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Article

Health-Related Quality of Life, Family Conflicts and Fear of Injecting: Perception Differences between Preadolescents and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes and Their Mothers

1
Department of Development and Social Psychology, University of Padua, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Pediatric Diabetes Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Azienda Ospedale Università di Padova, 35127 Padova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Andrew Soundy
Received: 8 May 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 6 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
Good management of diabetes requires at the same time self-regulation behaviour and a balanced involvement of family components. This cross-sectional study’s aims were: understanding fear of injections and perceptions of family conflicts in preadolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers, comparing their perceptions, and identifying the risk factors impacting patients’ quality of life. Eligibility criteria were: treatment for diabetes mellitus type I, currently aged 10–18 years, attending the hospital for annual hospital follow-ups. Exclusion criteria were: intellectual disabilities, inability to complete questionnaires alone and neuropsychiatric illness with active pharmacotherapy. The study design was cross-sectional. Participants were one hundred and two patients (Mean age = 14.6, SD = 2.4; age range = 10–19 years; Females = 52 and Males = 50) and their mothers (Mean age = 46.9, SD = 6.2, age range = 27–63 years), who filled in self and proxy-report questionnaires (N total= 204). The results showed that 20% of patients and 14.7% of their mothers reported clinical scores for fear of self-injection and blood testing. The mothers reported lower fear of injecting and higher family conflicts compared with the patients. Age, fear of injecting and family conflicts were significantly associated with patients’ quality of life perceptions. Clinical considerations and recommendations are given based on the empirical results. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescents; diabetes type I; quality of life; family conflicts; fear of injecting adolescents; diabetes type I; quality of life; family conflicts; fear of injecting
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tremolada, M.; Cusinato, M.; Bonichini, S.; Fabris, A.; Gabrielli, C.; Moretti, C. Health-Related Quality of Life, Family Conflicts and Fear of Injecting: Perception Differences between Preadolescents and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes and Their Mothers. Behav. Sci. 2021, 11, 98. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11070098

AMA Style

Tremolada M, Cusinato M, Bonichini S, Fabris A, Gabrielli C, Moretti C. Health-Related Quality of Life, Family Conflicts and Fear of Injecting: Perception Differences between Preadolescents and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes and Their Mothers. Behavioral Sciences. 2021; 11(7):98. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11070098

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tremolada, Marta, Maria Cusinato, Sabrina Bonichini, Arianna Fabris, Claudia Gabrielli, and Carlo Moretti. 2021. "Health-Related Quality of Life, Family Conflicts and Fear of Injecting: Perception Differences between Preadolescents and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes and Their Mothers" Behavioral Sciences 11, no. 7: 98. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11070098

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