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Volume 12, May-1

Appl. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 10 (May-2 2022) – 490 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A novel linear reservoir-vascular tubes network is presented in this work and the design efficacy is explored by testing concrete beams loaded on bending and by assessing their damage healing and mechanical recovery. The healing system is composed of additively manufactured polymer components that appear equally effective compared to conventional ceramic tubes. It is shown that bulk reservoirs embedded into concrete can deviate cracks and detrimentally affect the concrete’s resistance to failure. The crack formation and re-opening is monitored by acoustic emission and digital image correlation concluding that initial brittle cracking is shifted after healing to a pseudo-ductile crack re-opening with extended post-softening. The sealed cracks show significant strength and toughness recovery escorted also by an ultrasound pulse velocity increase after a healing intervention. View this paper
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Article
The Effect of the Addition of Hemp Seeds, Amaranth, and Golden Flaxseed on the Nutritional Value, Physical, Sensory Characteristics, and Safety of Poultry Pâté
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105289 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Food producers’ interest in improving the nutritional and pro-health values of meat products has grown. The study aims to assess the effect of replacing poultry pâté products wheat roll (24% group I) in recipes with a mixture of hemp seeds (8% each in [...] Read more.
Food producers’ interest in improving the nutritional and pro-health values of meat products has grown. The study aims to assess the effect of replacing poultry pâté products wheat roll (24% group I) in recipes with a mixture of hemp seeds (8% each in groups II, III, IV), amaranth (10% group II, 6% group III, 8% group IV) and golden flaxseed (6% group II, 10% group III, 8% group IV). The quality assessment covered nutritional value, physical properties, the total number of bacteria and assessment of sensory characteristics. The findings indicate that replacing wheat roll with seed mixtures increased the nutritional value (protein, ash, fat, proportion of polyunsaturated and polyene acids) of pâtés in all groups while decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids and the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 acids (3:1). This resulted in enhanced brightness and hardness pâtés, as well as greater microbiological safety. Although the spread and firmness of pâtés with seed addition were rated lower than the control, their taste desirability and bonding were rated highest for pâté with 8% plant additives. Pâtés with 24% hemp, amaranth and flaxseed mixture fulfil the requirements to be referred to as functional meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Improving the Quality and Safety of Meat Products)
Article
Autonomous, Digital-Twin Free Path Planning and Deployment for Robotic NDT: Introducing LPAS: Locate, Plan, Approach, Scan Using Low Cost Vision Sensors
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5288; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105288 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Robotised Non Destructive Testing (NDT) presents multifaceted advantages, saving time and reducing repetitive manual workloads for highly skilled Ultrasonic Testing (UT) operators. Due to the requisite accuracy and reliability of the field, robotic NDT has traditionally relied on digital twins for complex path [...] Read more.
Robotised Non Destructive Testing (NDT) presents multifaceted advantages, saving time and reducing repetitive manual workloads for highly skilled Ultrasonic Testing (UT) operators. Due to the requisite accuracy and reliability of the field, robotic NDT has traditionally relied on digital twins for complex path planning procedures enabling precise deployment of NDT equipment. This paper presents a multi-scale and collision-free path planning and implementation methodology enabling rapid deployment of robotised NDT with commercially available sensors. Novel algorithms are developed to plan paths over noisy and incomplete point clouds from low-cost sensors without the need for surface primitives. Further novelty is introduced in online path corrections utilising laser and force feedback while applying a Conformable-Wedge probe UT sensor. Finally, a novel source of data beneficial to automated NDT is introduced by collecting frictional forces of the surface informing the operator of the surface preparation quality. The culmination of this work is a new path-planning free, single-shot automated process removing the need for complex operator-driven procedures with a known surface, visualising collected data for the operator as a three-dimensional C-scan model. The dynamic robotic control enables a move to the industry 4.0 model of adaptive online path planning. Experimental results indicate the flexible and streamlined pipeline for robotic deployment, and demonstrate intuitive data visualisation to aid highly skilled operators in a wide field of industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development and Applications of Remote Robot Systems)
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Article
Thermodynamic Analysis of Air-Cycle Refrigeration Systems with Expansion Work Recovery for Compartment Air Conditioning
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5287; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105287 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 299
Abstract
As a requirement for sustainable development, air-cycle refrigeration has received wide attention as a candidate for environmentally friendly air conditioning technology. In this study, the thermodynamic performance of air refrigeration cycles is investigated in compartment air conditioning. The effects of compressor efficiency, expander [...] Read more.
As a requirement for sustainable development, air-cycle refrigeration has received wide attention as a candidate for environmentally friendly air conditioning technology. In this study, the thermodynamic performance of air refrigeration cycles is investigated in compartment air conditioning. The effects of compressor efficiency, expander efficiency, ambient humidity, all-fresh-air supply and ambient pressure on the cycle performance are presented. The effects of compressor arrangement in the high-pressure cycle and the low-pressure cycle are compared. An open-loop high-pressure cycle has a larger COP than that of an open-loop low-pressure cycle but requires larger heat exchange. The performance of air refrigeration cycles with full fresh air is studied, and the influence of fresh air is discussed. Schemes for condensed water recirculation with wet compression are proposed, which can improve the COPs of open-loop low-pressure cycles by 44.7%, 48.8% and 48.4%. In the air conditioning of plateau trains, open-loop high-pressure cycles have slightly lower COPs, but they can supply air with elevated pressure and oxygen concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Environmental Technologies)
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Article
Automatic Measurements of Garment Sizes Using Computer Vision Deep Learning Models and Point Cloud Data
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105286 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Automatic garment size measurement approaches using computer vision algorithms have been attempted in various ways, but there are still many limitations to overcome. One limitation is that the process involves 2D images, which results in constraints in the process of determining the actual [...] Read more.
