Next Article in Journal
Analysis of the Rice Yield under an Agrivoltaic System: A Case Study in Japan
Next Article in Special Issue
Solvent-Based Elimination of Organic Matter from Marine-Collected Plastics
Previous Article in Journal
Screening of Pioneer Metallophyte Plant Species with Phytoremediation Potential at a Severely Contaminated Hg and As Mining Site
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessing the Conversion of Various Nylon Polymers in the Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Macroalgae
Article

Case Study Comparing Effects of Microplastic Derived from Bottle Caps Collected in Two Cities on Triticum aestivum (Wheat)

1
Clayton H. Riddell Faculty of Environment, Earth, and Resources, University of Manitoba, Wallace Building, 125 Dysart Road, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
2
Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, Aquatic Ecotoxicology in an Urban Environment, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, 15140 Lahti, Finland
3
School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
4
Helsinki Institute of Sustainability (HELSUS), Fabianinkatu 33, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
5
Joint Laboratory of Applied Ecotoxicology, Environmental Safety Group, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe (KIST Europe), Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Campus E7 1, Universität des Saarlandes, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
6
Center for Chemical Safety Research, Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Kyungsung University, 309 Suyeong-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48434, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Teresa A. P. Rocha-Santos and Joana C. Prata
Received: 4 May 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 July 2021 / Published: 6 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plastic Contamination: Challenges and Solutions)
As plastic has become an integral component of daily life, microplastic has become a ubiquitous, unavoidable constituent of nearly all ecosystems. Besides monitoring the amount and distribution of microplastic in the environment, it is necessary to understand the possible direct effects, especially toxicity and how it is affected by environmental factors where it is discarded. The present study investigated how microplastic derived from high-density polyethylene bottle caps collected in two climatically different cities, i.e., Singapore (tropical rainforest climate) and Lahti, Finland (continental climate), affected the essential agricultural grain crop, Triticum aestivum (L.). Wheat seedlings were exposed to microplastic derived from these collected bottle caps, as well as new and artificially aged caps, for seven days. Morphological parameters, such as root and shoot length and oxidative stress development, were measured. Exposure to microplastic derived from the caps resulted in reduced seedling root and shoot lengths compared to the controls, as well as enhanced lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. With all parameters tested, microplastic derived from Lahti bottle caps exhibited more severe effects than Singapore, which was similar to that elicited by new microplastic. The Singapore microplastic had possibly leached its toxic substances before collection due to accelerated degradation promoted by the prevailing warmer climate conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: microplastic; polyethylene; weather; heat; plastic pollution microplastic; polyethylene; weather; heat; plastic pollution
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pflugmacher, S.; Tallinen, S.; Mitrovic, S.M.; Penttinen, O.-P.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, S.; Esterhuizen, M. Case Study Comparing Effects of Microplastic Derived from Bottle Caps Collected in Two Cities on Triticum aestivum (Wheat). Environments 2021, 8, 64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8070064

AMA Style

Pflugmacher S, Tallinen S, Mitrovic SM, Penttinen O-P, Kim Y-J, Kim S, Esterhuizen M. Case Study Comparing Effects of Microplastic Derived from Bottle Caps Collected in Two Cities on Triticum aestivum (Wheat). Environments. 2021; 8(7):64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8070064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pflugmacher, Stephan, Saila Tallinen, Simon M. Mitrovic, Olli-Pekka Penttinen, Young-Jun Kim, Sanghun Kim, and Maranda Esterhuizen. 2021. "Case Study Comparing Effects of Microplastic Derived from Bottle Caps Collected in Two Cities on Triticum aestivum (Wheat)" Environments 8, no. 7: 64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8070064

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop