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Behav. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 9 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sedentary behaviors, low levels of physical activity (PA), and low body image quality of life (BIQL) have been identified during college years and are associated with poor health outcomes. Public health efforts have focused on decreasing sedentary time by increasing light PA, both of which have been associated with BIQL. We examined objective actigraphy, demographic and BIQL data from 404 young adults with overweight and obesity. BIQL was positively correlated with light PA and inversely correlated with body mass index and sedentary time. When controlling for covariates, higher BIQL was significantly associated with higher levels of light PA and lower sedentary time. Participants with lower BIQL enrolled in weight loss interventions may benefit from prescriptions of light PA in conjunction with decreasing sedentary behaviors. View this paper.
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Review
Social and Mental Health Impact of Nuclear Disaster in Survivors: A Narrative Review
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11080113 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 868
Abstract
This narrative review synthesizes the literature on the psychological consequences of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident of 1979, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster of 1986, and the Fukushima nuclear disaster of 2011. A search was conducted on OVID for studies in English from [...] Read more.
This narrative review synthesizes the literature on the psychological consequences of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident of 1979, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster of 1986, and the Fukushima nuclear disaster of 2011. A search was conducted on OVID for studies in English from 1966 to 2020. Fifty-nine studies were included. Living through a nuclear disaster is associated with higher levels of PTSD, depression, and anxiety. Decontamination workers, those living in closest proximity to the reactor, and evacuees experience higher rates of mental health problems after a nuclear disaster. Those with greater psychological resilience and social supports experience lower rates of psychological distress. Individual-level interventions, such as mindfulness training, behavioral activation, and cognitive reappraisal training, have shown modest benefits on improving psychological wellbeing. At the population level, many of the measures in place aimed at reducing exposure to radiation actually increase individuals’ anxiety. Technology-based supports have been studied in other types of natural disasters and it may be beneficial to look at mobile-based interventions for future nuclear disasters. Full article
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Concept Paper
The Good, the Bad and the Blend: The Strategic Role of the “Middle Leadership” in Work-Family/Life Dynamics during Remote Working
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11080112 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 858
Abstract
The ongoing epidemiological crisis has suddenly steered us towards a new futuristic work scenario in which most service sector employees work remotely, which could be a permanent reality for most service sector employees. This paper focuses on the strategic role that leadership could [...] Read more.
The ongoing epidemiological crisis has suddenly steered us towards a new futuristic work scenario in which most service sector employees work remotely, which could be a permanent reality for most service sector employees. This paper focuses on the strategic role that leadership could play in the radical change process that is taking place in work environments. Particular attention was paid to the role of ‘middle managers’ who perform an important function as a link between the strategic vision of top management and the workforce. In addition, special attention was paid to gender differences in work-life dynamics, which are particularly relevant in countries with traditional cultural identities. As this is a conceptual contribution, the most recent studies on this specific role of middle managers have been taken into account and embedded in the current scenario. Therefore, the main contribution in terms of originality was that the current review aimed to leverage such a legacy of knowledge and create a system of evidence-based practical implications for effectively supporting change in organizational culture through the identification of the most appropriate middle management leadership models for remote working that could prevent and/or limit any psychosocial risks (e.g., workaholism and technostress) and longer-term outcomes such as sustainable work-life interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Body Image Quality of Life Related to Light Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior among Young Adults with Overweight/Obesity
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11080111 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Sedentary behaviors, low levels of physical activity (PA), and low body image quality of life have been identified during college years and associated with poor health outcomes. Public health efforts have recently focused on decreasing sedentary time by increasing light physical activity, both [...] Read more.
