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Appl. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 21 (November-1 2021) – 726 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Adhesive hydrogels with releasable antimicrobial peptides have the potential to be used in many biomedical applications. In this article, it is demonstrated that such a material based on alginate modified with side chain catechol groups can be used as a potential methodology to prevent periimplantitis. Indeed, such gels take less than a few minutes to set and offer excellent adhesive properties. The incorporated antimicrobial peptide is released in a partially hydrolyzed but still active form. View this paper
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Article
Routing Path Assignment for Joint Load Balancing and Fast Failure Recovery in IP Network
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10504; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110504 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Distributed link-state routing protocols, including Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System–Intermediate System (IS-IS), have successfully provided robust shortest path routing for IP networks. However, shortest path routing is inflexible and sometimes results in congestion on some critical links. By separating the [...] Read more.
Distributed link-state routing protocols, including Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System–Intermediate System (IS-IS), have successfully provided robust shortest path routing for IP networks. However, shortest path routing is inflexible and sometimes results in congestion on some critical links. By separating the control plane and the data plane, the centralized control of Software Defined Networking (SDN)-based approach possesses flexible routing capabilities. Fibbing is an approach that can achieve centralized control over a network running distributed routing protocols. In a Fibbing-controlled IP network, the controller cleverly generates fake protocol messages to manipulate routers to steer the flow of the desired paths. However, introducing fake nodes destroys the structure of the loop-free property of Loop-Free Alternate (LFA) that is used to achieve fast failure recovery in IP networks. This paper addresses this issue and presents a solution to provision routing paths so a Fibbing network can still apply LFA in the network. The proposed network jointly considers load-balanced and fast failure recovery. We formulate the problem as an integer linear programming problem. The numerical results reveal that the proposed method can provide 100% survivability against any single node or single link failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Reliable and Robust Networks)
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Article
A Component-Based Model for Novel Modular Connections with Inbuild Component
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10503; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110503 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 217
Abstract
A modular steel structure building has obvious advantages in reducing construction period and protecting the environment due to its unique construction method, so it is widely used in modern construction. However, the modular building connection design and modeling are mostly based on the [...] Read more.
A modular steel structure building has obvious advantages in reducing construction period and protecting the environment due to its unique construction method, so it is widely used in modern construction. However, the modular building connection design and modeling are mostly based on the traditional connection research results. To address this issue, the paper developed a component-based model for novel modular connections with an inbuild component. First of all, the comprehensive parameter study was implemented using elaborate finite element models. Then the component-based model for novel modular connections was developed, and the force-deformation response of each component was determined using the finite element method. Thirdly, assembly of all components to overall rotational joint and the simplified finite element model of modular connections was obtained. Finally, comparison between simplified and refined finite element was conducted, the results showed that the proposed model can predict the mechanical behavior of modular building connections within the acceptable margin of error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Civil Engineering)
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Article
Autonomous Learning Interactive Features for Hyperspectral Remotely Sensed Data
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10502; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110502 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 258
Abstract
In the field of remote sensing, most of the feature indexes are obtained based on expert knowledge or domain analysis. With the rapid development of machine learning and artificial intelligence, this method is time-consuming and lacks flexibility, and the indexes obtained cannot be [...] Read more.
In the field of remote sensing, most of the feature indexes are obtained based on expert knowledge or domain analysis. With the rapid development of machine learning and artificial intelligence, this method is time-consuming and lacks flexibility, and the indexes obtained cannot be applied to all areas. In order to not rely on expert knowledge and find the effective feature index with regard to a certain material automatically, this paper proposes a data-driven method to learn interactive features for hyperspectral remotely sensed data based on a sparse multiclass logistic regression model. The key point explicitly expresses the interaction relationship between original features as new features by multiplication or division operation in the logistic regression. Through the strong constraint of the L1 norm, the learned features are sparse. The coefficient value of the corresponding features after sparse represents the basis for judging the importance of the features, and the optimal interactive features among the original features. This expression is inspired by the phenomenon that usually the famous indexes we used in remote sensing, like NDVI, NDWI, are the ratio between different spectral bands, and also in statistical regression, the relationship between features is captured by feature value multiplication. Experiments were conducted on three hyperspectral data sets of Pavia Center, Washington DC Mall, and Pavia University. The results for binary classification show that the method can extract the NDVI and NDWI autonomously, and a new type of metal index is proposed in the Pavia University data set. This framework is more flexible and creative than the traditional method based on laboratory research to obtain the key feature and feature interaction index for hyperspectral remotely sensed data. Full article
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Article
At the End of a Slippery Slope: A Pilot Study of Deceleration Mats for Snow Tubing
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110501 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 223
Abstract
On-slope pilot testing of snow tubes was conducted at two ski areas in the United States to examine the effects of deceleration mats. Snow tube and rider kinematics were measured using an instrumented bodysuit and a GPS system worn by the rider. For [...] Read more.