Automatic garment size measurement approaches using computer vision algorithms have been attempted in various ways, but there are still many limitations to overcome. One limitation is that the process involves 2D images, which results in constraints in the process of determining the actual distance between the estimated points. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose an automated method for measuring garment sizes using computer vision deep learning models and point cloud data. In the proposed method, a deep learning-based keypoint estimation model is first used to capture the clothing size measurement points from 2D images. Then, point cloud data from a LiDAR sensor are used to provide real-world distance information to calculate the actual clothing sizes. As the proposed method uses a mobile device equipped with a LiDAR sensor and camera, it is also more easily configurable than extant methods, which have varied constraints. Experimental results show that our method is not only precise but also robust in measuring the size regardless of the shape, direction, or design of the clothes in two different environments, with 1.59% and 2.08% of the average relative error, respectively. Full article
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Article
Classification of Defective Fabrics Using Capsule Networks
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5285; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105285 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Fabric quality has an important role in the textile sector. Fabric defect, which is a highly important factor that influences the fabric quality, has become a concept that researchers are trying to minimize. Due to the limited capacity of human resources, human-based defect [...] Read more.
Fabric quality has an important role in the textile sector. Fabric defect, which is a highly important factor that influences the fabric quality, has become a concept that researchers are trying to minimize. Due to the limited capacity of human resources, human-based defect detection results in low performance and significant loss of time. To overcome human-based limited capacity, computer vision-based methods have emerged. Thanks to new additions to these methods over time, fabric defect detection methods have begun to show almost one hundred percent performance. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) play a leading role in this high-performance success. However, Convolutional Neural Networks cause information loss in the pooling process. Capsule Networks is a useful technique for minimizing information loss. This paper proposes Capsule Networks, a new generation method that represents an alternative to Convolutional Neural Networks for deep learning tasks. TILDA dataset as source data for training and testing phases are employed. The model is trained for 100, 200, and 270 epoch times. Model performance is evaluated based on accuracy, recall, and precision performance metrics. Compared to mainstream deep learning algorithms, this method offers improved performance in terms of accuracy. This method has been performed under different circumstances and has achieved a performance value of 98.7%. The main contributions of this study are to use Capsule Networks in the fabric defect detection domain and to obtain a significant performance result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Machine and Deep Learning)
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Article
Applications of Operational Modal Analysis in Gearbox and Induction Motor, Based on Random Decrement Technique and Enhanced Ibrahim Time Method
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5284; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105284 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 355
Abstract
There have been steadily growing requirements from the academia and industry, demanding non-invasive methods and reliable measurement systems of research devoted to operational mode analysis (OMA). Due to the simplicity of performing only structures surface vibration measurements, OMA is frequently applied in machine [...] Read more.
There have been steadily growing requirements from the academia and industry, demanding non-invasive methods and reliable measurement systems of research devoted to operational mode analysis (OMA). Due to the simplicity of performing only structures surface vibration measurements, OMA is frequently applied in machine fault diagnosis (MFD) and structure health monitoring (SHM). OMA can handle big structures, such as bridges, buildings, machines, etc. However, there is still an open question: how to properly handle the harmonic effects of rotating components and the difficulty of closely estimating space modes are still a nightmare to deal with. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to identify the structure of natural frequencies by the regeneration of frequency response functions (FRFs) for complex structures based on OMA. The novelty of our approach is to use the random decrement technique (RDT), correlation function estimation (CFE), and enhanced Ibrahim time method (EITM) to overcome OMA’s difficulties and limitations. To reduce further rotational harmonics effects, gear mesh and side band frequencies, digital signal processing techniques based on notching filters, and liftering analysis techniques were also used. All the experiments were performed at the laboratory test rig and conducted by using three accelerometers, one impedance hammer, one force sensor, and one data acquisition board. To reduce data’s variabilities, each test was measured three times for 5 min. The data sampling frequency for all the experiments was 25.6 kHz. To validate the proposed methodology, extensive OMA tests were performed for the generation of FRFs. The measured objects were a steel bar, induction motor, and gearbox. Five structural natural frequencies for the induction motor and eight structural natural frequencies for the gearbox were generated, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Diagnostics and Vibration Analysis)
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Article
Estimation of Thickness and Speed of Sound for Transverse Cortical Bone Imaging Using Phase Aberration Correction Methods: An In Silico and Ex Vivo Validation Study
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5283; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105283 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming of backscattered echoes is used for conventional ultrasound imaging. Although DAS beamforming is well suited for imaging in soft tissues, refraction, scattering, and absorption, porous mineralized tissues cause phase aberrations of reflected echoes and subsequent image degradation. The recently developed [...] Read more.
Delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming of backscattered echoes is used for conventional ultrasound imaging. Although DAS beamforming is well suited for imaging in soft tissues, refraction, scattering, and absorption, porous mineralized tissues cause phase aberrations of reflected echoes and subsequent image degradation. The recently developed refraction corrected multi-focus technique uses subsequent focusing of waves at variable depths, the tracking of travel times of waves reflected from outer and inner cortical bone interfaces, the estimation of the shift needed to focus from one interface to another to determine cortical thickness (Ct.Th), and the speed of sound propagating in a radial bone direction (Ct.ν11). The method was validated previously in silico and ex vivo on plate shaped samples. The aim of this study was to correct phase aberration caused by bone geometry (i.e., curvature and tilt with respect to the transducer array) and intracortical pores for the multi-focus approach. The phase aberration correction methods are based on time delay estimation via bone geometry differences to flat bone plates and via the autocorrelation and cross correlation of the reflected ultrasound waves from the endosteal bone interface. We evaluate the multi-focus approach by incorporating the phase aberration correction methods by numerical simulation and one experiment on a human tibia bone, and analyze the precision and accuracy of measuring Ct.Th and Ct.ν11. Site-matched reference values of the cortical thickness of the human tibia bone were obtained from high-resolution peripheral computed tomography. The phase aberration correction methods resulted in a more precise (coefficient of variation of 5.7%) and accurate (root mean square error of 6.3%) estimation of Ct.Th, and a more precise (9.8%) and accurate (3.4%) Ct.ν11 estimation, than without any phase aberration correction. The developed multi-focus method including phase aberration corrections provides local estimations of both cortical thickness and sound velocity and is proposed as a biomarker of cortical bone quality with high clinical potential for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Ultrasound Imaging and Applications)
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Article
Intelligent Prediction of Stuck Pipe Using Combined Data-Driven and Knowledge-Driven Model
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105282 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Stuck pipe phenomena can have disastrous effects on drilling performance, with outcomes that can range from time delays to loss of expensive machinery. In this work, we provide three methods for the prediction of stuck pipe. The first method targets the detection of [...] Read more.
Stuck pipe phenomena can have disastrous effects on drilling performance, with outcomes that can range from time delays to loss of expensive machinery. In this work, we provide three methods for the prediction of stuck pipe. The first method targets the detection of friction coefficient which can represent the trend of stuck pipe. The second method targets the prediction of probability for stuck pipe using ANN (artificial neural network). The last model establishes a comprehensive indicator based on the first and the second method using fuzzy mathematics which can give more accurate probability for stuck pipe. The results show that the best model is the last one which can predict stuck pipe events with a F1 of 0.98 and a FAR (false alarm rate) of 1%. Preliminary experimental results on the available dataset indicate that the use of the proposed model and can help mitigate the stuck pipe issue. Full article
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Article
Fourier and Chirp-Z Transforms in the Estimation Values Process of Horizontal and Vertical Synchronization Frequencies of Graphic Displays
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5281; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105281 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
The electromagnetic protection of IT devices includes a number of organizational and technical measures aimed at ensuring control over radiated and conducted revealing emissions. This is of particular importance for ensuring information security in wireless communication and the processing of data presented in [...] Read more.
The electromagnetic protection of IT devices includes a number of organizational and technical measures aimed at ensuring control over radiated and conducted revealing emissions. This is of particular importance for ensuring information security in wireless communication and the processing of data presented in graphic form. In each of these cases, the occurring electromagnetic emissions pose the risk of a lack of electromagnetic immunity to the so-called eavesdropping process based on forming revealing emissions. Included in the elements of the security chain preventing electromagnetic eavesdropping on wireless communication and the devices building such systems are activities related to the determination of the Technical Device Security Level (TDSL) or its class. The above is related to the performance of electromagnetic emissions tests and identifying which of them must be treated as revealing emissions, which are only disturbances and do not threaten the security of the processed information. It is intuitively understandable that it is particularly important to ensure the security of interfaces that process video data. The nature of the electromagnetic emission signals generated by these interfaces means that the related information can be intercepted with the use of relatively simple methods, and under favorable circumstances even with the use of a receiving device not very technologically advanced. In the case of the electromagnetic safety assessment of video devices, common practice is therefore activities aimed at reconstructing information related to the video signal. This requires the parameters of the reconstructed image appropriate for the eavesdropped device operation mode and the conditions of recording the revealing emission signals to be determined. The article presents the results of works related to the analysis of the possibility of using spectral analysis methods (Fast Fourier FFT transform and Chirp-Z transform) to automate the process of determining the above-mentioned parameters in the case of reproducing images from emission signals recorded by using the ADC analog-to-digital converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Communication: Applications, Security and Reliability)
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Article
Study on Multi-Scale Coral Reef Pore Structure Identification and Characterization
by , , and
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105280 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 253
Abstract
In order to more accurately realize the automatic identification and quantitative characterization of coral reef multi-scale pore structure, this paper has carried out such research. On the basis of using multiple information acquisition technology, it can effectively collect field measured data and indoor [...] Read more.
In order to more accurately realize the automatic identification and quantitative characterization of coral reef multi-scale pore structure, this paper has carried out such research. On the basis of using multiple information acquisition technology, it can effectively collect field measured data and indoor observation data to form a high-precision digital image of the development characteristics of multi-scale coral reef pore structure. By constructing the multi-scale structure information correlation and fusion function of coral reef pore structure, it can formulate the positioning and search strategy for the key areas of coral reef pore structure development characteristics. In this paper, a fine identification and quantitative characterization method suitable for the pore structure of “millimeter–micron–nanometer” is formed. At the same time, combined with the actual project requirements, the multi-scale pore structure feature area location method of coral reef is constructed, which combines the distribution characteristics, variation characteristics, fractal characteristics and shape characteristics in a certain range, and realizes the search of pore key areas between different scales and different regions of the same scale through the similarity matching algorithm, which can effectively realize the automatic search of key areas in the “millimeter–micron–nanometer”-scale image of coral reefs. Finally, the correctness and feasibility of this method are verified by multi-angle example data comparison. It shows that this method can effectively solve the productivity prediction and evaluation problem of coral reef oil and gas reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surface Sciences and Technology)
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Article
Optimization of Apron Support Vehicle Operation Scheduling Based on Multi-Layer Coding Genetic Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5279; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105279 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Operation scheduling of apron support vehicles is an important factor affecting aircraft support capability. However, at present, the traditional support methods have the problems of low utilization rate of support vehicles and low support efficiency in multi-aircraft support. In this paper, a vehicle [...] Read more.