Sedentary behaviors, low levels of physical activity (PA), and low body image quality of life have been identified during college years and associated with poor health outcomes. Public health efforts have recently focused on decreasing sedentary time by increasing light physical activity, both of which have been associated with body image quality of life, though mainly through self-report. In this cross-sectional study, we examined objective actigraphy and survey data from 404 of 459 young adults with overweight and obesity (mean age 23.3 ± 4.4 years, 78.4% female, 55.4% white). PA was measured using an accelerometer worn during waking hours for >10 h/day for four days. Body image quality of life was assessed using the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory Scale. Body image was positively correlated with light PA (r = 0.15) and inversely correlated with BMI (Pearson’s r = −0.20) and sedentary time (r = −0.10), but not moderate PA, vigorous PA, or MVPA. Light PA and sedentary time were significantly inversely correlated (r = −0.38). When controlling for covariates, higher body image quality of life was significantly associated with higher levels of light PA (β = 0.39; p < 0.01) and lower sedentary time (β = −0.39; p = 0.02). Participants with lower body image quality of life enrolled in weight loss interventions may benefit from prescriptions of light PA in conjunction with decreasing sedentary behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
Review
A Biopsychosocial Approach to Grief, Depression, and the Role of Emotional Regulation
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11080110 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1023
Abstract
According to the field of affective neuroscience, grief has been identified as one of the seven primary emotions necessary for human survival. However, maladaptive grief could cause significant impairment in an individual’s life, leading to psychopathologies such as major depressive disorder. Research on [...] Read more.
According to the field of affective neuroscience, grief has been identified as one of the seven primary emotions necessary for human survival. However, maladaptive grief could cause significant impairment in an individual’s life, leading to psychopathologies such as major depressive disorder. Research on grief has shifted to a biopsychosocial approach, leaving behind outdated models—such as the Kübler-Ross theory—that have shown poor consistency. The field of psychoneuroimmunology has identified adverse life events such as social loss as being associated with major depressive disorder, and inflammatory processes in chronic health conditions. Likewise, scientists in the field of affective neuroscience have theorized that prolonged and sustained activation of the grief neurological pathway can cause a cascade of neurotransmitters that inhibits the reward-seeking system, causing symptoms of depression. The objective of this review is to highlight findings on the grief process using a biopsychosocial approach to explore grief’s impact on psychopathophysiology. Full article
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Article
Personal Values in Relation to Risk Intelligence: Evidence from a Multi-Mediation Model
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11080109 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
In a risk society, personal values can be important resources, useful for managing uncertainty and guiding people in the perception of risk. The goal of this article is to explore the relationship between risk intelligence and personal values. The participants were 731 Italian [...] Read more.
In a risk society, personal values can be important resources, useful for managing uncertainty and guiding people in the perception of risk. The goal of this article is to explore the relationship between risk intelligence and personal values. The participants were 731 Italian adults aged between 18 and 65 years (M = 30.25; DS = 10.71). The survey was composed of the following measures: Subjective Risk Intelligence Scale and Portrait Values Questionnaire. Data analyses have found significant relationships between some types of personal values and risk intelligence: subjective risk intelligence is negatively related to conservation and positively related to openness to change and self-transcendence, but it was not related to self-enhancement. Furthermore, values of openness to change and self-transcendence mediate the relationship between age and subjective risk intelligence, while conservation values and self-enhancement values did not mediate the same relationship. Implication for practice and future research will be discussed. Full article
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Article
Understanding the Emotional Impact of GIFs on Instagram through Consumer Neuroscience
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11080108 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 919
Abstract
The ability of GIFs to generate emotionality in social media marketing strategies is analyzed. The aim of this work is to show how neuroscience research techniques can be integrated into the analysis of emotions, improving the results and helping to guide actions in [...] Read more.
The ability of GIFs to generate emotionality in social media marketing strategies is analyzed. The aim of this work is to show how neuroscience research techniques can be integrated into the analysis of emotions, improving the results and helping to guide actions in social networks. This research is structured in two phases: an experimental study using automated biometric analysis (facial coding, GSR and eye tracking) and an analysis of declared feelings in the comments of Instagram users. Explicit valence, type of emotion, length of comment and proportion of emojis are extracted. The results indicate that the explicit measure of emotional valence shows a higher and more positive emotional level than the implicit one. This difference is influenced differently by the engagement and the proportion of emojis in the comment. A further step has been taken in the measurement of user emotionality in social media campaigns, including not only content analysis, but also providing new insights thanks to neuromarketing. Full article
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Article
Validation of the Japanese Version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale—Revised: A Preliminary Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11080107 - 24 Jul 2021
Viewed by 882
Abstract
To make the Japanese version of the CESD-R—a revised version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale (CES-D)—in the assessment of depressive symptoms in a general population. The English version of CESD-R was translated into Japanese, and back-translated into English by three [...] Read more.
To make the Japanese version of the CESD-R—a revised version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale (CES-D)—in the assessment of depressive symptoms in a general population. The English version of CESD-R was translated into Japanese, and back-translated into English by three native speakers of Japanese and English; then, we selected the version most completely consistent with the original items. The CESD-R was applied to 398 community-dwelling people (191 men: 48.0%, and 207 women: 52.0%) who were over 40 years old. The Japanese version of the CES-D was also carried out in the same population. Factor analysis was performed. Additionally, the correlations between the CESD-R and CES-D results were identified. The CESD-R scores showed a significantly positive correlation with CES-D scores (r = 0.74, p < 0.0005). Analysis of the CESD-R yielded a Cronbach’s alpha result of 0.90. Factor analysis revealed one principal factor in the CESD-R, whereas the original CES-D had two factors because of reversed items. The Japanese version of the CESD-R appears to have the reliability to be applicable for assessing depressive symptoms in population-based samples. However, because the Japanese expressions for some items might be unusual, our study population was also limited; further studies on other populations and on incorporating improved Japanese terminology will be needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
Analyzing Predictors of Control Measures and Psychosocial Problems Associated with COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Eight Countries
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11080106 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1308
Abstract
COVID-19 has harshly impacted communities globally. This study provides relevant information for creating equitable policy interventions to combat the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to predict the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of the COVID-19 pandemic at a global level to determine [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has harshly impacted communities globally. This study provides relevant information for creating equitable policy interventions to combat the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to predict the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of the COVID-19 pandemic at a global level to determine control measures and psychosocial problems. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to October 2020 using an online questionnaire. Questionnaires were initially distributed to academicians worldwide. These participants distributed the survey among their social, professional, and personal groups. Responses were collected and analyzed from 67 countries, with a sample size of 3031. Finally, based on the number of respondents, eight countries, including Bangladesh, China, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, the United States, and Zambia were rigorously analyzed. Specifically, questionnaire responses related to COVID-19 accessibility, behavior, knowledge, opinion, psychological health, and susceptibility were collected and analyzed. As per our analysis, age groups were found to be a primary determinant of behavior, knowledge, opinion, psychological health, and susceptibility scores. Gender was the second most influential determinant for all metrics except information about COVID-19 accessibility, for which education was the second most important determinant. Respondent profession was the third most important metric for all scores. Our findings suggest that health authorities must promote health educations, implement related policies to disseminate COVID-19-awareness that can prevent and control the spread of COVID-19 infection. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Dengue among Physicians: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs11080105 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Dengue fever is one of the most important viral infections transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Accurate identification of cases and treatment of dengue patients at the early stages can reduce medical complications and dengue mortality [...] Read more.
Dengue fever is one of the most important viral infections transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Accurate identification of cases and treatment of dengue patients at the early stages can reduce medical complications and dengue mortality rate. This survey aims to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among physicians in dengue diagnosis and treatment. This study was conducted among physicians in Turkey as one nonendemic country and Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia as three dengue-endemic countries. The dosing frequencies, maximum doses, and contraindications in dengue fever were examined. The results found that physicians from Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia have higher KAP scores in dengue diagnosis and treatment compared to physicians in Turkey. This may be due to a lack of physician’s exposure to a dengue patient as Turkey is considered a nonendemic country. This assessment may help establish a guideline for intervention strategies among physicians to have successful treatment outcomes and reduce dengue mortality. Full article
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