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Review

A Way to Membrane-Based Environmental Remediation for Heavy Metal Removal

1
Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council of Italy (ITM–CNR), Cubo 17C, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Rende, Italy
2
Department of DIMES, University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, Cubo 42A, 87036 Rende, Italy
3
Department of Mechanical, Energy and Management Engineering, University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Rende, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yingchao Dong
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 4 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for Advanced Water Purification)
During the last century, industrialization has grown very fast and as a result heavy metals have contaminated many water sources. Due to their high toxicity, these pollutants are hazardous for humans, fish, and aquatic flora. Traditional techniques for their removal are adsorption, electro-dialysis, precipitation, and ion exchange, but they all present various drawbacks. Membrane technology represents an exciting alternative to the traditional ones characterized by high efficiency, low energy consumption and waste production, mild operating conditions, and easy scale-up. In this review, the attention has been focused on applying driven-pressure membrane processes for heavy metal removal, highlighting each of the positive and negative aspects. Advantages and disadvantages, and recent progress on the production of nanocomposite membranes and electrospun nanofiber membranes for the adsorption of heavy metal ions have also been reported and critically discussed. Finally, future prospective research activities and the key steps required to make their use effective on an industrial scale have been presented View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; wastewater purification; membrane technology; ultrafiltration; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis; nanocomposite membranes; electrospun nanofiber membranes heavy metals; wastewater purification; membrane technology; ultrafiltration; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis; nanocomposite membranes; electrospun nanofiber membranes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Algieri, C.; Chakraborty, S.; Candamano, S. A Way to Membrane-Based Environmental Remediation for Heavy Metal Removal. Environments 2021, 8, 52. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8060052

AMA Style

Algieri C, Chakraborty S, Candamano S. A Way to Membrane-Based Environmental Remediation for Heavy Metal Removal. Environments. 2021; 8(6):52. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8060052

Chicago/Turabian Style

Algieri, Catia, Sudip Chakraborty, and Sebastiano Candamano. 2021. "A Way to Membrane-Based Environmental Remediation for Heavy Metal Removal" Environments 8, no. 6: 52. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8060052

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