Operation scheduling of apron support vehicles is an important factor affecting aircraft support capability. However, at present, the traditional support methods have the problems of low utilization rate of support vehicles and low support efficiency in multi-aircraft support. In this paper, a vehicle scheduling model is constructed, and a multi-layer coding genetic algorithm is designed to solve the vehicle scheduling problem. In this paper, the apron support vehicle operation scheduling problem is regarded as a Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP), and the support vehicles and their support procedures are adjusted via the sequential sorting method to achieve the optimization goals of shortening the support time and improving the vehicle utilization rate. Based on a specific example, the job scheduling before and after the optimization of the number of support vehicles is simulated using a multi-layer coding genetic algorithm. The results show that compared with the traditional support scheme, the vehicle scheduling time optimized via the multi-layer coding genetic algorithm is obviously shortened; after the number of vehicles is optimized, the support time is further shortened and the average utilization rate of vehicles is improved. Finally, the optimized apron support vehicle number configuration and the best scheduling scheme are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence Models, Tools and Applications)
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Review
Augmented Reality in Orthopedic Surgery and Its Application in Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5278; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105278 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
The development of augmented reality (AR) and its application in total joint arthroplasty aims at improving the accuracy and precision in implant components’ positioning, hopefully leading to increased outcomes and survivorship. However, this field is far from being thoroughly explored. We therefore performed [...] Read more.
The development of augmented reality (AR) and its application in total joint arthroplasty aims at improving the accuracy and precision in implant components’ positioning, hopefully leading to increased outcomes and survivorship. However, this field is far from being thoroughly explored. We therefore performed a systematic review of the literature in order to examine the application, the results, and the different AR systems available in TJA. A systematic review of the literature according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was performed. A comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted for English articles on the application of augmented reality in total joint arthroplasty using various combinations of keywords since the inception of the database to 31 March 2022. Accuracy was intended as the mean error from the targeted positioning angle and compared as mean values and standard deviations. In all, 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. Among them, four studies reported on the application of AR in total knee arthroplasty, six studies on total hip arthroplasty, three studies reported on reverse shoulder arthroplasty, and one study on total elbow arthroplasty. Nine of the included studies were preclinical (sawbones or cadaveric), while five of them reported results of AR’s clinical application. The main common feature was the high accuracy and precision when implant positioning was compared with preoperative targeted angles with errors ≤2 mm and/or ≤2°. Despite the promising results in terms of increased accuracy and precision, this technology is far from being widely adopted in daily clinical practice. However, the recent exponential growth in machine learning techniques and technologies may eventually lead to the resolution of the ongoing limitations including depth perception and their high complexity, favorably encouraging the widespread usage of AR systems. Full article
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Article
Measurement of Large-Sized-Pipe Diameter Based on Stereo Vision
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105277 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 313
Abstract
To address the lack of fast and high-precision in situ measurement of large-sized pipes in current industrial applications, a pipe-diameter-measurement method based on stereo vision is designed in this paper. By using multiple sets of binocular cameras to perform 3D reconstruction and integration [...] Read more.
To address the lack of fast and high-precision in situ measurement of large-sized pipes in current industrial applications, a pipe-diameter-measurement method based on stereo vision is designed in this paper. By using multiple sets of binocular cameras to perform 3D reconstruction and integration of multiple laser markers projected on measured cross sections of pipes, the pipe diameter can be estimated. In this method, a measurement algorithm is adopted to enable automatic matching of feature points through affine distance transformation, and an optimized point-cloud-registration algorithm with normal-vector constraints is used to ensure measurement robustness. To verify the feasibility of the method, an experimental system was built under laboratory conditions, and three types of pipes with outer diameters from 285 mm to 325 mm were measured. The experimental results show that the relative error is within ±0.570% and the maximum repeatability standard deviation is 0.551 mm. The experimental results basically meet industrial standards, and the proposed method therefore has good application prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Systems Engineering: Theory and Applications)
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Article
The New Method of Searching Cut-Sets in the System Reliability Analysis of Plane Steel Trusses
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5276; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105276 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 254
Abstract
This paper focuses on the new method of searching cut-sets, which enables us to conduct the system reliability analysis for plane trusses. As the result of such, the analysis of the reliability index for the whole structure is obtained, not only for the [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the new method of searching cut-sets, which enables us to conduct the system reliability analysis for plane trusses. As the result of such, the analysis of the reliability index for the whole structure is obtained, not only for the single elements. In the case of truss structures, the huge number of cut-sets could be generated if only the geometry of the structure is taken into account. Considering also the effects of actions and the load capacity, it is possible to reduce the number of cut-sets: what makes the whole analysis faster and more effective. The structures were considered not only in persistent design situations, but also in accidental-under-fire influence. The effect of action in individual elements was computed using the Robot Structural Analysis program. The temperature of the elements under fire load and the load-bearing capacity of the elements were calculated according to the Eurocode procedure in the Mathematica script. The proposed method allows to reduce the number of cut-sets, what makes the whole procedure of system reliability analysis much more efficient. All cut-sets were found by using a C++ console application prepared by author. Full article
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Article
Mutual Interdependence of the Physical Parameters Governing the Boundary-Layer Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5275; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105275 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 247
Abstract
We consider non-Newtonian boundary-layer fluid flow, governed by a power-law Ostwald-de Waele rheology. Boundary-layer flows of non-Newtonian fluids have far-reaching applications, and are very frequently encountered in physical, as well as, engineering and industrial processes. A similarity transformation results in a BVP consisting [...] Read more.
