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Behav. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 43 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Alexithymia, parental bonding, and psychopathology were assessed in 32 families of adolescents with AN, their siblings, and their parents. We aimed to (a) describe a sample of families with a child affected by AN; (b) investigate interactions between assessed constructs in every family member; and (c) investigate intergenerational effects. The results showed high alexithymia and psychopathological symptoms in patients but not in siblings, although the latter reported high obsession–compulsion and paranoid ideation scores. Patients’ and siblings’ alexithymia correlated with psychopathology. Parents reported low alexithymia. Perceived parental bonding was found to be suboptimal in most participants, yet no clear relationship was found between specific parenting styles and other measured traits, nor did we find any other relevant intergenerational effect. View this paper
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Article
Gym-Goers’ Self-Identification with Physically Attractive Fitness Trainers and Intention to Exercise
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050158 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Gym-goers often socially compare themselves with their trainers as they strive to look as attractive as their fitness trainers. The aim of this study was to better understand this phenomenon in the fitness industry. Relying on social comparison theory and social identity theory, [...] Read more.
Gym-goers often socially compare themselves with their trainers as they strive to look as attractive as their fitness trainers. The aim of this study was to better understand this phenomenon in the fitness industry. Relying on social comparison theory and social identity theory, self-identification with a physically attractive fitness trainer was posited to have a strong mediating effect on the relationship between appearance motive, weight management motive and gym-goers’ intention to exercise. The moderation effects of gym-goers’ age and gender in the direct relationships between appearance motive, weight management motive and exercise intention were also examined. The primary outcome of this study revealed that gym-goers who were influenced by appearance and weight management motives are more likely to identify with physically attractive fitness trainers. Additionally, gender significantly moderates the relationships between appearance motive, weight management motive and exercise intention. Appearance and weight management motives are the primary factors that influence the exercise intention of female gym-goers as compared to their male counterparts. This study sheds new insights into understanding the influence of the physical attractiveness of fitness trainers and its impact on gym-goers’ exercise intentions via self and social identification process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
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Article
Machiavellianism and Gift-Giving in Live Video Streaming: The Mediating Role of Desire for Control and the Moderating Role of Materialism
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050157 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 599
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the association between Machiavellianism and gift-giving in live video streaming, as well as the mediating role of desire for control and the moderating role of materialism in this relation. A sample of 212 undergraduate students (146 males; the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the association between Machiavellianism and gift-giving in live video streaming, as well as the mediating role of desire for control and the moderating role of materialism in this relation. A sample of 212 undergraduate students (146 males; the average age was 19.80 ± 2.05 years old) with experience of gift-giving in live video streaming was recruited to complete questionnaires on Machiavellianism, desire for control, materialism, and the frequency of gift-giving in live video streaming. The results showed that Machiavellianism was positively associated with gift-giving in live video streaming through the mediating role of desire for control; and the mediating effect of desire for control was moderated by materialism, with this relation being stronger for individuals with a higher level of materialism. Though with several limitations (e.g., cross-sectional method), this study could deepen our understanding of the influencing mechanism of gift-giving in live video streaming, which could also provide practical implications for the sustainable development of the live video streaming industry. Full article
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Article
Abusive Supervision and Employee’s Creative Performance: A Serial Mediation Model of Relational Conflict and Employee Silence
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050156 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Many previous studies on creativity have focused on discovering positive factors to improve creativity and innovation performance from leader, individual, and organizational perspectives. However, research on factors that hinder creative performance was relatively insufficient. This study examines leaders’ behavior that hinders employees’ creative [...] Read more.
Many previous studies on creativity have focused on discovering positive factors to improve creativity and innovation performance from leader, individual, and organizational perspectives. However, research on factors that hinder creative performance was relatively insufficient. This study examines leaders’ behavior that hinders employees’ creative performance by focusing on abusive supervision. Based on the Korean employee context, our research model draws upon constructs of abusive supervision, relational conflict, employee silence, and creative performance to hypothesize serial mediation mechanisms connecting abusive supervision to creative performance. Using survey data of 555 Korean employees, we find that abusive supervision is negatively related to creative performance. We also find that both relational conflict and employee silence mediate the relationship between abusive supervision and employee creative performance. More importantly, our empirical analysis indicates that a serial mediation effect testing a dual coordination effect was identified in the process of the leader’s abusive supervision leading to employee’s creative performance. Although many previous studies were focused on a single medium effect in the relationship between leadership types and employee creativity, this study applied the serial mediation effects in the relationship to test a dual medium effect. We further addressed a more complex process to explain the path of reducing creative performance by supervisor abusive supervision. We conclude by discussing both theoretical and practical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Review
A Scoping Review of Interventions for Family Bereavement Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050155 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 654
Abstract
The death of a loved one is a major stressor, and bereaved people are at a higher risk of negative health effects. This risk is higher during the COVID-19 pandemic, which raises the need for understanding existing bereavement support interventions. This scoping review [...] Read more.
