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Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Spherical Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Derived from Cockle Shells

1
Prosthodontics Unit, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
2
Department of Prosthodontic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Anbar, Ramadi 31001, Iraq
3
Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
4
Department of Biomaterials, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2020 / Revised: 30 September 2020 / Accepted: 5 October 2020 / Published: 14 October 2020
Cockle shells are a natural reservoir of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which is widely used in bone repair, tissue scaffolds, and the development of advanced drug delivery systems. Although many studies report on the preparation of CaCO3, the development of a nanosized spherical CaCO3 precursor for calcium oxide (CaO) that is suitable to be incorporated in dental material was scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to synthesize a nanosized spherical CaCO3 precursor for CaO derived from cockle shells using a sol–gel method. Cockle shells were crushed to powder form and mixed with hydrochloric acid, forming calcium chloride (CaCl2). Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was then fed to the diluted CaCl2 to obtain CaCO3. The effect of experimental parameters on the morphology of CaCO3, such as volume of water, type of solvents, feeding rate of K2CO3, and drying method, were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Optimized CaCO3 was then calcined to form CaO. XRD analysis of CaCO3 nanoparticles was indicative of the formation of a calcite phase. The well-structured spherical shape of CaCO3 was obtained by the optimum condition of the addition of 50 mL of water into CaCl2 in ethanolic solution with a 1 h feeding rate of K2CO3. Less agglomeration of CaCO3 was obtained using a freeze-drying technique with the surface area of 26 m2/g and average particle size of 39 nm. Spherical shaped nanosized CaO (22–70 nm) was also synthesized. The reproducibility, low cost, and simplicity of the method suggest its potential applications in the large-scale synthesis of the nanoparticles, with spherical morphology in an industrial setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium carbonate; calcium oxide; cockle shell; sol–gel method; morphological images; nanoparticles calcium carbonate; calcium oxide; cockle shell; sol–gel method; morphological images; nanoparticles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussein, A.I.; Ab-Ghani, Z.; Che Mat, A.N.; Ab Ghani, N.A.; Husein, A.; Ab. Rahman, I. Synthesis and Characterization of Spherical Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Derived from Cockle Shells. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7170. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10207170

AMA Style

Hussein AI, Ab-Ghani Z, Che Mat AN, Ab Ghani NA, Husein A, Ab. Rahman I. Synthesis and Characterization of Spherical Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Derived from Cockle Shells. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(20):7170. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10207170

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hussein, Abbas I., Zuryati Ab-Ghani, Ahmad N. Che Mat, Nur A. Ab Ghani, Adam Husein, and Ismail Ab. Rahman. 2020. "Synthesis and Characterization of Spherical Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Derived from Cockle Shells" Applied Sciences 10, no. 20: 7170. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10207170

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