On-slope pilot testing of snow tubes was conducted at two ski areas in the United States to examine the effects of deceleration mats. Snow tube and rider kinematics were measured using an instrumented bodysuit and a GPS system worn by the rider. For each test, the riders descended a tubing run with minimal input and stopped in the run-out area. Snow tube and rider speeds when entering the run-out area were controlled to be approximately 9.5 m/s. Test trials were conducted with and without deceleration mats. Four deceleration mat conditions were tested, including two raised surface protuberances (ribs and projections) and two mat geometry parameters (flat and folded). The deceleration and effective coefficient of friction (COF) were determined for each trial. Data were recorded for 75 test trials with a mean (± standard deviation) speed entering the run-out area of 9.5 (±1.8) m/s. There were no significant differences in the deceleration or effective coefficient of friction between the surface protuberance conditions. The peak deceleration and effective COF for the folded mats (5.1 ± 1.6 m/s2 and 0.26 ± 0.14) was greater than for the flat (3.3 ± 0.8 m/s2 and 0.10 ± 0.07) and no mat (0.06 ± 0.3 m/s2 and 0.08 ± 0.03) conditions (all p < 0.05). Deceleration mats in run-out areas slow snow tube riders faster than without deceleration mats. Folding the deceleration mats produced greater deceleration but did not produce significantly different kinematics for the riders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Performance and Health (in Times of COVID-19))
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Article
Thermal Battery for Electric Vehicles: High-Temperature Heating System for Solid Media Based Thermal Energy Storages
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10500; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110500 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Thermal energy storage systems open up high potentials for improvements in efficiency and flexibility for power plant and industrial applications. Transferring such technologies as basis for thermal management concepts in battery-electric vehicles allow alternative ways for heating the interior and avoid range limitations [...] Read more.
Thermal energy storage systems open up high potentials for improvements in efficiency and flexibility for power plant and industrial applications. Transferring such technologies as basis for thermal management concepts in battery-electric vehicles allow alternative ways for heating the interior and avoid range limitations during cold seasons. The idea of such concepts is to generate heat electrically (power-to-heat) parallel of charging the battery, store it efficiently and discharge heat at a defined temperature level. The successful application of such concepts requires two central prerequisites: higher systemic storage densities compared to today’s battery-powered PTC heaters as well as high charging and discharging powers. A promising approach for both requirements is based on solids as thermal energy storage. These allow during discharging an efficient heat transfer to the gaseous heat transfer medium (air) due to a wide range of geometric configurations with high specific surfaces and during charging high storage densities due to use of ceramic materials suitable for high operating temperatures. However, for such concepts suitable heating systems with small dimensions are needed, allowing an efficient and homogeneous heat transfer to the solid with high charging powers and high heating temperatures. An appropriate technology for this purpose is based on resistance heating wires integrated inside the channel shaped solids. These promise high storage densities due to operating wire temperature of up to 1300 °C and an efficient heat transport via radiation. Such electrically heated storage systems have been known for a long time for stationary applications, e.g., domestic storage heaters, but are new for mobile applications. For evaluation such concepts with regard to systemic storage and power density as well as to identify preferred configurations extensive investigations are necessary. For this purpose, transient models for the relevant heat transport mechanisms and the whole storage system were created. In order to allow time-efficient simulations studies for such an electrical heated storage system, a novel correlation for the effective radiation coefficient based on the Fourier Number was derived. This coefficient includes radiation effects and thermal conduction resistances and enables through its dimensionless parameterization the investigation of the charging process for a wide range of geometrical configurations. Based on application-typical specifications and the derived Fourier based correlation, extensive variation studies regarding the storage system were performed and evaluated with respect to systemic storage densities, heating wire surface loads and dimensions. For a favored design option selected here, maximum systemic storage densities of 201 Wh/kg at maximum heating wire surface loads of 4.6 W/cm2 are achieved showing significant benefits compared to today’s battery powered PTC heaters. Additionally, for proofing and confirming the storage concept, a test rig was erected focusing experimental investigations on the charging process. For a first experimental setup-up including all relevant components, mean temperature-related deviations between the simulative and the experimental results of 4.1% were detected and storage temperatures of up to 870 °C were reached. The systematically performed results confirm the feasibility, high efficiency, thermodynamic synergies with geometric requirements during thermal discharging and the potential of the technology to reach higher systemic storage densities compared to current solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Thermal Engineering)
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Article
Rolling and Rolling-Sliding Contact Fatigue Failure Mechanisms in 32 CrMoV 13 Nitrided Steel—An Experimental Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110499 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 285
Abstract
The aim of this work is to characterize the rolling and rolling-sliding contact fatigue failure mechanisms on the 32CrMoV13 nitrided steel. During rolling contact fatigue tests (RCF), two general features were observed: specimens presenting short lives and rough and sharpened spalling damage and [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to characterize the rolling and rolling-sliding contact fatigue failure mechanisms on the 32CrMoV13 nitrided steel. During rolling contact fatigue tests (RCF), two general features were observed: specimens presenting short lives and rough and sharpened spalling damage and specimens presenting long lives and only microspalling marks. It was possible to determine a contact fatigue limit of 3 GPa. During rolling-sliding contact fatigue tests (RSCF), a clearly different behaviour between the two specimens in contact has been observed: the driver shows circumferential and inclined cracks and only inclined cracks appear in the follower. This behaviour can be understood if the effect of the residual stress state in near-surface layers is considered. Before RCF tests, the residual stresses are compressive in all near-surface layers. After RCF tests, strong residual stress relaxation and even reversing behaviour was observed in the axial direction, which facilitates the surface crack initiation in the circumferential direction at rolling track borders. Full article
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Article
Advanced Tribological Characterization of DLC Coatings Produced by Ne-HiPIMS for the Application on the Piston Rings of Internal Combustion Engines
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10498; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110498 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Piston rings (PR) are known for almost a quarter of the friction losses in internal combustion engines. This research work aims to improve the tribological performance of PR by a recently developed variant of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coatings deposited in a mixture of [...] Read more.