The death of a loved one is a major stressor, and bereaved people are at a higher risk of negative health effects. This risk is higher during the COVID-19 pandemic, which raises the need for understanding existing bereavement support interventions. This scoping review aimed to map and summarize findings from the existing literature regarding bereavement support interventions (i.e., psychosocial and psychotherapeutic interventions) for family carers of people who died of COVID-19. The Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework was used. Five databases—Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science—were searched for articles available from the inception of COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020) to January 2022, following the PRISMA guidelines. Among the 990 studies identified, only seven met this study’s inclusion criteria. The analysis comprised three key topics: types of support programmes and bereavement interventions; tools used to measure the outcomes; and evidence of the impacts of the interventions. All studies analysed included interdisciplinary interventions, commonly developed in clinical settings. Support for recently bereaved individuals can entail cognitive behavioural therapy strategies and other tools to educate, guide, support, and promote healthy integration of loss. To mitigate the effects of non-normative family bereavement, we recommend a systematic approach and coordination between organizational settings, including access to informal and professional support, in order to find hope while navigating the aftermath of COVID-19. Full article
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Article
Musical Enjoyment and Reward: From Hedonic Pleasure to Eudaimonic Listening
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050154 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 731
Abstract
This article is a hypothesis and theory paper. It elaborates on the possible relation between music as a stimulus and its possible effects, with a focus on the question of why listeners are experiencing pleasure and reward. Though it is tempting to seek [...] Read more.
This article is a hypothesis and theory paper. It elaborates on the possible relation between music as a stimulus and its possible effects, with a focus on the question of why listeners are experiencing pleasure and reward. Though it is tempting to seek for a causal relationship, this has proven to be elusive given the many intermediary variables that intervene between the actual impingement on the senses and the reactions/responses by the listener. A distinction can be made, however, between three elements: (i) an objective description of the acoustic features of the music and their possible role as elicitors; (ii) a description of the possible modulating factors—both external/exogenous and internal/endogenous ones; and (iii) a continuous and real-time description of the responses by the listener, both in terms of their psychological reactions and their physiological correlates. Music listening, in this broadened view, can be considered as a multivariate phenomenon of biological, psychological, and cultural factors that, together, shape the overall, full-fledged experience. In addition to an overview of the current and extant research on musical enjoyment and reward, we draw attention to some key methodological problems that still complicate a full description of the musical experience. We further elaborate on how listening may entail both adaptive and maladaptive ways of coping with the sounds, with the former allowing a gentle transition from mere hedonic pleasure to eudaimonic enjoyment. Full article
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Article
Effects of a Hybrid Program of Active Breaks and Responsibility on the Behaviour of Primary Students: A Mixed Methods Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050153 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Schools are ideal environments to promote healthy lifestyles and teach values among students. In this sense, the present study aims to verify the result of an Active Break program (AB) within the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) Model in the school environment. [...] Read more.
Schools are ideal environments to promote healthy lifestyles and teach values among students. In this sense, the present study aims to verify the result of an Active Break program (AB) within the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) Model in the school environment. The sample consisted of two teachers/tutors from the sixth year of Primary Education and 51 pupils, aged between 11 and 13 years, who were divided into an experimental group (n = 26) and a control group (n = 25). The intervention program lasted 3 months, in which the hybridised methodology was applied during 100% of the weekly classes, computing a total of 156 sessions by the end of the study. It was a quasi-experimental study design that used a mixed methodology combining a systematic observational analysis with semi-structured interviews. The results showed an evolution in the behaviour of the teacher from the experimental group from a controlling style to one centred on the transfer of autonomy, while the teacher from the control group primarily used strategies based on the imposition of tasks and the establishment of organisation, which caused an increase in disruptive behaviours among students. We conclude that the program is adaptable to Primary Education and can be extended to any educational environment to improve the classroom climate and attract the attention of students and, finally, allows for the promotion of new teaching strategies. Full article
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Editorial
Disasters, Diagnosis, and Distress: Multiple Perspectives, Populations, and Methodologies
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050152 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Disaster mental health is a consequential topic in today’s world in which disasters are increasing in both numbers and magnitude and inflicting deep psychological wounds across wide populations [...] Full article
Article
The Communicative Effectiveness of Branding at Sports Press Conferences
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050151 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 639
Abstract
This scientific work studies brand placement in the press conferences of soccer coaches and evaluates their communicative effectiveness through the measurement of their cognitive and affective effects on the viewers. In this research, we established the following objectives: (1) to examine the characteristics [...] Read more.
