (N = 414) completed a self-reported measure of behaviour. Results revealed that behaviour directed habits predicted fruit and vegetable consumption in both samples, while opposing behaviour habits predicted restriction of sugar-sweetened beverages in the middle-school sample only, with a moderating effect also observed. Current findings indicate that habits specifying avoidance of the target behaviour did not predict future behaviour. However, the moderating effect observed provides preliminary evidence that strong habits to perform a behaviour may override habit to avoid the behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior Change: Theories, Methods, and Interventions)
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Article
Political Hearts of Darkness: The Dark Triad as Predictors of Political Orientations and Interest in Politics
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120169 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Background: This study investigated the relationships between the Dark Triad of personality (sub-clinical psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism) and four political variables: socio-religious conservatism, support for greater economic equality, overall liberal–conservative orientation, and interest in politics. A theoretical approach that focused on the influence [...] Read more.
Background: This study investigated the relationships between the Dark Triad of personality (sub-clinical psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism) and four political variables: socio-religious conservatism, support for greater economic equality, overall liberal–conservative orientation, and interest in politics. A theoretical approach that focused on the influence of the Dark Triad in large groups was provided to interpret those relationships. Methodological issues found in previous research that related to the use of abbreviated scales to measure the dark traits and the use of unidimensional indicators of political orientations were addressed. Methods: A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to determine whether any of the three dark traits could explain variance in the aforementioned political attributes over and above that accounted for by the Big Five, sex, age, and nationality, using the full personality scales and measures of political orientation that captured both social and economic liberalism–conservatism. Results: Machiavellianism uniquely predicted lower levels of socio-religious conservatism, and both Machiavellianism and narcissism uniquely predicted lower levels of overall conservatism. Conclusions: There were important links between the Dark Triad and politics. Full article
Article
Validity and Reliability of the Baby and Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Toddler Version (BEBQ-Mex and CEBQ-T-Mex) in a Low Sociodemographic Sample Recruited in a Mexican Hospital
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120168 - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
The objective of this study was to validate and measure the internal reliability of the Baby and Child Eating Behavior Questionnaires for Toddlers (BEBQ-Mex and CEBQ-T-Mex), that evaluate appetitive trait (ATs). Mothers recruited from a public hospital in Guadalajara, Mexico, completed the BEBQ-Mex [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to validate and measure the internal reliability of the Baby and Child Eating Behavior Questionnaires for Toddlers (BEBQ-Mex and CEBQ-T-Mex), that evaluate appetitive trait (ATs). Mothers recruited from a public hospital in Guadalajara, Mexico, completed the BEBQ-Mex or CEBQ-T-Mex along with information on sociodemographic characteristics. Internal reliability of the BEBQ-Mex was sufficient for Food Responsiveness (FR) (Cronbach α = 0.82), while Enjoyment of Food (EF) and Satiety Responsiveness (SR) showed poor reliability (α = 0.56) and Slowness in Eating (SE) had unacceptable reliability (a = 0.36). All reliability values for the CEBQ-T-Mex were acceptable (>0.70), except for SE (α = 0.64). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed an adequate model fit for the BEBQ-Mex, except the SE subscale. CFA for the CEBQ-T-Mex confirmed the six-factor structure. Mothers of a low sociodemographic background were unable to recognize their infants’ ATs; the BEBQ-Mex partly met the criteria for validity and reliability. Mothers from similar sociodemographic characteristics were more able to recognize the ATs of their toddlers than their infants; the CEBQ-T-Mex was found to be a valid and reliable tool. Findings support the need to help mothers’ ability to recognize their infants’ ATs, which have been previously associated with weight and growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
Article
Impact of Perceived Stress and Immune Status on Decision-Making Abilities during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120167 - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 809
Abstract
The ability to make risky decisions in stressful contexts has been largely investigated in experimental settings. We examined this ability during the first months of COVID-19 pandemic, when in Italy people were exposed to a prolonged stress condition, mainly caused by a rigid [...] Read more.