Piston rings (PR) are known for almost a quarter of the friction losses in internal combustion engines. This research work aims to improve the tribological performance of PR by a recently developed variant of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coatings deposited in a mixture of Ar and Ne plasma atmosphere (Ne-DLC) by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). For the benchmark, the widely used Chromium Nitride (CrN) and DLCs deposited in pure Ar plasma atmosphere (Ar-DLC) were used. The tribological tests were performed on a block-on-ring configuration under different lubrication regimes by varying temperatures and sliding speeds. The analysis of the results was performed by Stribeck curves corresponding to each sample. An improvement of the tribological performance was observed for Ne-DLC films by up to 22.8% reduction in COF compared to CrN in the boundary lubrication regime, whereas, for the Ar-DLC film, this reduction was only 9.5%. Moreover, the Ne-DLC films achieved ultralow friction of less than 0.001 during the transition to a hydrodynamic lubrication regime due to better wettability (lower contact angle) and higher surface free energy. Increasing the Ne up to 50% in the discharge gas also leads to an increase of hardness of DLC films from 19 to 24 GPa. Full article
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Article
A Novel Multi-Objective and Multi-Constraint Route Recommendation Method Based on Crowd Sensing
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110497 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 277
Abstract
Nowadays, people choose to travel in their leisure time more frequently, but fixed predetermined tour routes can barely meet people’s personalized preferences. The needs of tourists are diverse, largely personal, and possibly have multiple constraints. The traditional single-objective route planning algorithm struggles to [...] Read more.
Nowadays, people choose to travel in their leisure time more frequently, but fixed predetermined tour routes can barely meet people’s personalized preferences. The needs of tourists are diverse, largely personal, and possibly have multiple constraints. The traditional single-objective route planning algorithm struggles to effectively deal with such problems. In this paper, a novel multi-objective and multi-constraint tour route recommendation method is proposed. Firstly, ArcMap was used to model the actual road network. Then, we created a new interest label matching method and a utility function scoring method based on crowd sensing, and constructed a personalized multi-constraint interest model. We present a variable neighborhood search algorithm and a hybrid particle swarm genetic optimization algorithm for recommending Top-K routes. Finally, we conducted extensive experiments on public datasets. Compared with the ATP route recommendation method based on an improved ant colony algorithm, our proposed method is superior in route score, interest abundance, number of POIs, and running time. Full article
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Article
Feasibility Study on Downhole Gas–Liquid Separator Design and Experiment Based on the Phase Isolation Method
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10496; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110496 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 275
Abstract
As oil exploitation enters its middle and late stages, formation pressure drops, and crude oil degases. In production profile logging, the presence of the gas phase will affect the initial oil–water two-phase flowmeter’s flow measurement results. In order to eliminate gas-phase interference and [...] Read more.
As oil exploitation enters its middle and late stages, formation pressure drops, and crude oil degases. In production profile logging, the presence of the gas phase will affect the initial oil–water two-phase flowmeter’s flow measurement results. In order to eliminate gas-phase interference and reduce measurement costs, we designed a downhole gas–liquid separator (DGLS) suitable for low flow, high water holdup, and high gas holdup. We based it on the phase isolation method. Using a combination of numerical simulation and fluid dynamic measurement experiments, we studied DGLS separation efficiency separately in the two cases of gas–water two-phase flow and oil–gas–water three-phase flow. Comparative analysis of the numerical simulation calculation and dynamic test results showed that: the VOF model constructed based on kε the equation is nearly identical to the dynamic test, and can be used to analyze DGLS separation efficiency; the numerical simulation results of the gas–water two-phase flow show that when the total flow rate is below 20 m3/d, the separation efficiency surpasses 90%. The oil–gas–water three-phase’s numerical simulation results show that the oil phase influences separation efficiency. When the total flow rate is 20 m3/d–50 m3/d and gas holdup is low, the DGLS’s separation efficiency can exceed 90%. Our experimental study on fluid dynamics measurement shows that the DGLS’s applicable range is when the gas mass is 0 m3/d~15 m3/d, and the water holdup range is 50%~100%. The research presented in this article can provide a theoretical basis for the development and design of DGLSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Design Engineering)
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Article
Development of a Simple Spheroid Production Method Using Fluoropolymers with Reduced Chemical and Physical Damage
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10495; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110495 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 308
Abstract
Establishing an in vitro–based cell culture system that can realistically simulate in vivo cell dynamics is desirable. It is thus necessary to develop a method for producing a large amount of cell aggregates (i.e., spheroids) that are uniform in size and quality. Various [...] Read more.
Establishing an in vitro–based cell culture system that can realistically simulate in vivo cell dynamics is desirable. It is thus necessary to develop a method for producing a large amount of cell aggregates (i.e., spheroids) that are uniform in size and quality. Various methods have been proposed for the preparation of spheroids; however, none of them satisfy all requirements, such as cost, size uniformity, and throughput. Herein, we successfully developed a new cell culture method by combining fluoropolymers and dot patterned extracellular matrix substrates to achieve size-controlled spheroids. First, the spheroids were spontaneously formed by culturing them two-dimensionally, after which the cells were detached with a weak liquid flow and cultured in suspension without enzyme treatment. Stable quality spheroids were easily produced, and it is expected that the introduction and running costs of the technique will be low; therefore, this method shows potential for application in the field of regenerative medicine. Full article
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Article
Effect of Polarization on Performance of Inverted Solar Cells Based on Molecular Ferroelectric 1,6-Hexanediamine Pentaiodide Bismuth with PCBM as Electron Transport Layer
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110494 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 305
Abstract
The depolarization field of ferroelectric photovoltaic materials can enhance the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers, which will improve the performance of photovoltaic devices, thus attracting the attention of researchers. In this paper, a narrow bandgap molecular ferroelectric Hexane-1,6-diammonium pentaiodobismuth (HDA-BiI5) [...] Read more.