This scientific work studies brand placement in the press conferences of soccer coaches and evaluates their communicative effectiveness through the measurement of their cognitive and affective effects on the viewers. In this research, we established the following objectives: (1) to examine the characteristics of the practice of brand placement in football press conferences: the diffusion times of brands, space occupied on the screen, and categories of brands placed; (2) to evaluate the behaviour of the human eye when viewing press conferences, in terms of continuous movements (saccades) and fixations (fixations) on brands; (3) to gauge the spontaneous and assisted recall of brands by subjects; (4) to verify the correlation between the persistence of visual fixations and recall/recognition; (5) to investigate the changes in subjects’ attitudes towards brands viewed in the experimental context. An exploratory observation was made that enabled a more in-depth knowledge and implementation of brand placement at sports conferences. For the experimental observation, a 2 × 2 factorial design of independent groups with total randomization was defined in order to perceive the influence of the variables “time” and “quantity” on the communicative effectiveness of the placed tags. In order to collect the data, a combination of several tested and validated tools was used, namely the screen division grid in surface units, as advocated by Bravo (1995); the technology of eye-tracking as an instrument for the recognition of the ocular movements of subjects in the observation space; surveys tested for cognitive gauging; and a semantic differential scale to assess attitudes toward the brand. The results indicate that the subjects recall in a spontaneous and suggested way the brands placed at the press conferences and develop positive attitudes about them. The recall is influenced by the diffusion time of the stimulus, and above all, the type of placement on the screen is decisive. It was not found that the brands to which subjects develop more positive attitudes were the most remembered. Finally, the face of the soccer coach is the main focus of attention of the subjects, and the areas surrounding this interlocutor are the ones that arouse the most interest in terms of the placement of brands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Determinants of HIV Testing during Pregnancy among Pregnant Sudanese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050150 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 666
Abstract
More than 90% of children who are HIV positive were infected via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). In Sudan, HIV testing rates during pregnancy remain low. This study aimed to understand the key determinants of HIV testing and their association with pregnant women’s intention to [...] Read more.
More than 90% of children who are HIV positive were infected via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). In Sudan, HIV testing rates during pregnancy remain low. This study aimed to understand the key determinants of HIV testing and their association with pregnant women’s intention to undergo HIV test during pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 770 Sudanese pregnant women attending Antenatal care (ANC) visits at maternity hospitals. Based on the flow of antenatal care attendants, the calculated sample size was proportionally allocated to the hospitals. Doctors were most influential regarding pregnant women’s decision to undergo an HIV test during pregnancy (78.8%). Younger women were more likely to be tested. Most participants (68.9%) had high susceptibility with respect to HIV. Nearly half (48.3%) had a positive attitude towards HIV testing. Self-efficacy with regard to HIV testing was high (59.1%). Women with high self-efficacy and perceived susceptibility were more likely to have a greater intention to be tested for HIV. No significant association was found with perceived severity and stigma. Our study shows that the intention to undergo HIV testing among pregnant women is influenced by doctors and associated with self-efficacy and perceived susceptibility, which are important avenues for future intervention efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
Article
Anxiety and Sleep Quality Amelioration in College Students: A Comparative Study between Team Sports and Individual Sports
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050149 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Background: Anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders and is often accompanied by sleep disturbances. Studies have focused on the ameliorative effect of sports games on anxiety and its subsidiary issues. However, the effect on the improvement of such mental and [...] Read more.
Background: Anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders and is often accompanied by sleep disturbances. Studies have focused on the ameliorative effect of sports games on anxiety and its subsidiary issues. However, the effect on the improvement of such mental and physical disorders between individual sports and team group sports is not yet clear, especially regarding their effects on anxiety and sleep quality improvement. Therefore, this paper explores the improvement effects of individual sports and team sports participation on anxiety symptoms and sleep quality amelioration. Objective: To explore the effects of individual and team group sports participation on ameliorating college students’ anxiety symptoms and sleep quality. Methods: A total of 197 college students were sampled in the study. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were used to assess the severity of anxiety symptoms and level of sleep quality. Participants were randomly divided into three groups: team sports, individual sports, and control groups. The distribution ratio of these groups was 1:1:1. Results: Generally, compared with the control group, the subjects in the team sports group and individual sports group had greater improvements in anxiety amelioration and sleep quality improvements. Specifically, the improvement effect between individual and team sports groups was different. To assess the resulting differences, improvements in anxiety symptoms and sleep quality were compared between the team sports group and the individual sports group with reference to the mean change in the control group. In the corrected model, the odds advantage ratio (OR) of anxiety symptom improvement after individual sports was 3.18 (CI 2.87–11.21), and the advantage OR of anxiety symptom improvement after team sports was 4.99 (CI 4.06–14.87). The advantage OR of sleep quality improvement after individual sports was 7.32 (CI 5.53–18.22), and the advantage OR of anxiety symptom improvement after team sports was 7.98 (CI 6.69–19.98). Conclusion: After 6 weeks of intervention, it was found that both team sports and individual sports improved anxiety symptoms and sleep quality with different effects. Team sports were better at improving anxiety, while individual sports and team sports shared the same improvement effect with no significant difference in sleep quality improvement. Full article
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Article
Moral Observer-Licensing in Cyberspace
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050148 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Moral observer-licensing happens when observers condone actors’ morally questionable conduct due to the actors’ history of moral behaviors. In four studies (N = 808), we investigated this phenomenon in the context of cyberspace and its contributing factors and boundary conditions. The pilot study [...] Read more.
Moral observer-licensing happens when observers condone actors’ morally questionable conduct due to the actors’ history of moral behaviors. In four studies (N = 808), we investigated this phenomenon in the context of cyberspace and its contributing factors and boundary conditions. The pilot study determined what participants perceived as typically moral and immoral behaviors in cyberspace. Then, in Study 1, participants condemned a story character’s online immoral behavior less often when they were informed of the character’s prior online moral behavior than when they were not, which indicates moral observer-licensing in cyberspace. Study 2 confirmed the presence of moral observer-licensing in cyberspace and further demonstrated that a character’s prior moral or immoral behavior online respectively reduces or intensifies the perceived negativity of the character’s subsequent immoral behavior. Finally, Study 3 showed that participants who identified with the victim in a hypothetical scenario showed less forgiveness and more condemnation of a character’s immoral behavior than those who identified with the perpetrator or the bystander. These findings are of theoretical and practical significance for our understanding of cyber ethics. Full article
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Article
Aggression in Adolescents: The Role of Mother-Child Attachment and Self-Esteem
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050147 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Every year, adolescents’ aggressive behavior in the world continues to increase, including in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Teenagers’ aggressive behavior in Yogyakarta leads to criminal acts resulting in physical sacrifices and death. The aggressive behavior of teenagers is known as Klithih. It develops and [...] Read more.
Every year, adolescents’ aggressive behavior in the world continues to increase, including in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Teenagers’ aggressive behavior in Yogyakarta leads to criminal acts resulting in physical sacrifices and death. The aggressive behavior of teenagers is known as Klithih. It develops and continues to increase every year, causing public anxiety and concern. This study aimed to examine the role of mother–child attachment and self-esteem against aggression. Aggression, mother’s attachment, and self-esteem scales were deployed to collect data and were filled out by 730 high school students between 15 and 19 years old from twenty-three schools in five municipalities in Yogyakarta Province (M = 16.52, SD = 0.793, 310 male students and 420 female students). Descriptive statistics described research data by IBM SPSS 23 and structural equation modeling by AMOS v20 to test research hypotheses. The results of the study showed a good fit, indicating that self-esteem might enhance the effect of each mother’s attachment style on aggression. Our study showed that insecure attachment positively and significantly affected aggression and negatively and significantly affected self-esteem. Furthermore, it also revealed that anxious attachment positively and significantly influenced aggression and negatively and significantly influenced self-esteem. Lastly, our finding revealed that self-esteem negatively and significantly affected aggression. These findings suggested that better mother’s attachment and higher self-esteem in adolescents may lower the possibility of aggression, whereas insecure attachment, anxious attachment, and low self-esteem may increase the risk of aggression. Full article
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Article
Sensory Stimuli to Sustainable Social Wellbeing: A Multimodal Approach Based on Warm Scent
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050146 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Sensory experiences affect individuals’ judgment and behavior through the metaphors that experiences carry. The literature has demonstrated that the perception of warmth activates concepts related to positive meaning and metaphors, such as consideration and gentleness, which increase individuals’ tendency to help or relate [...] Read more.
Sensory experiences affect individuals’ judgment and behavior through the metaphors that experiences carry. The literature has demonstrated that the perception of warmth activates concepts related to positive meaning and metaphors, such as consideration and gentleness, which increase individuals’ tendency to help or relate to others. This study hypothesized that warm olfactory stimuli influence intention toward prosocial behavior by increasing the need for social connectedness (NSC). The first experiment (n = 123) demonstrated that the actual warm scent increased participants’ intentions for prosocial behavior and that the effect of the actual warm scent was mediated by NSC. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a second experiment (n = 995) was conducted the showed that warm scent simulated via visual stimuli (i.e., a multimodal approach) led to prosocial behavior intention as well. The results of the study provide academic and managerial insights into how to improve prosocial behavior intention, which is essential for the sustainable development of societies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
Gender Differences in the Relationship between Interpersonal Trust and Innovative Behavior: The Mediating Effects of Affective Organizational Commitment and Knowledge-Sharing
by and
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050145 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 608
Abstract
The innovative behavior of employees is the micro-foundation of enterprise innovation. The objective of this study was to assess the role of gender differences in the effect of interpersonal trust on employee innovation and the mediating roles of organizational commitment and knowledge-sharing. This [...] Read more.
The innovative behavior of employees is the micro-foundation of enterprise innovation. The objective of this study was to assess the role of gender differences in the effect of interpersonal trust on employee innovation and the mediating roles of organizational commitment and knowledge-sharing. This study tested research hypotheses with a multi-group structural equation model, using data collected from 688 participants in Shanghai, China. The results showed that interpersonal trust had significant impacts on affective organizational commitment, knowledge-sharing and innovation behavior. Affective organizational commitment and knowledge-sharing mediated the effect of interpersonal trust on employee innovation. Furthermore, the direct impact of interpersonal trust on innovative behavior was significantly higher for women than for men, whereas males’ affective organizational commitment increased their knowledge-sharing behaviors. In addition, there were no significant gender differences in the effect of interpersonal trust on organizational commitment and in the effect of knowledge-sharing on innovative behavior. These results confirmed that interpersonal trust was more important for female knowledge-sharing and innovative behavior, and affective organizational commitment was more important for male knowledge-sharing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Conception Preferences during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdowns
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050144 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 lockdowns imposed new challenges to couples who were planning to conceive. In this research paper, we aimed to study the perceptions of women in Jordan during the pandemic regarding fertility behavior, the desire to use assisted reproductive technology (ART) and [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 lockdowns imposed new challenges to couples who were planning to conceive. In this research paper, we aimed to study the perceptions of women in Jordan during the pandemic regarding fertility behavior, the desire to use assisted reproductive technology (ART) and the awareness and beliefs of potential risks related to conception. Methods: A validated online-based questionnaire was distributed to women from April–May 2020, Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software SPSS version 22 and R software (2020); p values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The total number of participants was 814 women, with 78.2% of the participants (58.7% fertile and 76.6% infertile) believing that pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic could be risky. Among them, 16% and 40%, respectively, were trying to conceive during the pandemic, and 97.4% and 89.9%, respectively, were not willing to use ART if needed during the pandemic. Young, nulliparous women who were married for less than one year were significantly associated with the desire to conceive during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: This study concluded that the fertility behavior of women in Jordan changed during the pandemic, and their desire for natural conception and for using ART declined, as they believed that there were potential risks related to conceiving during the pandemic. However, the effect was greater among the general fertile population than the infertile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Mental Health—Individual and Family Aspects)
Article
From Regulating Emotions to Less Lonely Screen Time: Parents’ Qualitative Perspectives of the Benefits and Challenges of Adolescent Pet Companionship
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050143 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Adolescence is a prime developmental period to explore human–pet relationships, particularly given that teens are often relying less on their families, and more on other attachment figures such as peers and pets. However, most research on pet companionship is conducted with adults and [...] Read more.
