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Article

Sustained Antibacterial Effect and Wear Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Contact-Killing Dental Polymers after One-Year of Hydrolytic Degradation

1
School of Dentistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
2
Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 34212, Saudi Arabia
3
Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering Division, Department of Advanced Oral Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
4
Division of Operative Dentistry, Department of General Dentistry, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianrico Spagnuolo
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 14 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
This study intended to investigate the long-term antibacterial effect, mechanical performance, and surface topography of new anticaries dental composites. While most artificial aging studies of dental resins lasted for 30–90 days, this study prolonged the water-aging to one year to be more clinically relevant. The base resin was loaded with dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) at 3 or 5 wt.% and nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) at 20 wt.%. Composites were subjected to one-year water storage and wear. Following water aging, samples were evaluated for flexural strength, elastic modulus, and microbiological assays. Biofilm plate counting method, metabolic assay, colorimetric quantification of lactic acid, and Baclight bacterial viability assay were measured after one year. Topography changes (ΔRa, ΔRq, ΔRv, ΔRt) were examined after wear and observed by scanning electron microscopy. Biofilm assays and topography changes data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Mechanical properties and normalized data were verified using a t-test. The flexural strength values for the formulations that contained 5% DMAHDM-20% NACP, 3% DMAHDM, and 5% DMAHDM were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in relation to the baseline but the values were still above the ISO standards. No significant differences were observed between the groups concerning the topography changes, except for the ΔRt, where there was a significant increase in the 5% DMAHDM-20% NACP group. All the groups demonstrated robust biofilm-inhibition, with slightly reduced antibacterial properties following water aging. The aged samples reduced the total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci by 1.5 to 3-log, compared to the experimental control. The new formulations containing DMAHDM and NACP were able to sustain the antibacterial performance after one-year of aging. Mechanical properties and surface topography were slightly affected over time. View Full-Text
Keywords: amorphous calcium phosphate; antibacterial agents; biofilms; dental caries; surface roughness; surface topography amorphous calcium phosphate; antibacterial agents; biofilms; dental caries; surface roughness; surface topography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Balhaddad, A.A.; Mokeem, L.S.; Weir, M.D.; Xu, H.; Melo, M.A.S. Sustained Antibacterial Effect and Wear Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Contact-Killing Dental Polymers after One-Year of Hydrolytic Degradation. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 3718. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11083718

AMA Style

Balhaddad AA, Mokeem LS, Weir MD, Xu H, Melo MAS. Sustained Antibacterial Effect and Wear Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Contact-Killing Dental Polymers after One-Year of Hydrolytic Degradation. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(8):3718. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11083718

Chicago/Turabian Style

Balhaddad, Abdulrahman A., Lamia S. Mokeem, Michael D. Weir, Huakun Xu, and Mary A.S. Melo 2021. "Sustained Antibacterial Effect and Wear Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Contact-Killing Dental Polymers after One-Year of Hydrolytic Degradation" Applied Sciences 11, no. 8: 3718. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11083718

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