The depolarization field of ferroelectric photovoltaic materials can enhance the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers, which will improve the performance of photovoltaic devices, thus attracting the attention of researchers. In this paper, a narrow bandgap molecular ferroelectric Hexane-1,6-diammonium pentaiodobismuth (HDA-BiI5) was selected as the photo absorption layer for the fabrication of solar cells. After optimizing the ferroelectric thin film by the antisolvent process, the effect of different polarization voltages on the performance of ferroelectric devices was studied. The results showed that there was a significant increase in short-circuit current density, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency showed an overall increasing trend. Finally, we analyzed the internal mechanism of the effect of polarization on the device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials for Sustainable Energy Applications)
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Article
Multi-Mode Active Suspension Control Based on a Genetic K-Means Clustering Linear Quadratic Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10493; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110493 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 275
Abstract
The traditional Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control algorithm depends too much on expert experience during the selection of weighting coefficients. To solve this problem, we proposed a Genetic K-means clustering Linear quadratic (GKL) algorithm. Firstly, a 2-DOF 1/4 vehicle model and road input [...] Read more.
The traditional Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control algorithm depends too much on expert experience during the selection of weighting coefficients. To solve this problem, we proposed a Genetic K-means clustering Linear quadratic (GKL) algorithm. Firstly, a 2-DOF 1/4 vehicle model and road input model are established. The weights of an LQR controller are optimized using a genetic algorithm. Then, a possible weighting space is constructed based on this optimal solution. Random weighting coefficients of each performance index are generated in this space. Next, LQR control for the 1/4 vehicle model is performed, and the simulation data are recorded automatically, with these random weighting values, different road classes, and driving speed. A machine learning dataset is built from these simulations. Finally, a K-means clustering algorithm is used to classify the LQR control active suspension into three performance modes: safety mode, comprehensive mode, and comfort mode. The optimal weighting matrix of each performance mode is determined to satisfy requirements for different types of drivers. The results show that the new GKL algorithm not only improves the suspension control effect but also realizes different performance modes. It can better adapt to the changes in driving conditions and drivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Active Noise and Vibration Control)
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Article
A Novel Approach to Enhance Crude Oil Recovery Ratio Using Selected Bacterial Species
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110492 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
The high viscosity and low flow properties of some crude oil make them difficult to extract from oil reservoirs. This study investigated the mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of oil recovery using fractured dolomite core models. Bacterial strains, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Bacillus species, [...] Read more.
The high viscosity and low flow properties of some crude oil make them difficult to extract from oil reservoirs. This study investigated the mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of oil recovery using fractured dolomite core models. Bacterial strains, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Bacillus species, and Pseudomonasputida, isolated from Libyan oil fields, had the ability to biotransform heavy crude oil by reducing its viscosity and converting heavier components into lighter ones. The efficiencies of the three bacterial strains were assessed using sand-packed column experiments through the injection of bacteria to mimic in-situ oil recovery. The optimum biotransformation values of Libyan Bouri crude oil were determined as 77.1, 61.2, and 61.1% using the Bacillus sp., P. putida, and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, respectively, at 55 °C. Viscosity analyses showed that these strains resulted in the reduction of the viscosity of the crude oil at two different temperatures of 37 and 55 °C. The highest recovery of residual oil was about 11.3% using Bacillus sp. The study confirmed that the selected bacterial species were capable of displacing additional oil under simulated oil field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies)
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Article
Experiment and Numerical Simulation on Grouting Reinforcement Parameters of Ultra-Shallow Buried Double-Arch Tunnel
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10491; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110491 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 246
Abstract
For an ultra-shallow buried double-arch tunnel with a large cross-section, the arching effect is difficult to form in surrounding rock, and grouting method is often adopted to reinforce the surrounding rock. Hence, examining the grouting reinforcement parameters is of great significance for potential [...] Read more.
For an ultra-shallow buried double-arch tunnel with a large cross-section, the arching effect is difficult to form in surrounding rock, and grouting method is often adopted to reinforce the surrounding rock. Hence, examining the grouting reinforcement parameters is of great significance for potential failure and collapse prevention. The land part of Haicang undersea tunnel was selected as a case study; laboratory experiments, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulation were performed to determine the grouting solid strength and grouting reinforcement parameters. The effects of different water–cement ratios on slurry fluidity, setting time, bleeding rate, and sample strength were studied by laboratory experiments. A method was proposed to determine the shear strength parameters of grouted surrounding rock through the grout water–cement ratio and the unconfined compressive strength of the rock mass. Numerical simulations were performed for grouting reinforcement layer thickness and the water–cement ratios. The deformation and stability law of tunnel surrounding rock and its influence on surrounding underground pipelines were obtained considering the spatial effect of tunnel excavation and grouting reinforcement. The reasonable selection range of grouting reinforcement parameters was proposed. The initial setting time and bleeding rate of cement slurry increased with the increasing water–cement ratio, while the viscosity of cement slurry and sample strength decreased with the increasing water–cement ratio. The shear strength parameters of grouted surrounding rock were determined by the water–cement ratio of grout and unconfined compressive strength of rock mass before grouting. When the thickness of grouting reinforcement layer h = 1.5 m and the water–cement ratio of grout was suggested η = 0.85, the surface settlement, the deformation of the vault, and the deformation of the nearby pipeline all met the design. Moreover, the construction requirements were more economical. Research results can provide a reference for the selection of grouting reinforcement parameters for similar projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences and Geography)
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Article
A Practical Method for the Automatic Recognition of Rock Structures in Panoramic Borehole Image during Deep-Hole Drilling Engineering
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10490; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110490 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Digital panoramic borehole imaging technology has been widely used in the practice of drilling engineering. Based on many high-definition panoramic borehole images obtained by the borehole imaging system, this paper puts forward an automatic recognition method based on clustering and characteristic functions to [...] Read more.