Adolescence is a prime developmental period to explore human–pet relationships, particularly given that teens are often relying less on their families, and more on other attachment figures such as peers and pets. However, most research on pet companionship is conducted with adults and young children. Moreover, lived experiences around having pets in households with adolescents are underexplored, particularly from parents’ perspectives. This qualitative interview study of 31 parents/guardians in the Northeast U.S. explored perceptions of the benefits and challenges of having pets for their adolescent’s well-being as well as how adolescents affected their pet’s well-being. Our three main themes for perceived benefits of pets included social (e.g., reducing anxiety), physical (e.g., screen time companionship), and emotional (e.g., regulation of difficult emotions such as anger, loneliness). Challenges to adolescent well-being included such social topics as family tension around unevenly shared responsibilities, physical themes such as problematic animal behaviors, and emotional themes related to grieving the passing of pets. We offer a developmental systems approach to understanding pets within adolescent families, noting future directions for developing family interventions to improve pet–adolescent interactions given the demands of child and pet upbringing during adolescence. Full article
Article
Fear of Death in Medical Students from a Peruvian University during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050142 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Due to close contact with death, medical students may question their own and their patients’ dying process, especially with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the increase in deaths. This situation provokes fear and negative attitudes towards dealing with patients and their [...] Read more.
Due to close contact with death, medical students may question their own and their patients’ dying process, especially with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the increase in deaths. This situation provokes fear and negative attitudes towards dealing with patients and their environment. This study aimed to assess the level of fear of death and associated factors in medical students at a Peruvian university. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted during March 2021 in human medicine students from the first to the seventh year. A validated survey including the Collet–Lester fear-of-death scale was applied. Factors associated with the fear-of-death score were evaluated by calculating linear regression coefficients (β). A total of 284 students were included. The median age was 22 years, and 58.1% were female. The mean Collet–Lester scale score was 2.79, and it was higher in the dimensions related to the death of others. Adjusted analysis showed that the score on this scale was lower in students aged 24–40 years compared to 17–21 years (β: −0.25; 95% CI: −0.46 to −0.04) and those who had no religious beliefs (β: −0.29; 95% CI: −0.53 to −0.04). In conclusion, fear of death was lower than reported in other investigations despite the COVID-19 situation, being much lower among older students and those without religious beliefs. Full article
Article
Anxiety and Depression in Belgium during the First 15 Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Longitudinal Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050141 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 701
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic and policy measures enacted to contain the spread of the coronavirus have had nationwide psychological effects. This study aimed to assess the impact of the first 15 months of the COVID-19 pandemic on the level of anxiety (GAD-7 scale) and [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic and policy measures enacted to contain the spread of the coronavirus have had nationwide psychological effects. This study aimed to assess the impact of the first 15 months of the COVID-19 pandemic on the level of anxiety (GAD-7 scale) and depression (PHQ-9 scale) of the Belgian adult population. A longitudinal study was conducted from April 2020 to June 2021, with 1838 respondents participating in 6 online surveys. Linear mixed models were used to model the associations between the predictor variables and the mental health outcomes. Results showed that the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression was higher in times of stricter policy measures. Furthermore, after the initial stress from the outbreak, coping and adjustment were observed in participants, as symptoms of anxiety and depression decreased during times of lower policy restrictions to almost the same level as in pre-COVID times (2018). Though time trends were similar for all population subgroups, higher levels of both anxiety and depression were generally found among women, young people, people with poor social support, extraverts, people having pre-existing psychological problems, and people who were infected/exposed to the COVID-19 virus. Therefore, investment in mental health treatment programs and supports, especially for those risk groups, is crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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Article
Citizens’ Perception of COVID-19 Passport Usefulness: A Cross Sectional Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050140 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 2183
Abstract
This paper assesses the influence on people’s perception of the utility of the immunity passport (IP) program by sociodemographic factors, infectivity status, and the objective of its use. The material of this paper is a cross-sectional survey of 400 residents in Spain. The [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the influence on people’s perception of the utility of the immunity passport (IP) program by sociodemographic factors, infectivity status, and the objective of its use. The material of this paper is a cross-sectional survey of 400 residents in Spain. The relation between utility perception and input variables is fitted with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and linear quantile regression (LQR). The principal explanatory variable of usefulness perception is being vaccinated, especially when the objective of the IP is regulating mobility. The OLS estimate of the coefficient regression is (cr) = 0.415 (p = 0.001). We also found a positive and significant influence of that factor in all LQRs (cr = 0.652, p = 0.0026 at level (τ) = 0.75; cr = 0.482, p = 0.0047 at τ = 0.5 and cr = 0.201, p = 0.0385 at τ = 0.25). When the objective of the IP is regulating leisure, being vaccinated is relevant only to explain the central measures of usefulness perception. If the IP is used to regulate traveling, variables related to interviewees’ infectivity have greater relevance than sociodemographic factors. When its objective is ruling assembly, the more important variables than being vaccinated are gender and age. To create an effective implementation of the IP, it is advisable to have a general agreement among the population on its convenience. Therefore, the findings in this study have important implications for public health decision-makers. Full article
Article
Changing Times: The Impact of Digitalization on the Behavior of Professionals and Their Perception towards Development
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050139 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 712
Abstract
In 2020, the educational system was taken by surprise by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the educational institutions were delivering face-to-face classes and were forced to switch to online teaching in a very short period of time due to lockdown [...] Read more.
