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Indoor and Outdoor Nanoparticle Concentrations in an Urban Background Area in Northern Sweden: The NanoOffice Study

1
Section of Sustainable Health, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden
2
Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vânia Martins and Ki-Hyun Kim
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 4 August 2021 / Accepted: 5 August 2021 / Published: 9 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor and Outdoor Air Particulate Matter)
In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention due to their very small size, high penetration capacity, and high toxicity. In urban environments, combustion-formed nanoparticles (CFNPs) dominate in particle number concentrations (PNCs), and exposure to those particles constitutes a risk to human health. Even though fine particles (<2.5 µm) are regularly monitored, information on NP concentrations, both indoors and outdoors, is still limited. In the NanoOffice study, concentrations of nanoparticles (10–300 nm) were measured both indoors and outdoors with a 5-min time resolution at twelve office buildings in Umeå. Measurements were taken during a one-week period in the heating season and a one-week period in the non-heating season. The measuring equipment SMPS 3938 was used for indoor measurements, and DISCmini was used for outdoor measurements. The NP concentrations were highest in offices close to a bus terminal and lowest in offices near a park. In addition, a temporal effect appeared, usually with higher concentrations of nanoparticles found during daytime in the urban background area, whereas considerably lower nanoparticle concentrations were often present during nighttime. Infiltration of nanoparticles from the outdoor air into the indoor air was also common. However, the indoor/outdoor ratios (I/O ratios) of NPs showed large variations between buildings, seasons, and time periods, with I/O ratios in the range of 0.06 to 0.59. The reasons for high indoor infiltration rates could be NP emissions from adjacent outdoor sources. We could also see particle growth since the indoor NPs were, on average, almost twice as large as the NPs measured outdoors. Despite relatively low concentrations of NPs in the urban background air during nighttime, they could rise to very high daytime concentrations due to local sources, and those particles also infiltrated the indoor air. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; air quality; indoor air; nanoparticles; health; toxicity air pollution; air quality; indoor air; nanoparticles; health; toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Orru, H.; Hagenbjörk, A.; Olstrup, H. Indoor and Outdoor Nanoparticle Concentrations in an Urban Background Area in Northern Sweden: The NanoOffice Study. Environments 2021, 8, 75. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8080075

AMA Style

Orru H, Hagenbjörk A, Olstrup H. Indoor and Outdoor Nanoparticle Concentrations in an Urban Background Area in Northern Sweden: The NanoOffice Study. Environments. 2021; 8(8):75. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8080075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orru, Hans, Annika Hagenbjörk, and Henrik Olstrup. 2021. "Indoor and Outdoor Nanoparticle Concentrations in an Urban Background Area in Northern Sweden: The NanoOffice Study" Environments 8, no. 8: 75. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/environments8080075

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