Digital panoramic borehole imaging technology has been widely used in the practice of drilling engineering. Based on many high-definition panoramic borehole images obtained by the borehole imaging system, this paper puts forward an automatic recognition method based on clustering and characteristic functions to perform intelligent analysis and automatic interpretation researches, and successfully applied to the analysis of the borehole images obtained at the Wudongde Hydropower Station in the south-west of China. The results show that the automatic recognition method can fully and quickly automatically identify most of the important structural planes and their position, dip, dip angle and gap width and other characteristic parameter information in the entire borehole image. The recognition rate of the main structural plane is about 90%. The accuracy rate is about 85%, the total time cost is about 3 h, and the accuracy deviation is less than 4% among the 12 boreholes with a depth of about 50 m. The application of automatic recognition technology to the panoramic borehole image can greatly improve work efficiency, reduce the time cost, and avoid the interference caused by humans, making it possible to automatically recognize the structural plane parameters of the full-hole image. Full article
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Article
Systematic Experimental Evaluation of Function Based Cellular Lattice Structure Manufactured by 3D Printing
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10489; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110489 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) has a greater potential to construct lighter parts, having complex geometries with no additional cost, by embedding cellular lattice structures within an object. The geometry of lattice structure can be engineered to achieve improved strength and extra level of performance [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) has a greater potential to construct lighter parts, having complex geometries with no additional cost, by embedding cellular lattice structures within an object. The geometry of lattice structure can be engineered to achieve improved strength and extra level of performance with the advantage of consuming less material and energy. This paper provides a systematic experimental evaluation of a series of cellular lattice structures, embedded within a cylindrical specimen and constructed according to terms and requirements of ASTMD1621-16, which is standard for the compressive properties of rigid cellular plastics. The modeling of test specimens is based on function representation (FRep) and constructed by fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology. Two different test series, each having eleven test specimens of different parameters, are printed along with their replicates of 70% and 100% infill density. Test specimens are subjected to uniaxial compressive load to produce 13% deformation to the height of the specimen. Comparison of results reveals that specimens, having cellular lattice structure and printed with 70% infill density, exhibit greater strength and improvement in strength to mass ratio, as compared to the solid printed specimen without structure. Full article
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Article
Study on the Earth Pressure during Sinking Stage of Super Large Caisson Foundation
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10488; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110488 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
End resistance is a dominant variable in the sinking process of super-sized caisson foundation, which is of great importance to the safe sinking of the caisson foundation. Based on soil excavation process of super large caisson foundation of the main tower of Changtai [...] Read more.
End resistance is a dominant variable in the sinking process of super-sized caisson foundation, which is of great importance to the safe sinking of the caisson foundation. Based on soil excavation process of super large caisson foundation of the main tower of Changtai Yangtze River Bridge, the distribution characteristics and variation of earth pressure under the foot blade was analyzed using 3D finite element method at the first stage of soil excavation. Furthermore, the earth pressure was monitored in real time during soil excavation in order to analyze the influence of soil excavation process on the distribution of earth pressure. The analysis results of engineering practice showed that in the process of soil excavation from inner area to outer area, the end resistance of inner bulkhead and inner partition walls decreased, while the end resistance of outer bulkhead and outer partition walls gradually increased till the soil reached the failure state in the outer bulkhead area. The distribution characteristics and variation of the earth pressure can really reflect overall stress state of caisson foundation, which helps guide the safe sinking by soil excavation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering Ⅱ)
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Article
Choroidal Vascularity Index in Adult-Onset Foveomacular Vitelliform Dystrophy: A Pilot Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110487 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 224
Abstract
This pilot study aims to investigate choroidal vascular status in eyes with adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD), early age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and age-matched controls. In this retrospective study, choroidal thickness (CT) was measured manually using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of [...] Read more.
This pilot study aims to investigate choroidal vascular status in eyes with adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD), early age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and age-matched controls. In this retrospective study, choroidal thickness (CT) was measured manually using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of the fovea, and 500 and 1500 µm from the nasal and temporal regions in the fovea. The horizontal B-scan was imported into Fiji software. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) and luminal and stromal areas were calculated. A total of 36 eyes from 36 patients, including 18 eyes with AOFVD and 18 eyes with CD, and 16 eyes of healthy subjects were included. CVI was significantly different among subgroups (ANOVA, p = 0.004). Eyes with AOFVD presented a higher CVI (+0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.001) than eyes with CD and controls (p = 0.03). No differences in CVI were detected between controls and eyes with CD (p = 0.25). AOFVD eyes accounted for the greatest luminal area, particularly significant in comparison with healthy controls (+0.27 ± 0.11, p = 0.02). AOFVD eyes present a greater CVI than eyes with CD and controls. The major choroidal involvement is on the luminal component, further corroborating a possible role of the choroidal vasculature in the pathological manifestations of AOFVD disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Coherence Tomography: From OCT-A to All Latest Advances)
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Article
Biomechanical Evaluation of the Lumbar Spine by Using a New Interspinous Process Device: A Finite Element Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10486; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110486 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Minimally invasive decompression is generally employed for treating lumbar spinal stenosis; however, it results in weakened spinal stability. To augment spinal stability, a new interspinous process device (NIPD) was developed in this study. The biomechanical features of the NIPD were evaluated in this [...] Read more.
Minimally invasive decompression is generally employed for treating lumbar spinal stenosis; however, it results in weakened spinal stability. To augment spinal stability, a new interspinous process device (NIPD) was developed in this study. The biomechanical features of the NIPD were evaluated in this study. Three finite-element (FE) models of the entire lumbar spine were implemented to perform biomechanical analysis: the intact, defect (DEF), and NIPD models. The DEF model was considered for lumbar spines with bilateral laminotomies and partial discectomy at L3–L4. Range of motion (ROM), disc stress, and facet joint contact force were evaluated in flexion, extension, torsion, and lateral bending in the three FE models. The results indicated that ROM in the extension increased by 23% in the DEF model but decreased by 23% in the NIPD model. In the NIPD model, the cephalic adjacent disc stress in flexion and extension was within 5%, and negligible changes were noted in the facet joint contact force for torsion and lateral bending. Thus, the NIPD offers superior spinal stability and causes only a minor change in cephalic adjacent disc stress in flexion and extension during the bilateral laminotomy and partial discectomy of the lumbar spine. However, the NIPD has a minor influence on the ROM and facet joint force for lateral bending and torsion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomedical Engineering)
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Article
Phononic Band Gap and Free Vibration Analysis of Fluid-Conveying Pipes with Periodically Varying Cross-Section
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10485; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110485 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Phononic crystals (PCs) are a novel class of artificial periodic structure, and their band gap (BG) attributes provide a new technical approach for vibration reduction in piping systems. In this paper, the vibration suppression performance and natural properties of fluid-conveying pipes with periodically [...] Read more.
Phononic crystals (PCs) are a novel class of artificial periodic structure, and their band gap (BG) attributes provide a new technical approach for vibration reduction in piping systems. In this paper, the vibration suppression performance and natural properties of fluid-conveying pipes with periodically varying cross-section are investigated. The flexural wave equation of substructure pipes is established based on the classical beam model and traveling wave property. The spectral element method (SEM) is developed for semi-analytical solutions, the accuracy of which is confirmed by comparison with the available literature and the widely used transfer matrix method (TMM). The BG distribution and frequency response of the periodic pipe are attained, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes are also obtained. The effects of some critical parameters are discussed. It is revealed that the BG of the present pipe system is fundamentally induced by the geometrical difference of the substructure cross-section, and it is also related to the substructure length and fluid–structure interaction (FSI). The number of cells does not contribute to the BG region, while it has significant effects on the amplitude attenuation, higher order natural frequencies and mode shapes. The impact of FSI is more evident for the pipes with smaller numbers of cells. Moreover, compared with the conventional TMM, the present SEM is demonstrated more effective for comprehensive analysis of BG characteristics and free vibration of PC dynamical structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration Control and Applications)
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Article
Global Dynamics of a Stochastic Viral Infection Model with Latently Infected Cells
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10484; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110484 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 261
Abstract
In this paper, we study the global dynamics of a stochastic viral infection model with humoral immunity and Holling type II response functions. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative global solutions are derived. Stationary ergodic distribution of positive solutions is investigated. The solution [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study the global dynamics of a stochastic viral infection model with humoral immunity and Holling type II response functions. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative global solutions are derived. Stationary ergodic distribution of positive solutions is investigated. The solution fluctuates around the equilibrium of the deterministic case, resulting in the disease persisting stochastically. The extinction conditions are also determined. To verify the accuracy of the results, numerical simulations were carried out using the Euler–Maruyama scheme. White noise’s intensity plays a key role in treating viral infectious diseases. The small intensity of white noises can maintain the existence of a stationary distribution, while the large intensity of white noises is beneficial to the extinction of the virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Models of Biology and Medicine, Volume III)
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Article
Skull Thickness Calculation Using Thermal Analysis and Finite Elements
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110483 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
In this study, the skull bone thicknesses of 150 patients ranging in age from 0 to 72 years were calculated using a novel approach (thermal analysis), and thickness changes were analyzed. Unlike conventional thickness calculation approaches (Beam Propagation, Hildebrand), a novel heat transfer-based [...] Read more.
In this study, the skull bone thicknesses of 150 patients ranging in age from 0 to 72 years were calculated using a novel approach (thermal analysis), and thickness changes were analyzed. Unlike conventional thickness calculation approaches (Beam Propagation, Hildebrand), a novel heat transfer-based approach was developed. Firstly, solid 3D objects with different thicknesses were modeled, and thermal analyses were performed on these models. To better understand the heat transfer of 3D object models, finite element models (FEM) of the human head have been reported in the literature. The FEM can more accurately model the complex geometry of a 3D human head model. Then, thermal analysis was performed on human skulls using the same methods. Thus, the skull bone thicknesses at different ages and in different genders from region to region were determined. The skull model was transferred to ANSYS, and it was meshed using different mapping parameters. The heat transfer results were determined by applying different heat values to the inner and outer surfaces of the skull mesh structure. Thus, the average thicknesses of skull regions belonging to a certain age group were obtained. With this developed method, it was observed that the temperature value applied to the skull was proportional to the thickness value. The average thickness of skull bones for men (frontal: 7.8 mm; parietal: 9.6 mm; occipital: 10.1 mm; temporal: 6 mm) and women (frontal: 8.6 mm; parietal: 10.1 mm; occipital: 10 mm; temporal: 6 mm) are given. The difference (10%) between men and women appears to be statistically significant only for frontal bone thickness. Thanks to the developed method, bone thickness information at any desired point on the skull can be obtained numerically. Therefore, the proposed method can be used to help pre-operative planning of surgical procedures. Full article
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Review
Valorisation of Starch Wastewater by Anaerobic Fermentation
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10482; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110482 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Starch production is mainly focused on feedstocks such as corn, wheat and potato in the EU, whereas cassava, rice, and other feedstocks are utilised worldwide. In starch production, a high amount of wastewater is generated, which accumulates from different process steps such as [...] Read more.
Starch production is mainly focused on feedstocks such as corn, wheat and potato in the EU, whereas cassava, rice, and other feedstocks are utilised worldwide. In starch production, a high amount of wastewater is generated, which accumulates from different process steps such as washing, steeping, starch refining, saccharification and derivatisation. Valorisation of these wastewaters can help to improve the environmental impact as well as the economics of starch production. Anaerobic fermentation is a promising approach, and this review gives an overview of the different utilisation concepts outlined in the literature and the state of the technology. Among bioenergy recovery processes, biogas technology is widely applied at the industrial scale, whereas biohydrogen production is used at the research stage. Starch wastewater can also be used for the production of bulk chemicals such as acetone, ethanol, butanol or lactic acids by anaerobic microbes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Application of Anaerobic Digestion)
Article
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Rescue System Design and Traffic Model Planning
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10481; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110481 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are widely used in disaster relief and road exploration in recent years. This paper mainly studied the emergency response of UAVs after disasters. The UAV response system is mainly suitable for the distribution of necessities and road exploration after [...] Read more.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are widely used in disaster relief and road exploration in recent years. This paper mainly studied the emergency response of UAVs after disasters. The UAV response system is mainly suitable for the distribution of necessities and road exploration after geological disasters and tsunamis in coastal areas. By analyzing the problem and making reasonable assumptions, the optimization model was established with the traffic planning theory, and MATLAB software was used to program and solve the problem. An optimal scheduling scheme was presented to solve these problems. The normalization method was used to select a highly capable UAV. Taking the minimum volume of idle space buffer material as the objective function and taking into account the constraints, such as payload of unmanned aerial vehicle, a single objective programming model was established. The results are as follows: Each International Standards Organization (ISO) cargo container has five UAVs B, one UAV C, one UAV F and one UAV H. It provides 188 days of relief requirements with ISO cargo containers’ space utilization of 71.4%. The research shows that the UAV response system has the functions of necessities distribution and road exploration after disasters, and can be used to deal with the emergency response after disasters in coastal areas, and has a wide range of applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Prevention for Tsunami, Storm Surge and Storm Waves)
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Article
Resistance and Consumption Reduction Mechanism of Bionic Vibration and Verification of Field Subsoiling Experiment
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10480; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110480 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 243
Abstract
This study proposed a design method for forced-vibration subsoiling to reduce resistance and consumption. The vibration digging parameters of the Antlion larvae were obtained by high-speed camera, and a forced-vibration subsoiling shovel handle and six different shovel tips were designed by the non-smooth [...] Read more.
This study proposed a design method for forced-vibration subsoiling to reduce resistance and consumption. The vibration digging parameters of the Antlion larvae were obtained by high-speed camera, and a forced-vibration subsoiling shovel handle and six different shovel tips were designed by the non-smooth resistance-reducing surface design method. The resistance-reducing and consumption-reducing effects were verified in the field subsoiling experiment. The results showed that the resistance of subsoiling gradually decreased with the vibration frequency increasing. This vibration subsoiling method could not only reduce resistance but also reduce the total energy consumption, the resistance reduction rate reached 14.2–21.2%, and the total energy consumption was reduced by 11.2–16.5%. It could achieve the comprehensive subsoiling effect and create the soil conditions with the combination of loose and firmness. The non-smooth surface contributed to the reduction in resistance, and the forward speed had a more negligible effect on the resistance of subsoiling. The results had demonstrated that the combination of high-frequency vibration and non-smooth surfaces helped to reduce the cohesion of the soil, reduce the angle of internal friction in the soil, destroy the water film layer on the contact surface between the soil-touching components and the soil, change the soil flow state, and reduce the adhesion of the interface layer. The design method in this study could not only be applied to the design of vibration resistance reduction in the subsoiler but also had significance for the design of the other soil-contacting components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural Science and Technology)
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Article
A Distributed Biased Boundary Attack Method in Black-Box Attack
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110479 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 238
Abstract
The adversarial samples threaten the effectiveness of machine learning (ML) models and algorithms in many applications. In particular, black-box attack methods are quite close to actual scenarios. Research on black-box attack methods and the generation of adversarial samples is helpful to discover the [...] Read more.
The adversarial samples threaten the effectiveness of machine learning (ML) models and algorithms in many applications. In particular, black-box attack methods are quite close to actual scenarios. Research on black-box attack methods and the generation of adversarial samples is helpful to discover the defects of machine learning models. It can strengthen the robustness of machine learning algorithms models. Such methods require queries frequently, which are less efficient. This paper has made improvements in the initial generation and the search for the most effective adversarial examples. Besides, it is found that some indicators can be used to detect attacks, which is a new foundation compared with our previous studies. Firstly, the paper proposed an algorithm to generate initial adversarial samples with a smaller L2 norm; secondly, a combination between particle swarm optimization (PSO) and biased boundary adversarial attack (BBA) is proposed. It is the PSO-BBA. Experiments are conducted on the ImageNet. The PSO-BBA is compared with the baseline method. Experimental comparison results certificate that: (1) A distributed framework for adversarial attack methods is proposed; (2) The proposed initial point selection method can reduces query numbers effectively; (3) Compared to the original BBA, the proposed PSO-BBA algorithm accelerates the convergence speed and improves the accuracy of attack accuracy; (4) The improved PSO-BBA algorithm has preferable performance on targeted and non-targeted attacks; (5) The mean structural similarity (MSSIM) can be used as the indicators of adversarial attack. Full article
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Article
Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Triclosan Induce Cyto-Genotoxicity and Biochemical Alterations in the Hatchlings of Labeo rohita
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10478; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110478 - 08 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 351
Abstract
Xenobiotic Triclosan (TCS) is of great concern because of its existence in a variety of personal, household and healthcare products and continuous discharge in water worldwide. Excessive use of TCS-containing sanitizers and antiseptic products during the COVID-19 pandemic further increased its content in [...] Read more.