In 2020, the educational system was taken by surprise by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the educational institutions were delivering face-to-face classes and were forced to switch to online teaching in a very short period of time due to lockdown measures and the health and safety measures put in place by public authorities. In addition to universities, professional courses were also forced to be delivered online. Most of the time, these professional courses are important because they are directly linked to keeping the right to practice. The present paper focuses on the changing pattern in behavior of professionals and their acceptance of online courses. By applying over 1000 questionnaires in a timespan of more than one year, we have studied the impact of digitalization on the behavior and perception of professionals. We measured if the change towards online courses could be sustainable in the long run. The results of our study show that the behavior of professionals is different than those of students and that the online courses can be a long-term solution for education in professional environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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Review
Virtual Reality Technology as an Educational and Intervention Tool for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Perspectives and Future Directions
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050138 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 908
Abstract
The worldwide rising trend of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) calls for innovative and efficacious techniques for assessment and treatment. Virtual reality (VR) technology gains theoretical support from rehabilitation and pedagogical theories and offers a variety of capabilities in educational and interventional contexts with [...] Read more.
The worldwide rising trend of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) calls for innovative and efficacious techniques for assessment and treatment. Virtual reality (VR) technology gains theoretical support from rehabilitation and pedagogical theories and offers a variety of capabilities in educational and interventional contexts with affordable products. VR is attracting increasing attention in the medical and healthcare industry, as it provides fully interactive three-dimensional simulations of real-world settings and social situations, which are particularly suitable for cognitive and performance training, including social and interaction skills. This review article offers a summary of current perspectives and evidence-based VR applications for children with ASD, with a primary focus on social communication, including social functioning, emotion recognition, and speech and language. Technology- and design-related limitations, as well as disputes over the application of VR to autism research and therapy, are discussed, and future directions of this emerging field are highlighted with regards to application expansion and improvement, technology enhancement, linguistic diversity, and the development of theoretical models and brain-based research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training and Education in Children with Autism)
Article
Visual Affective Stimulus Database: A Validated Set of Short Videos
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050137 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Two hundred and ninety-nine videos representing four categories (people, animals, objects, and scenes) were standardized using Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2018, with a unified duration of 3 s, a resolution of 1080 pixels/inch, and a size of 1920 × 1080 mm2. [...] Read more.
Two hundred and ninety-nine videos representing four categories (people, animals, objects, and scenes) were standardized using Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2018, with a unified duration of 3 s, a resolution of 1080 pixels/inch, and a size of 1920 × 1080 mm2. One-hundred and sixteen participants (mean age 22.60 ± 2.06 years; 51 males) assessed the videos by scoring, on a self-reported 9-point scale, three dimensions of emotion: valence, arousal, and dominance. The content was attributed a specific valence (positive, neutral, or negative) if more than 60% of the participants identified it with an emotion category. Results: In total, 242 short videos, including 112 positive videos, 47 neutral videos, and 83 negative videos, were retained in the video stimuli database. In the three-dimensional degree of emotion, the distribution relationship between them conformed to the fundamental characteristics of emotion. The internal consistency reliability coefficient for valence, arousal, and dominance was 0.968, 0.984, and 0.970. The internal consistency reliability of the emotional dimensions for people and faces, animals, objects, and scenes ranged between 0.799 and 0.968. Conclusions: The emotion short-video system contains multi-scene dynamic stimuli with good reliability and scoring distribution and is applicable in emotion and emotion-related research. Full article
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Article
Does Value Lead to Loyalty? Exploring the Important Role of the Tourist–Destination Relationship
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050136 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 608
Abstract
The perceived value of a tourist’s trip, representing a trade-off between costs and benefits of travelling to a destination, can exert a significant influence on tourists’ loyalty, which is a main concern for managers of tourist destinations. However, the mechanism between the destination [...] Read more.