We consider non-Newtonian boundary-layer fluid flow, governed by a power-law Ostwald-de Waele rheology. Boundary-layer flows of non-Newtonian fluids have far-reaching applications, and are very frequently encountered in physical, as well as, engineering and industrial processes. A similarity transformation results in a BVP consisting of an ODE and some boundary conditions. Our aim is to derive highly accurate analytical relationships between the physical and mathematical parameters associated with the BVP and boundary-layer flow problem. Mathematical analyses are employed, where the results are verified at the numerical computational level, illustrating the accuracy of the derived relations. A set of “Crocco variables” is used to transform the problem, and, where appropriate, techniques are used to deal with the resulting singularities in order to establish an efficient computational setting. The resulting computational setting provides an alternative, which is different from those previously used in the literature. We employ it to carry out our numerical computations. Full article
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Article
Bionic Design of the Vertical Bracket of Wide Angle Auroral Imager by Additive Manufacturing
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5274; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105274 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 264
Abstract
In the aerospace field, lightweight design is a never-ending pursuit. By integrating structural bionics and structural optimization, the vertical bracket of a wide angle auroral imager is designed and manufactured by additive manufacturing technology in this work. Initially, the classical topology optimization is [...] Read more.
In the aerospace field, lightweight design is a never-ending pursuit. By integrating structural bionics and structural optimization, the vertical bracket of a wide angle auroral imager is designed and manufactured by additive manufacturing technology in this work. Initially, the classical topology optimization is utilized for the vertical bracket to find the optimal material layout and primary load carrying paths. Drawing on the width-to-diameter ratio and the bone mineral density distribution of human femur, the vertical support is designed as a bionic structure with a solid middle section and thin wall in other parts. Afterwards, size optimization is maintained for the bionic design model to obtain the optimal model. The simulation results show that the three-way eigenfrequencies of bionic optimized structure are 320 Hz, 303 Hz, and 765 Hz, respectively, which are closely approximate to the original structure. However, the mass of bionic optimized structure is reduced by 23%. Benefiting from Selective laser melting, the complex optimized design can be rapidly manufactured. The three-way eigenfrequencies of the optimized structure measured by the 0.2 g sweep tests are 307 Hz, 292 Hz, and 736 Hz, respectively. The vibration test of bionic optimized structure verifies the accuracy of the simulation results. This study indicates that the combination of structural bionics and structural optimization provides a powerful tool kit to the design of similar support structure for space applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Additive Manufacturing)
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Article
Variable Structure PID Controller for Satellite Attitude Control Considering Actuator Failure
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105273 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 326
Abstract
In this paper, a variable structure PID controller with a good convergence rate and robustness for satellite attitude is proposed. In order to improve the system convergence rate, the variable structure for the proportional and differential term was designed, and an angular velocity [...] Read more.
In this paper, a variable structure PID controller with a good convergence rate and robustness for satellite attitude is proposed. In order to improve the system convergence rate, the variable structure for the proportional and differential term was designed, and an angular velocity curve with a better convergence rate was achieved by this variable structure. In addition, an integral partitioning algorithm was designed, and the system robustness to disturbance torque was improved; meanwhile, the negative effect of the integral term was avoided during the converging process. The actuator failure condition was also considered, and a fault tolerant control algorithm was designed. System stability was analyzed by the Lyapunov method, and its performance was demonstrated by numerical simulation. Full article
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Article
Analytical Modeling of Acoustic Emission Due to an Internal Point Source in a Transversely Isotropic Cylinder
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5272; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105272 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 271
Abstract
In this paper, the displacement fields responsible for acoustic emission (AE), excited from a point source in a transversely isotropic cylinder, are derived by solving the Navier-Lamé (NL) equation. The point source as an internal defect is represented by a spatiotemporal concentrated force. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the displacement fields responsible for acoustic emission (AE), excited from a point source in a transversely isotropic cylinder, are derived by solving the Navier-Lamé (NL) equation. The point source as an internal defect is represented by a spatiotemporal concentrated force. The introduction of three potentials correlated with the point source to displacement field vector decouples the coupled NL equation in cylindrical coordinates. Under these conditions, we solve the radial, tangential, and axial displacement fields. Analytical simulations of AE were carried out at several point source locations. Our results demonstrate that analytical modeling is a powerful tool for characterizing AE features generated from an internal defect source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Acoustics and Vibrations)
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Article
Gastroprotective Effects of Fermented Gold Kiwi (Actinidia chinenesis L.) Extracts on HCl/EtOH-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5271; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105271 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Gastritis and gastric ulcers caused by stressors such as drinking are common. The ability of functional foods to protect the stomach more effectively and reduce the risk of side effects is of interest. The fermentation process can increase the preservation and bioactive compound [...] Read more.
