Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that yields to neuronal axon damage, demyelization, and paralysis. Although several drugs were designed for the treatment of MS, with some of them being approved in the last few decades, the complete remission and the treatment of progressive forms still remain a matter of debate and a medical challenge. Nanotechnology provides a variety of promising therapeutic tools that can be applied for the treatment of MS, overcoming the barriers and the limitations of the already existing immunosuppressive and biological therapies. In the present review, we explore literature case studies on the development of drug delivery nanosystems for the targeted delivery of MS drugs in the pathological tissues of the CNS, providing high bioavailability and enhanced therapeutic efficiency, as well as nanosystems for the delivery of agents to facilitate efficient remyelination. Moreover, we present examples of tolerance-inducing nanocarriers, being used as promising vaccines for antigen-specific immunotherapy of MS. We emphasize on liposomes, as well as lipid- and polymer-based nanoparticles. Finally, we highlight the future perspectives given by the nanotechnology field toward the improvement of the current treatment of MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).
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