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Article

Dissolution of Ag Nanoparticles in Agricultural Soils and Effects on Soil Exoenzyme Activities

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CESAM & Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Departamento de Tecnologias e Ciências Aplicadas, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Beja, Rua Pedro Soares S/N, Apartado 6155, 7800-295 Beja, Portugal
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CESAM & Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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CICECO & Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Sustainable Soil Use, Wageningen University and Research Center, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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LEAF-Centro de Investigação em Agronomia, Alimentos, Ambiente e Paisagem, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianniantonio Petruzzelli
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 13 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 19 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
To assess environmental risks related to the mobility and toxicity of AgNPs, the chemical availability of AgNPs and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) in three agricultural soils was quantified in a pot experiment. Porewater collection and soil extractions with 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.4 M Glycine (pH 1.5) and 0.05 M NH4-EDTA were performed. The effect on soil exoenzyme activities was also assessed. Porewater concentration was low (<0.4% and <0.04% of dosed Ag, for AgNPs and PVP-AgNPs, respectively) and only detected in acidic soils (pH 4.4 and 4.9). The PVP-coating reduced the downward mobility of AgNPs in soil and possibly also their dissolution rate (and subsequent release of dissolved Ag+ ions into porewater). The effect of variation in organic matter on soil enzymatic activity was larger than that of AgNPs, as no significant additional inhibitory effect from Ag could be observed. Only at low pH and in the presence of complexing ligands that form very stable Ag complexes (0.4 M Glycine extraction at pH 1.5) up to 58% of the Ag added to soil was released (independently of PVP coating). An extraction with glycine is proposed as a useful indicator of potentially available Ag in soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungicides; silver nanoparticles; polymer coating; soil extraction tests; exoenzyme activities fungicides; silver nanoparticles; polymer coating; soil extraction tests; exoenzyme activities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cruz, N.C.; Farto, M.; Mourinha, C.; Tavares, D.; Duarte, A.C.; Trindade, T.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Alvarenga, P.; Rodrigues, S.M. Dissolution of Ag Nanoparticles in Agricultural Soils and Effects on Soil Exoenzyme Activities. Environments 2021, 8, 22. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8030022

AMA Style

Cruz NC, Farto M, Mourinha C, Tavares D, Duarte AC, Trindade T, Pereira E, Römkens PFAM, Alvarenga P, Rodrigues SM. Dissolution of Ag Nanoparticles in Agricultural Soils and Effects on Soil Exoenzyme Activities. Environments. 2021; 8(3):22. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8030022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cruz, Nuno C., Márcia Farto, Clarisse Mourinha, Daniela Tavares, Armando C. Duarte, Tito Trindade, Eduarda Pereira, Paul F.A.M. Römkens, Paula Alvarenga, and Sónia M. Rodrigues 2021. "Dissolution of Ag Nanoparticles in Agricultural Soils and Effects on Soil Exoenzyme Activities" Environments 8, no. 3: 22. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8030022

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