Gastritis and gastric ulcers caused by stressors such as drinking are common. The ability of functional foods to protect the stomach more effectively and reduce the risk of side effects is of interest. The fermentation process can increase the preservation and bioactive compound content of kiwi fruits. This study produced fermented kiwi powder using two lactic acids separated from gold kiwi fruits. Gold kiwi puree (Actinidia chinensis L.) was fermented using beneficial bacteria. Fermentation increased the content of bioactive compounds such as organic acids, flavonoids, and carotenoids. We investigated whether fermented gold kiwi (FGK) extract had antioxidant and gastric protective effects in an HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis animal model and pyloric ligation animal model. FGK increased radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner. In the gastritis model, FGK inhibited inflammation-related factors such as iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, while increasing the expression of the protective molecule PGE2. Furthermore, FGK administration improved gastric lesion site appearance, clinical symptoms, and mucosal thickness in rats. FGK also reduced gastric fluid volume, free acidity, total acidity, and pepsin activity in the pyloric ligation model. These results suggest that FGK can decrease the inflammatory response and protect the gastric mucosa. FGK therefore has the potential to prevent and treat gastritis and gastric ulcers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development of Functional Foods)
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Article
Investigation of Tip Leakage Vortex Structure and Trajectory in a Centrifugal Pump with a New Omega Vortex Identification Method
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5270; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105270 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Semi-open centrifugal pumps are widely used in various fields. However, the tip leakage vortex (TLV) has a malign effect on the impeller flow field. The structure and trajectory of a TLV under different discharge conditions were simulated and are discussed herein. Then, the [...] Read more.
Semi-open centrifugal pumps are widely used in various fields. However, the tip leakage vortex (TLV) has a malign effect on the impeller flow field. The structure and trajectory of a TLV under different discharge conditions were simulated and are discussed herein. Then, the characteristics of the TLV were analyzed using a new omega vortex identification method. The external characteristic and pressure fluctuation of the simulation and experiment were consistent. A secondary leakage vortex near the blade outlet was formed under the high-discharge condition. A leading-edge overflow phenomenon under the low-discharge condition and led to the formation of a reverse-flow vortex. The interface between the main flow and tip leakage flow moved toward the impeller upstream with decreased discharge. As a result, the peak of the entropy production curve moved upstream, and leading-edge overflow and reverse flow occurred. The tip leakage flow changed the blade pressure distribution, resulting in a decrease in the blade load. Full article
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Article
XG Boost Algorithm to Simultaneous Prediction of Rock Fragmentation and Induced Ground Vibration Using Unique Blast Data
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105269 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 334
Abstract
The two most frequently heard terms in the mining industry are safety and production. These two terms put a lot of pressure on blasting engineers and crew to give more while consuming less. The key to achieving the optimum blasting results is sophisticated [...] Read more.
The two most frequently heard terms in the mining industry are safety and production. These two terms put a lot of pressure on blasting engineers and crew to give more while consuming less. The key to achieving the optimum blasting results is sophisticated bench analysis, which must be combined with design blast parameters for good fragmentation and safe ground vibration. Thus, a unique solution for forecasting both optimum fragmentation and reduced ground vibration using rock mass joint angle and blast design parameters will aid the blasting operations in terms of cost savings. To arrive at a proper understanding and a solution, 152 blasts were carried out in various mines by adjusting blast design parameters concerning the measured joint angle. The XG Boost, K-Nearest Neighbor, and Random Forest algorithms were evaluated, and the XG Boost outputs were shown to be superior in terms of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and Co-efficient of determination (R2) values. Using XG Boost, the decision-tree-based ensemble Machine Learning algorithm that uses a gradient-boosting framework and a simultaneous formula was developed to predict both fragmentation and ground vibration using joint angle and the same set of parameters. Full article
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Article
A Double-Level Calculation Model for the Construction Schedule Planning of Urban Rail Transit Network
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5268; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105268 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 279
Abstract
The construction of urban rail transit (URT) guides and promotes urban development. Different URT line construction schedule, including construction sequence (priority order of line construction) and construction timing (when to build), will have different effects on urban traffic and development. Therefore, the planning [...] Read more.
The construction of urban rail transit (URT) guides and promotes urban development. Different URT line construction schedule, including construction sequence (priority order of line construction) and construction timing (when to build), will have different effects on urban traffic and development. Therefore, the planning of construction schedule is an important part of URT network planning. At present, the determination of construction schedule is mainly based on qualitative analysis methods (i.e., experience, comparisons with other cities, and expert opinion) in engineering practice. In this study, based on an analysis of the main factors affecting the construction sequence and the construction timing data of existing URT lines, a quantitative double-level model of a construction schedule is proposed. The model consists of construction sequence and construction timing sub-models. The construction sequence sub-model employs an improved Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) with Rough Set method; the construction timing sub-model takes the results of the construction sequence model and the factors associated with urban development characteristics into account and presents an improved Logistic-β method. The model is verified using the Chengdu rail transit network as the case study. The results of the study show that the double-level calculation model could provide quantitative theoretical support for the construction schedule planning of URT network. Full article
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Article
Single Puncture TIPS—A 3D Fusion Image-Guided Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS): An Experimental Study
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105267 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Background: The use of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been established as an effective treatment for portal hypertension. Despite the rapid development of this use, serious peri-procedural complications have been reported in over 10% of cases. This has largely been attributed [...] Read more.