The ability to make risky decisions in stressful contexts has been largely investigated in experimental settings. We examined this ability during the first months of COVID-19 pandemic, when in Italy people were exposed to a prolonged stress condition, mainly caused by a rigid lockdown. Participants among the general population completed two cognitive tasks, an Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which measures individual risk/reward decision-making tendencies, and a Go/No-Go task (GNG), to test impulsivity, together with two questionnaires, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales. The Immune Status Questionnaire was additionally administered to explore the impact of the individual health status on decision making. The effect of the questionnaires scores on task performance was examined. The results showed that higher levels of perceived stress and a more self-reported vulnerable immune status were associated, separately, with less risky/more advantageous choices in the IGT in young male participants but with more risky/less advantageous choices in older male participants. These effects were not found in female participants. Impulsivity errors in the GNG were associated with more anxiety symptoms. These findings bring attention to the necessity of taking into account decision-making processes during stressful conditions, especially in the older and more physically vulnerable male population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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Article
Efficiency of Managerial Work and Performance of Managers: Time Management Point of View
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120166 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Appropriate time management allows individuals to achieve work and personal goals, plan tasks, set priorities, eliminate disruptive effects, and increase work efficiency and productivity. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of managerial work and the performance of managers of [...] Read more.
Appropriate time management allows individuals to achieve work and personal goals, plan tasks, set priorities, eliminate disruptive effects, and increase work efficiency and productivity. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of managerial work and the performance of managers of food companies in the V4 countries (Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland) from the perspective of time management principles, point out the shortcomings and reserves that can ensure time management, and propose solutions to improve business practice. We set five research assumptions in order to evaluate the situation comprehensively. A survey carried out from September 2020 to January 2021 involved 1588 managers working at various levels of management. Statistical methods and tests were used for data processing and their subsequent evaluation. The data were processed using Microsoft Excel 2016, the statistical software SAS Enterprise Guide 7.1, and XLSTAT. The analysis showed that three-quarters of managers are aware of the value of their time. More than half of the managers involved try to regularly review their agenda in order to identify gaps in the use of time and to avoid repeating unproductive practices. Only half of the managers make arrangements not to think about work in their free time. The managers spend the most time in their work dealing with administration. Intensifying the implementation of ICT (information and communication technologies) in the work of the manager has the effect of increasing the efficiency of the division and use of working time of managers. Based on our findings, we consider the goal orientation, positive motivation, systematic training, and development of managers as a key prerequisite for efficiency of managerial work and performance of managers and their effective time management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Case Report
Stimulus-Stimulus-Pairing to Reduce Stereotypies in Three Children with Autism during Movie Watching
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120165 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders represent a challenge for professionals, who must include in their individualized educational interventions goals for core symptoms (social–communication and stereotypies/restricted interests) and comorbidities. The narrowness of interests and the high frequency of repetitive behaviors in children with autism often constitute [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorders represent a challenge for professionals, who must include in their individualized educational interventions goals for core symptoms (social–communication and stereotypies/restricted interests) and comorbidities. The narrowness of interests and the high frequency of repetitive behaviors in children with autism often constitute an obstacle for learning and the quality of life, and for their caregivers as well. In the scientific literature, behavioral interventions based on both aversive and, less commonly, positive procedures have been implemented to reduce the frequency of stereotypies. The following study was carried out with the intention of replicating a Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing procedure applied by Nuzzolo-Gomez, Leonard, Ortiz, Rivera and Greer (2002) in order to reduce stereotypies in children. This procedure was applied to three children diagnosed with autism aged five, almost six and seven years, in order to reduce stereotypies when children watched movies. An A-B-A experimental design with three subjects was used for this research. The results showed a decrease in stereotypies in favor of appropriate behaviors. Full article
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Article
Effects of Self-Esteem on Self-Viewing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation on Mirror Gazing
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120164 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 701
Abstract
While some people enjoy looking at their faces in the mirror, others experience emotional distress. Despite these individual differences concerning self-viewing in the mirror, systematic investigations on this topic have not been conducted so far. The present eye-tracking study examined whether personality traits [...] Read more.
While some people enjoy looking at their faces in the mirror, others experience emotional distress. Despite these individual differences concerning self-viewing in the mirror, systematic investigations on this topic have not been conducted so far. The present eye-tracking study examined whether personality traits (self-esteem, narcissism propensity, self-disgust) are associated with gaze behavior (gaze duration, fixation count) during free mirror viewing of one’s face. Sixty-eight adults (mean age = 23.5 years; 39 females, 29 males) viewed their faces in the mirror and watched a video of an unknown person matched for gender and age (control condition) for 90 s each. The computed regression analysis showed that higher self-esteem was associated with a shorter gaze duration for both self-face and other-face. This effect may reflect a less critical evaluation of the faces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personality, Intervention and Psychological Treatment)
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Article
Reconstructing Attitudes towards Work from Home during COVID-19: A Survey of South Korean Managers
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120163 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
This article explores how after almost two years of government-imposed work from home (WFH) for the purpose of curbing the spread of COVID-19, South Korean managers’ general attitudes towards WFH may have been reconstructed and if this change influenced their expectations that WFH [...] Read more.
