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Article

Optimal Tilt Angle and Orientation of Photovoltaic Modules Using HS Algorithm in Different Climates of China

1
College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
2
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Smart Grid Technology and Equipment, Nanjing 210096, China
3
State Grid Nanjing power supply company, Nanjing 210019, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Intelligence in Photovoltaic Systems)
Solar energy technologies play an important role in shaping a sustainable energy future, and generating clean, renewable, and widely distributed energy sources. This paper determines the optimum tilt angle and optimum azimuth angle of photovoltaic (PV) panels, employing the harmony search (HS) meta-heuristic algorithm. In this study, the ergodic method is first conducted to obtain the optimum tilt angle and the optimum azimuth angle in several cities of China based on the model of Julian dating. Next, the HS algorithm is applied to search for the optimum solution. The purpose of this research is to maximize the extraterrestrial radiation on the collector surface for a specific period. The sun’s position is predicted by the proposed model at different times, and then solar radiation is obtained on various inclined planes with different orientations in each city. The performance of the HS method is compared with that of the ergodic method and other optimization algorithms. The results demonstrate that the tilt angle should be changed once a month, and the best orientation is usually due south in the selected cities. In addition, the HS algorithm is a practical and reliable alternative for estimating the optimum tilt angle and optimum azimuth angle of PV panels. View Full-Text
Keywords: harmony search meta-heuristic algorithm; solar radiation; photovoltaic; tilt angle; orientation harmony search meta-heuristic algorithm; solar radiation; photovoltaic; tilt angle; orientation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, M.; Zang, H.; Gao, S.; Chen, T.; Xiao, J.; Cheng, L.; Wei, Z.; Sun, G. Optimal Tilt Angle and Orientation of Photovoltaic Modules Using HS Algorithm in Different Climates of China. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1028. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app7101028

AMA Style

Guo M, Zang H, Gao S, Chen T, Xiao J, Cheng L, Wei Z, Sun G. Optimal Tilt Angle and Orientation of Photovoltaic Modules Using HS Algorithm in Different Climates of China. Applied Sciences. 2017; 7(10):1028. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app7101028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Mian, Haixiang Zang, Shengyu Gao, Tingji Chen, Jing Xiao, Lexiang Cheng, Zhinong Wei, and Guoqiang Sun. 2017. "Optimal Tilt Angle and Orientation of Photovoltaic Modules Using HS Algorithm in Different Climates of China" Applied Sciences 7, no. 10: 1028. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app7101028

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