Background: The use of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been established as an effective treatment for portal hypertension. Despite the rapid development of this use, serious peri-procedural complications have been reported in over 10% of cases. This has largely been attributed to the access to the portal vein, also referred to as a “blind puncture”, which often requires multiple attempts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety, reproducibility and accuracy of the use of real-time 3D fusion image-guided (3DFIG) single puncture TIPS to minimize the complications that are related to the “blind puncture” of TIPS procedures. Methods: A 3DFIG TIPS approach was utilized on 22 pigs by combining pre-procedural cross-sectional imaging (CT, MR or CBCT) with intra-procedural cone beam CT or angiogram imaging, which allowed for the improved 3D visual spatial orientation of the portal vein and real-time tracking of the needle in 3D. Results: Thirty-five portosystemic shunts were successfully deployed in all 22 subjects without any peri-procedural complications. Overall, 91% (32/35) of the procedures were carried out using a single puncture. In addition, the mean fluoroscopy time in our study was more than 12 times lower than the proposed reference level that has previously been proposed for TIPS procedures. Conclusion: Multi-modality real-time 3DFIG TIPS can be performed safely using a single puncture, without complications, and can potentially be used in both emergency and non-emergency clinical situations. Full article
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Article
Measurement of the Machined Surface Diameter by a Laser Triangulation Sensor and Optimalization of Turning Conditions Based on the Diameter Deviation and Tool Wear by GRA and ANOVA
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105266 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 348
Abstract
One of the most important operations in the technological production process is the inspection of the manufactured product. The gradual wear of the tool affects the achievement of the required quality of the functional surfaces. In this research, we present the results of [...] Read more.
One of the most important operations in the technological production process is the inspection of the manufactured product. The gradual wear of the tool affects the achievement of the required quality of the functional surfaces. In this research, we present the results of measuring the diameter deviation with a new generation laser triangulation sensor (LTS). At the same time, we have performed parametric optimization of several multi-responses, such as insert wear on the VBB flank side of cutting edge and diameter deviation Δd for a C45 steel sample during dry turning and using a sintered carbide insert, using the method of grey relational analysis (GRA) in combination with the Taguchi L16 orthogonal array. The optimal setting of input factors for multi-response parameters is ap 4-f 4-vc 1 i.e., depth of cut 0.5 mm, feed 0.4 mm per revolution, and a cutting speed of 70 m/min. At the same time, we present an evaluation of the significance of input factors using the method ANOVA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Manufacturing Metrology)
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Article
Numerical Analysis of the Calcaneal Nail C-NAIL
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105265 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 318
Abstract
The presented article investigates the biomechanics of the calcaneal nail C-NAILTM by numerical calculations and, partially, experimentally. This nail is widely used in trauma and orthopaedics. A numerical model of implants directly interacting with the bone tissue model obtained from CT scans [...] Read more.
The presented article investigates the biomechanics of the calcaneal nail C-NAILTM by numerical calculations and, partially, experimentally. This nail is widely used in trauma and orthopaedics. A numerical model of implants directly interacting with the bone tissue model obtained from CT scans was calculated. The material properties of the bone tissue can be described by several models; in this work, a non-homogeneous material model with isotropic elements and prescribed elastic modulus was used to provide a more accurate model of the applied force distribution on the individual parts of the implants. The critical areas of the nail and its fixtures were investigated using finite element strength calculations to verify their strength and reliability, contributing to the safety and faster and easier treatment of patients. These analyses suggest that the strength of the calcaneal nail C-NAIL, as well as the stabilization of bone fragments resulting from its use, are sufficient for clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering)
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Article
Elastic Reverse Time Migration for Weakly Illuminated Structure
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5264; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105264 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 282
Abstract
One of the most effective techniques to obtain PP and PS images is elastic reverse time migration which employs multi-component seismic data. The two types of complementary images play an important role in reducing blind spots in seismic exploration. However, the migration image [...] Read more.
One of the most effective techniques to obtain PP and PS images is elastic reverse time migration which employs multi-component seismic data. The two types of complementary images play an important role in reducing blind spots in seismic exploration. However, the migration image of deep structures is always blurred due to the shielding effect of overburden rock on seismic waves. To overcome this issue, we develop an elastic reverse time migration approach for insufficient illumination. This approach contains two crucial elements. The first is that we derive an elastic wave equation to extract the wavefields associated with the exploration target using the staining algorithm. Secondly, we develop an inner product imaging condition with a filter to mute migrated artifacts. The filter, consisting of two vectors, determines which part of the wavefield is contributed to imaging. Synthetic examples exhibit that the proposed elastic reverse time migration method can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of PP and PS images of weakly illuminated structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advances in Seismic Data Processing and Imaging)
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Article
Influence of Internal Flow on the Performance of High-Speed Centrifugal Pumps with a Fully Sealed Structure
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105263 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 287
Abstract
A high-speed centrifugal pump with a fully sealed structure has the advantages of a small size, no external leakage, and being pollution-free. The inner leakage passage of a pump with a fully sealed structure includes the tip clearance and the hub clearance. The [...] Read more.