Xenobiotic Triclosan (TCS) is of great concern because of its existence in a variety of personal, household and healthcare products and continuous discharge in water worldwide. Excessive use of TCS-containing sanitizers and antiseptic products during the COVID-19 pandemic further increased its content in aquatic ecosystems. The present study deals with the cyto-genotoxic effects and biochemical alterations in the hatchlings of Labeo rohita on exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TCS. Three-days-old hatchlings were exposed to tap water, acetone (solvent control) and 4 environmentally relevant concentrations (6.3, 12.6, 25.2 and 60 µg/L) of TCS for 14 days and kept for a recovery period of 10 days. The significant concentration-dependent decline in cell viability but increase in micronucleated cells, nucleo-cellular abnormalities (NCAs) and DNA damage parameters like tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment and percent of tail DNA after exposure persisted till the end of recovery period. Glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, uric acid and urea (except for an increase at 60 µg/L) showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) concentration-dependent decrease after 14 days of exposure. The same trend (except for triglycerides, albumin and total bilirubin) continued till 10 days post exposure. In comparison to control, transaminases (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases) increased (p ≤ 0.05) after exposure as well as the recovery period, while a decline in alkaline phosphatase after exposure was followed by a significant increase during the recovery period. The results show that the environmentally relevant concentrations of TCS cause deleterious effects on the hatchlings of L. rohita. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate, Treatment and Impact of Natural and Synthetic Compounds)
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Article
Estimation of Burst Pressure of PVC Pipe Using Average Shear Stress Yield Criterion: Experimental and Numerical Studies
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10477; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110477 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes have been extensively applied in water supply network fields. Understanding the mechanical properties and burst pressure of PVC pipes is necessary because a large number of pipes rupture due to excessive internal water pressure. In this paper, a practical [...] Read more.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes have been extensively applied in water supply network fields. Understanding the mechanical properties and burst pressure of PVC pipes is necessary because a large number of pipes rupture due to excessive internal water pressure. In this paper, a practical approach based on the average shear stress yield (ASSY) criterion was proposed to assess the PVC pipe burst pressure. In addition, the PVC uniaxial tensile tests and the pipe burst tests were carried out to determine the material characteristic parameters and burst pressure of the PVC pipe. Furthermore, a finite element analysis (FEA) of PVC burst pressure was also performed based on the tangent intersection (TI) method to validate the proposed method and experimental results. Moreover, the impact of material parameters and pipe size, such as the strain hardening exponent and standard dimension ratio (SDR) on bursting pressure, were investigated. The comparison with the proposed theoretical model and the experimental and FEA results shows that the burst pressure derived from ASSY was consistent with the experimental data, with a relative error ranging from −2.76% to 2.65%, which is more accurate compared to other yield criteria. The burst pressure obtained by the ASSY approach declined with the increase of the hardening exponent n and increased with the increase of SDR. Therefore, the burst pressure solution-based ASSY proposed in this paper is an adequately suitable and precise predictive tool for assessing the failure pressure of PVC pipes. Full article
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Article
Analytical Solution of Stress in a Transversely Isotropic Floor Rock Mass under Distributed Loading in an Arbitrary Direction
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10476; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110476 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Rock masses with a distinct structure may present a transversely isotropic character; thus, the stress state in a transversely isotropic elastic half-plane surface is an important way to assess the behavior of the interaction between the distributed loading and the surroundings. Most previous [...] Read more.
Rock masses with a distinct structure may present a transversely isotropic character; thus, the stress state in a transversely isotropic elastic half-plane surface is an important way to assess the behavior of the interaction between the distributed loading and the surroundings. Most previous theoretical analyses have considered a loading direction that is either vertical or horizontal, and the stress distribution that results from the effect of different loading directions remains unclear. In this paper, based on the transversely isotropic elastic half-plane surface theory, a stress solution that is applicable to distributed loading in any direction is proposed to further examine the loading effect. The consistency between the analytical solution and numerical simulations showed the effectiveness of the proposal that was introduced. Then, it was utilized to analyze the stress distribution rule by changing the Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus of the model. The effects of the formation dip angle on the stress state are also examined. The stress distribution, depending on the physical property parameters and relative angle, is predicted using an analytical solution, and the mechanisms associated with the transversely isotropic elastic half-plane surface subjected to the loading in any direction are clarified. Additionally, extensive analyses regarding this case study, with respect to the mechanical behavior associated with changes in the stress boundary, is available. Hence, the proposed analytical solution can more realistically account for the loading problem in many engineering practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Numerical Simulations in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Article
Sequence-to-Sequence Acoustic Modeling with Semi-Stepwise Monotonic Attention for Speech Synthesis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10475; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112110475 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 227
Abstract
An encoder–decoder with attention has become a popular method to achieve sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) acoustic modeling for speech synthesis. To improve the robustness of the attention mechanism, methods utilizing the monotonic alignment between phone sequences and acoustic feature sequences have been proposed, such as [...] Read more.
An encoder–decoder with attention has become a popular method to achieve sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) acoustic modeling for speech synthesis. To improve the robustness of the attention mechanism, methods utilizing the monotonic alignment between phone sequences and acoustic feature sequences have been proposed, such as stepwise monotonic attention (SMA). However, the phone sequences derived by grapheme-to-phoneme (G2P) conversion may not contain the pauses at the phrase boundaries in utterances, which challenges the assumption of strictly stepwise alignment in SMA. Therefore, this paper proposes to insert hidden states into phone sequences to deal with the situation that pauses are not provided explicitly, and designs a semi-stepwise monotonic attention (SSMA) to model these inserted hidden states. In this method, hidden states are introduced that absorb the pause segments in utterances in an unsupervised way. Thus, the attention at each decoding frame has three options, moving forward to the next phone, staying at the same phone, or jumping to a hidden state. Experimental results show that SSMA can achieve better naturalness of synthetic speech than SMA when phrase boundaries are not available. Moreover, the pause positions derived from the alignment paths of SSMA matched the manually labeled phrase boundaries quite well. Full article
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