This article explores how after almost two years of government-imposed work from home (WFH) for the purpose of curbing the spread of COVID-19, South Korean managers’ general attitudes towards WFH may have been reconstructed and if this change influenced their expectations that WFH would persist for the long run. Before COVID-19, WFH was rare, and the country was well known for having one of the most hierarchical and rigid work cultures, with long hours at the office being the norm. The results of this study are based on survey responses from 229 South Korean managers and executives. Using means comparisons and hierarchical linear multiple regression models to answer three research questions, the present study evaluates theorized predictors of WFH take-up, general attitudes towards WFH, and the likelihood that WFH will continue post-COVID-19. The results indicate that forced WFH adoption during COVID-19 had statistically significant positive effects on the attitudes of South Korean managers and their intentions to continue working from home in the future. This study has practical implications for companies and governments that are interested in taking advantage of WFH and implementing it more permanently. It provides interesting findings on how managers from a country with minimal WFH prior to COVID-19 perceive the benefits of WFH and how they respond to its mandated adoption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout, Perceived Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction)
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Article
Abstract Action Language Processing in Eleven-Year-Old Children: Influence of Upper Limb Movement on Sentence Comprehension
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120162 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Regarding the embodiment of language processing in adults, there is evidence of a close connection between sensorimotor brain areas and brain areas relevant to the processing of action verbs. This thesis is hotly debated and has therefore been thoroughly studied in adults. However, [...] Read more.
Regarding the embodiment of language processing in adults, there is evidence of a close connection between sensorimotor brain areas and brain areas relevant to the processing of action verbs. This thesis is hotly debated and has therefore been thoroughly studied in adults. However, there are still questions concerning its development in children. The present study deals with the processing of action verbs in concrete and abstract sentences in 60 eleven-year-olds using a decision time paradigm. Sixty-five children mirrored arm movements or sat still and rated the semantic plausibility of sentences. The data of the current study suggest that eleven-year-olds are likely to misunderstand the meaning of action verbs in abstract contexts. Their decision times were faster and their error rates for action verbs in concrete sentences were lower. However, the gender of the children had a significant influence on the decision time and the number of errors, especially when processing abstract sentences. Females were more likely to benefit from an arm movement before the decision, while males were better if they sat still beforehand. Overall, children made quite a few errors when assessing the plausibility of sentences, but the female participants more often gave plausibility assessments that deviated from our expectations, especially when processing abstract sentences. It can be assumed that the embodiment of language processing plays some role in 11-year-old children, but is not yet as mature as it is in adults. Especially with regard to the processing of abstract language, the embodied system still has to change and mature in the course of child development. Full article
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Article
Beliefs and Experiences of Individuals Following a Zero-Carb Diet
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11120161 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
The adoption of carbohydrate-restrictive diets to improve health is increasing in popularity, but there is a dearth of research on individuals who choose to severely restrict or entirely exclude carbohydrates. The present study investigated the beliefs and experiences of individuals following a diet [...] Read more.
The adoption of carbohydrate-restrictive diets to improve health is increasing in popularity, but there is a dearth of research on individuals who choose to severely restrict or entirely exclude carbohydrates. The present study investigated the beliefs and experiences of individuals following a diet that severely limits, or entirely excludes, dietary carbohydrates, colloquially known as a ‘zero-carb’ diet, for at least 6 months. Zero-carb dieters (n = 170) recruited via a social networking site completed an online qualitative survey prompting them to discuss their motives, rationale, and experiences of following a low-carb diet. Transcripts of participants’ responses were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results revealed that participants’ decision to follow a zero-carb diet was driven by health concerns and benefits. Participants expressed a strong social identity and belongingness to online zero-carb communities. Participants reported strong intentions to follow the diet indefinitely. Shortcomings of the diet centered on experienced stigma; lack of support from healthcare providers and significant others; limited access to, and high cost of, foods; and limited scientific data on the diet. Further research into the benefits and shortcomings of zero-carb diets across settings and populations is warranted, and guidelines for healthcare professionals on how to support individuals following a zero-carb diet are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior Change: Theories, Methods, and Interventions)
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