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Article

Factors Affecting Alkali Activation of Laterite Acid Leaching Residues

1
School of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
2
School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografos, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2021, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8010004
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 2 January 2021 / Accepted: 7 January 2021 / Published: 10 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Environments in 2020)
In this experimental study, the alkali activation of acid leaching residues using a mixture of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and alkaline sodium silicate solution (Na2SiO3) as activators is investigated. The residues were also calcined at 800 and 1000 °C for 2 h or mixed with metakaolin (MK) in order to increase their reactivity. The effect of several parameters, namely the H2O/Na2O and SiO2/Na2O ratios present in the activating solution, the pre–curing time (4–24 h), the curing temperature (40–80 °C), the curing time (24 or 48 h), and the ageing period (7–28 days) on the properties of the produced alkali activated materials (AAMs), including compressive strength, porosity, water absorption, and density, was explored. Analytical techniques, namely X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and elemental mapping analysis were used for the identification of the morphology and structure of the final products. The experimental results show that the laterite acid leaching residues cannot be alkali activated in an unaltered state, and the compressive strength of the produced AAMs barely reaches 1.4 MPa, while the mixing of the residues with 10 wt% metakaolin results in noticeably higher compressive strength (41 MPa). Moreover, the calcination of residues at 800 and 1000 °C has practically no beneficial effect on alkali activation. Alkali activated materials produced under the optimum synthesis conditions were subjected to high temperature firing for 2 h and immersed in distilled water or acidic solution (1 mol L−1 HCl) for 7 and 30 days in order to assess their structural integrity under different environmental conditions. This study explores the potential of alkali activation of laterite leaching residues amended with the addition of metakaolin for the production of AAMS that can be used as binders or in several construction applications in order to enable their valorization and also improve the environmental sustainability of the metallurgical sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkali activated materials (AAMs); laterite acid leaching residues; metakaolin; compressive strength alkali activated materials (AAMs); laterite acid leaching residues; metakaolin; compressive strength
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MDPI and ACS Style

Komnitsas, K.; Bartzas, G.; Karmali, V.; Petrakis, E. Factors Affecting Alkali Activation of Laterite Acid Leaching Residues. Environments 2021, 8, 4. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8010004

AMA Style

Komnitsas K, Bartzas G, Karmali V, Petrakis E. Factors Affecting Alkali Activation of Laterite Acid Leaching Residues. Environments. 2021; 8(1):4. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Komnitsas, Konstantinos, Georgios Bartzas, Vasiliki Karmali, and Evangelos Petrakis. 2021. "Factors Affecting Alkali Activation of Laterite Acid Leaching Residues" Environments 8, no. 1: 4. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8010004

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