A high-speed centrifugal pump with a fully sealed structure has the advantages of a small size, no external leakage, and being pollution-free. The inner leakage passage of a pump with a fully sealed structure includes the tip clearance and the hub clearance. The hub clearance, the lubrication passage of the bearing, and the clearance between the stator and the rotor of the built-in motor constitute the internal flow channel. As a consequence of hub leakage, the complexity of the flow field increases and performance of the pump is affected. However, hub leakage also lubricates the bearing and cools the motor by flowing through the internal flow channel. To obtain the actual flow field distribution and external characteristics of the pump, a coupling calculation based on a conventional CFX simulation and MATLAB was carried out. The results show that hub leakage promotes an increase in tip leakage and changes the distribution of the main flow field. Moreover, hub leakage also significantly affects the efficiency of the pump. Compared with hub leakage, the internal flow has a greater impact on the performance of the pump. The numerical simulation results of the internal flow model are similar to the experimental results, with the maximum absolute error of the head at 0.3 m and the maximum absolute error of the efficiency at 1.7%, indicating that the internal flow model is effective at predicting the performance of the high-speed centrifugal pump with a fully sealed structure. Full article
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Article
A Multicenter, Retrospective, Matched, Comparison Study of Clinical Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of Caterpillar Arterial Embolization Device versus Fibered Coils in Arterial Embolization
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5262; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105262 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical effectiveness and costs of using the Caterpillar Arterial Embolization Device (Caterpillar) and fibered coils in arterial embolization cases. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective study, demographic, laboratory, and procedural data were [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical effectiveness and costs of using the Caterpillar Arterial Embolization Device (Caterpillar) and fibered coils in arterial embolization cases. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective study, demographic, laboratory, and procedural data were collected on a total of 48 patients between February 2020 and September 2020. Data were collected on 16 Caterpillar placements and matched with 32 controls who underwent coil embolization of the same vessel with a similar size. Clinical and procedural outcomes including type and size of vessels, time to vessel occlusion, fluoroscopy time, total procedure time, and costs were analyzed and compared. Results: Relative time to occlusion was significantly decreased in the Caterpillar group compared to the controls (57 ± 34 s vs. 11 min 44 s ± 8 min 13 s, p = 0.00001611). Fluoroscopy time (6.9 ± 15 min vs. 19.2 ± 14, p = 0.017) and total procedure time (81.0 ± 36 min vs. 111.5 ± 49 min, p = 0.015) were significantly reduced compared to the coil group. Lastly, overall cost of embolic materials was 1050 ± 0 USD for the Caterpillar group compared to 2312.75 ± 1382.84 USD in the coil group (p = 0.000532). Conclusion: The Caterpillar embolic devices appear safe and effective in arterial occlusion. Compared to fibered coils, the Caterpillar device results in decreased time to vessel occlusion, decreased fluoroscopy and procedural time, and decreased costs, making the Caterpillar an appealing choice for arterial embolization. Full article
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Article
Augmented Reality-Assisted Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Instrumentation: A Cadaveric Feasibility and Accuracy Study
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5261; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105261 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation is the keystone of minimally invasive spine surgery. Percutaneous screw placement demands experience and relies greatly on intra-operative image guidance. This study aims to validate the feasibility and accuracy of augmented-reality (AR)-assisted percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation. One cadaveric torso [...] Read more.
Percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation is the keystone of minimally invasive spine surgery. Percutaneous screw placement demands experience and relies greatly on intra-operative image guidance. This study aims to validate the feasibility and accuracy of augmented-reality (AR)-assisted percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation. One cadaveric torso was prepared for this study. After a pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scan, the images were transferred to an AR station to generate a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram and navigation images were projected to a pair of goggles with a display screen. With registration, the 3D spine hologram was overlayed onto the cadaver. Bilateral instrumentation from T6 to L5 was performed by two surgeons using AR assistance. A post-operative CT scan was obtained. The Gertzbein–Robbins scale (grade 0–3) was used for accuracy assessment. A total of 24 screws were placed. The overall screw accuracy was 87.5%. There were three major medial breaches that occurred on Rt T6/7/8, which were the most distant screws from the iliac reference. The cause of the three major medial breaches appeared to be related to their distance from the iliac reference. AR-assisted percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation could improve anatomical visualization, facilitate surgical workflow, and provide an intuitive way of performing surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Advances in Computer-Assisted Surgery)
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Article
Interaction Effect of Room Size and Opening on Trombe Wall Performance in Sichuan–Tibet Alpine Valley Areas
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5260; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12105260 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 253
Abstract
The Trombe wall (T-wall) system is one of the most effective systems for passive solar energy utilization technology, which is of great significance for the alleviation of the energy crisis and the protection of the environment. Taking as an example Tibetan dwellings in [...] Read more.
The Trombe wall (T-wall) system is one of the most effective systems for passive solar energy utilization technology, which is of great significance for the alleviation of the energy crisis and the protection of the environment. Taking as an example Tibetan dwellings in the Sichuan–Tibet alpine valley which have installed T-walls for heating, the effects of the length of the room (Factor A), the width of the room (Factor B), the width of the opening on the north wall of the room (Factor C), and the distance from the lower edge of the opening to the floor (Factor D) on the indoor air temperature and room energy consumption are studied by orthogonal experiment and numerical simulation. Results show that the four factors all have a significant effect on the two analysis indicators. The rankings of the factors are consistent for their impact on the two analysis indicators, as, in both cases, Factor A > Factor B > Factor C > Factor D. Therefore, the influence of room configuration cannot be ignored in the optimization of T-wall design. Additionally, the optimal parameter combination for the highest indoor temperature and low energy consumption in winter is also proposed. This research can further improve the study of T-walls, and provide a reference for the thermal environment design of buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Building Structures)
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