The perceived value of a tourist’s trip, representing a trade-off between costs and benefits of travelling to a destination, can exert a significant influence on tourists’ loyalty, which is a main concern for managers of tourist destinations. However, the mechanism between the destination value and tourist loyalty remains unexplored, especially in the new context of relationship marketing. To advance the understanding of the mechanism, we introduced 3 variables of “tourist–destination relationship”, namely place attachment (PA), destination trust (DT) and tourist satisfaction (TS), combined with perceived value (PV) and tourist loyalty (TL), and therefore constructed the conceptual model. Taking the Hangzhou City of China as an example, the conceptual model was fitted and tested using the structural equation model (SEM). The results show that: (1) PV can directly and positively affect TS and DT respectively, while there was no significant effect of PV on PA; (2) TS and DT can directly and positively influence TL, but the effect of PA on TL has not been supported empirically; (3) PV has a significant positive effect on TL; and (4) there are internal relationship among the 3 variables measuring the tourist–destination relationship, in other words, TS can significantly affects PA, DT respectively, and DT has a significant positive effect on PA. The findings of this study provide empirical references for understanding the important role of the tourist–destination relationship. Full article
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Article
English-Learning Motivation among Chinese Mature Learners: A Comparative Study of English and Non-English Majors
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050135 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 699
Abstract
This study examined the motivation of Chinese mature students toward learning English. The participants in the study were ten Chinese mature learners, of whom four were English majors and six were non-English majors. Each underwent a semi-structured interview. Their responses were then coded [...] Read more.
This study examined the motivation of Chinese mature students toward learning English. The participants in the study were ten Chinese mature learners, of whom four were English majors and six were non-English majors. Each underwent a semi-structured interview. Their responses were then coded and analyzed based on Matsuzaka-Carreira’s motivation framework. Furthermore, the Keyword Extraction and Link Terms techniques of PolyAnalystTM were used for further analysis. The results showed that English majors tended to be goal-oriented, and non-English majors were more likely to be means-oriented. English majors were identified as having additional integrative motivation. The factors influencing the motivation of English majors were more diverse than those influencing their non-English major counterparts. The obvious distinction between the two groups was their attitude towards the target language and culture. These findings suggest that instruction for adults should be aligned with mature learners’ practical needs and individual characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
The Health of Healthcare Professionals in Italian Oncology: An Analysis of Narrations through the M.A.D.I.T. Methodology
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050134 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 770
Abstract
From the analysis of the scientific literature relating to the health of oncological patients, the need to consider the global dimension of health of individuals emerges, which subsumes the bodily dimension and involves all the actors who offer their contribution to it in [...] Read more.
From the analysis of the scientific literature relating to the health of oncological patients, the need to consider the global dimension of health of individuals emerges, which subsumes the bodily dimension and involves all the actors who offer their contribution to it in different ways. In this direction, the state of the art of the health construct offered by healthcare professionals highlights a lack of scientific contributions to the specific subject although these professionals are fundamental figures in oncological diagnosis setups. Considering, therefore, the healthcare roles as an integral part of the interactive framework where the oncological patient is placed, this paper offers the results of an Italian study relating to the health of healthcare professionals who take charge of patients with a neoplasia diagnosis. In particular, through an analysis of the discursive productions of 61 participants (healthcare workers, oncological patients and citizens) by the M.A.D.I.T. methodology (Methodology for the Analysis of Computerized Textual Data), this study aimed at observing the discursive reality of health offered by healthcare workers. The collected data highlight a low degree of health expressed by the healthcare professionals, who are strongly typified by rhetoric such as “the one who is destined to suffer psychologically”. These narrations limit the possibilities of development of different narrations in depicting these professionals: critical repercussions in the interaction with the oncological patients emerged, as well as in their global health degree. In conclusion, the results show the need for deep investigation into the impact that the health degree of health professionals can have on the patients they take charge of. Full article
Article
Walking Behavior in Temuco, Chile: The Contribution of Built Environment and Socio-Demographic Factors
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050133 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 772
Abstract
The increase in active travel contributes to maintaining the minimum rate of physical activity and therefore has a positive impact on inhabitants’ public health. The level of walking for daily transport has decreased significantly during the last decades in Temuco, Chile. This study [...] Read more.
The increase in active travel contributes to maintaining the minimum rate of physical activity and therefore has a positive impact on inhabitants’ public health. The level of walking for daily transport has decreased significantly during the last decades in Temuco, Chile. This study examined the contribution of socio-demographic factors, active family environment, and built environment factors to walking behavior and walking level based on three types of destination in Temuco. The results of Encuesta Origin Destino (EOD 2013), geographic information system (GIS), and, finally, hierarchical multiple regression analysis were used to examine the objectives. Correlations were found between total walking behavior, walking level based on three destination types, and several socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, and access to TV and Internet. Furthermore, correlations were found between walking behavior and active family environment, as well as several built environment factors. For instance, the higher mixed land use as well as number of parks and plazas contribute towards more overall walking as well as two types of walking. Identifying that most persons who walk come from low-income families and the negative impact of network connectivity on overall walking are the major differences between this context and developed countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
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Article
Older Adults and Clutter: Age Differences in Clutter Impact, Psychological Home, and Subjective Well-Being
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050132 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Previous research found mixed results for clutter’s impact on individuals’ sense of home and subjective well-being in a variety of samples. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, archival data were utilized to examine the relationship between clutter, psychological home, and subjective well-being across two [...] Read more.
