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Article

An Integrated Multi-Approach to Environmental Monitoring of a Self-Burning Coal Waste Pile: The São Pedro da Cova Mine (Porto, Portugal) Study Case

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Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Porto Pole, Porto Pole, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Geosciences, Environment and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Departament of Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-531 Coimbra, Portugal
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Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, 1649-016 Lisbon, Portugal
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REQUIMTE, Universidade do Porto, 4051-401 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Delia Evelina Bruno and Eloisa Di Sipio
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Monitoring Networks)
The São Pedro da Cova waste pile (Porto, Portugal) is composed of coal mining residues that have been self-burning since 2005 and is located close to an inhabited area and social infrastructures, further adding to effects on the environment and human health. Therefore, there is a great interest in the environmental monitoring of this waste pile. This work describes an integrative multi-approach that allows the environmental monitoring of several parameters of the waste pile, applying several technologies. The temperature measurements were obtained by a thermal infrared (TIR) sensor on board an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and supplemented with field measurements. In order to evaluate the altimetric variations, for each flight, a digital elevation model (DEM) was generated considering a multispectral sensor also on board the UAV. The hydrogeochemical characterization was performed through the analysis of groundwater and surface water samples, with and without the influence of mine drainage. The soil monitoring included the analysis of waste material as well as the surface soil in the surrounding area of the waste pile. All the data were analyzed and integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) open-source application. The adopted multi-approach methodology, given its intrinsic interdisciplinary character, has proven to be an effective way of encompassing the complexity of this type of environmental problem. View Full-Text
Keywords: temperature; soils; water quality; geographical information system; unmanned aerial vehicles; land use land cover temperature; soils; water quality; geographical information system; unmanned aerial vehicles; land use land cover
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MDPI and ACS Style

Teodoro, A.; Santos, P.; Espinha Marques, J.; Ribeiro, J.; Mansilha, C.; Melo, A.; Duarte, L.; Rodrigues de Almeida, C.; Flores, D. An Integrated Multi-Approach to Environmental Monitoring of a Self-Burning Coal Waste Pile: The São Pedro da Cova Mine (Porto, Portugal) Study Case. Environments 2021, 8, 48. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8060048

AMA Style

Teodoro A, Santos P, Espinha Marques J, Ribeiro J, Mansilha C, Melo A, Duarte L, Rodrigues de Almeida C, Flores D. An Integrated Multi-Approach to Environmental Monitoring of a Self-Burning Coal Waste Pile: The São Pedro da Cova Mine (Porto, Portugal) Study Case. Environments. 2021; 8(6):48. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8060048

Chicago/Turabian Style

Teodoro, Ana, Patrícia Santos, Jorge Espinha Marques, Joana Ribeiro, Catarina Mansilha, Armindo Melo, Lia Duarte, Cátia Rodrigues de Almeida, and Deolinda Flores. 2021. "An Integrated Multi-Approach to Environmental Monitoring of a Self-Burning Coal Waste Pile: The São Pedro da Cova Mine (Porto, Portugal) Study Case" Environments 8, no. 6: 48. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8060048

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