Previous research found mixed results for clutter’s impact on individuals’ sense of home and subjective well-being in a variety of samples. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, archival data were utilized to examine the relationship between clutter, psychological home, and subjective well-being across two age categories, specifically older adults aged ≥65 (n = 225), and younger adults aged ≤64 (n = 225). Three moderation analyses used age categories as a moderator exploring the relationship between (a) clutter predicting psychological home, (b) psychological home predicting subjective well-being, and (c) clutter predicting subjective well-being. Results found that age categories significantly moderated the relationship between clutter and psychological home but did not moderate the other variable relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Home, Transitions and Well-Being)
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Article
Organizational Neuroscience of Industrial Adaptive Behavior
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050131 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Organizational neuroscience is recognized in organizational behavior literature as offering an interpretive framework that can shed new light on existing organizational challenges. In this paper, findings from neuroscience studies concerned with adaptive behavior for ecological fitness are applied to explore industrial adaptive behavior. [...] Read more.
Organizational neuroscience is recognized in organizational behavior literature as offering an interpretive framework that can shed new light on existing organizational challenges. In this paper, findings from neuroscience studies concerned with adaptive behavior for ecological fitness are applied to explore industrial adaptive behavior. This is important because many companies are not able to manage dynamics between adaptability and stability. The reported analysis relates business-to-business signaling in competitive environments to three levels of inference. In accordance with neuroscience studies concerned with adaptive behavior, trade-offs between complexity and accuracy in business-to-business signaling and inference are explained. In addition, signaling and inference are related to risks and ambiguities in competitive industrial markets. Overall, the paper provides a comprehensive analysis of industrial adaptive behavior in terms of relevant neuroscience constructs. In doing so, the paper makes a contribution to the field of organizational neuroscience, and to research concerned with industrial adaptive behavior. The reported analysis is relevant to organizational adaptive behavior that involves combining human intelligence and artificial intelligence. Full article
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Review
A Systematic Review of the Sustainable Campus Concept
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050130 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Higher education institutions’ contributions to environmental conservation are manifested in their commitments to develop Sustainable Campuses. Numerous studies have investigated higher education institutions’ efforts to create Sustainable Campuses. Many studies on Sustainable Campuses have been completed partially. The analysis is carried out on [...] Read more.
Higher education institutions’ contributions to environmental conservation are manifested in their commitments to develop Sustainable Campuses. Numerous studies have investigated higher education institutions’ efforts to create Sustainable Campuses. Many studies on Sustainable Campuses have been completed partially. The analysis is carried out on the basis of practices at various campuses around the world. However, a thorough analysis of Sustainable Campuses has so far not been carried out. This is evidenced by the lack of publications on journal database portals related to Sustainable Campuses which are carried out in a systematic literature review. To address this gap, this study provides a systematic and comprehensive review of the literature on Sustainable Campuses. The purpose of this article is to identify various dimensions of implementing Sustainable Campuses from various countries. We use the qualitative systematic review method with the meta-aggregation approach in this study. The results of this study indicate that Sustainable Campus development activities are classified into three aspects such as behavioral, learning and educational tools, and physical facilities. Further, each dimension has several strategies and programs and actions performed by global higher education institutions. The results are also expected to be a motivator and reference for campuses to contribute to environmental conservation through Sustainable Campus programs. The various dimensions of a Sustainable Campus that are mapped out in this research can be used as a reference for realizing a Sustainable Campus for every university campus in various countries. Full article
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Article
A Study of Using Metaphoric and Beat Gestures with Motion-Based and Non-Motion-Based Metaphors during Retelling Stories
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs12050129 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
In this paper, we classify metaphors into four categories: motion-based metaphors, static space-based metaphors, static object-based metaphors, and static event-based metaphors. Then, a study that investigated the use of gestures with these types of metaphors is reported. The aim was to examine how [...] Read more.
In this paper, we classify metaphors into four categories: motion-based metaphors, static space-based metaphors, static object-based metaphors, and static event-based metaphors. Then, a study that investigated the use of gestures with these types of metaphors is reported. The aim was to examine how these types of metaphors are used with metaphoric and beat gestures during the process of re-telling stories. The participants of the study listened to three audio stories. Each story contained two motion-based metaphors, two static space-based metaphors, two static object-based metaphors, and two static event-based metaphors. After listening to each story, they had to retell the stories in front of a camera. The videos were analyzed to determine the number of metaphoric gestures and beat gestures that had been used by participants during the retelling of the stories. The results showed that the highest number of metaphoric gestures had been used with static space-based metaphors. This was followed by motion-based metaphors, static object-based metaphors, and static event-based metaphors, respectively. On the other hand, the highest number of beat gestures was used with static event-based metaphors. These findings indicate that the use of metaphoric gestures and beat gestures accompanying metaphors is highly dependent on the spatial and motoric properties of the base of the metaphors, which supports the idea of embodied metaphor comprehension. Full article
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